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Pneumococcal vaccines and journal vaccines

Beth Temple, Nguyen Trong Toan, Doan Y Uyen, Anne Balloch, Kathryn Bright, Yin Bun Cheung, Paul Licciardi, Cattram Duong Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong, Catherine Satzke, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Thi Que Huong Vu, Tran Ngoc Huu, Edward Kim Mulholland
INTRODUCTION: WHO recommends the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) as a priority. However, there are many countries yet to introduce PCV, especially in Asia. This trial aims to evaluate different PCV schedules and to provide a head-to-head comparison of PCV10 and PCV13 in order to generate evidence to assist with decisions regarding PCV introduction. Schedules will be compared in relation to their immunogenicity and impact on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae ...
June 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Suvi Härmälä, Constantinos Parisinos, Laura Shallcross, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
INTRODUCTION: In advanced chronic liver disease, diseases caused by common bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza virus put people at an increased risk of serious health complications and death. The effectiveness of the available vaccines in reducing the risk of poor health outcomes, however, is less clear. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published reports on randomised controlled trials and observational studies on the effectiveness of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines in people with chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Shirley Owusu-Ofori
BACKGROUND: Persons with sickle cell disease (SCD) are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population...
October 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wendy Prins, Emily Butcher, Laura Lee Hall, Gary Puckrein, Bernard Rosof
Evidence suggests that disparities in adult immunization (AI) rates are growing. Providers need adequate patient resources and information about successful interventions to help them engage in effective practices to reduce AI disparities. The primary purposes of this paper were to review and summarize the evidence base regarding interventions to reduce AI disparities and to scan for relevant resources that could support providers in their AI efforts to specifically target disparities. First, building on a literature review conducted by the U...
May 25, 2017: Vaccine
Sandra S Richter, Daniel M Musher
Streptococcus pneumoniae has demonstrated a remarkable ability to adapt during the conjugate vaccine era. The increasing incidence of serotype 35B disease and emergence of a multidrug-resistant clone reported in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (L. Olarte et al., J Clin Microbiol 55:724-734, 2017, underscore the limitations of pneumococcal vaccines that target the polysaccharide capsule.
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
J E Isenor, N T Edwards, T A Alia, K L Slayter, D M MacDougall, S A McNeil, S K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Underutilization of vaccination programs remains a significant public health concern. Pharmacists serve as educators, facilitators, and in some jurisdictions, as administrators of vaccines. Though pharmacists have been involved with immunizations in various ways for many years, there has yet to be a systematic review assessing the impact of pharmacists as immunizers in these three roles. OBJECTIVE: To complete a systematic review of the literature on the impact of pharmacists as educators, facilitators, and administrators of vaccines on immunization rates...
November 11, 2016: Vaccine
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
February 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Holly M Holmes, Maureen S Beck, Julie H Rowe
The purpose of this review is to provide an update on topics in general geriatrics that are of interest to the field of geriatric oncology. Based on a review of high-impact journals in geriatrics for the prior two years and reviews of journals in which geriatrics updates are published, updates for hypertension, dementia, vaccination, and frailty are presented here. Recent studies have supported lower, more aggressive blood pressure targets in the management of hypertension, even in older patients. However, controversy remains as to the cognitive and functional effects of aggressive blood pressure targets...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Els van Westen, Mirjam J Knol, Riet M C Jongerius, Marta Zancolli, David Goldblatt, Pieter G M van Gageldonk, Irina Tcherniaeva, Guy A M Berbers, Nynke Y Rots
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144739.].
2016: PloS One
Erin L Miller, Gregory L Alexander, Richard W Madsen
Vaccinations reduce the risk of hospitalizations and adverse health outcomes in older adult populations, which has led to initiatives such as the Healthy People 2010 goal to vaccinate 90% of all nursing home residents. The current analysis looked at the percentage of residents who received vaccinations in 15,653 nursing homes in the United States and relationships of vaccination to staffing intensity and regional location. Overall, approximately 75% of facilities reached the optimum 90% vaccination levels for long-term residents, but less than 50% reached this goal for short-term residents...
February 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Marc J M Bonten, Susanne M Huijts, Marieke Bolkenbaas
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 373, Issue 1, Page 91-93, July 2015.
July 2, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Chenghui Li, Paul O Gubbins, Guoqing J Chen
BACKGROUND: Studies of adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) reported better outcomes associated with prior pneumococcal vaccination (PV), suggesting potential additional benefits of PV in hospitalized CAP patients. Influenza (flu) vaccination (FV) could independently/additively improve CAP outcomes in hospitalized patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prior PV and FV on in-hospital outcomes in elderly veterans hospitalized for CAP. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
May 2015: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Amanda Jane Leach, Edward Kim Mulholland, Mathu Santosham, Paul John Torzillo, Ngiare Joy Brown, Peter McIntyre, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Sue Skull, Anne Balloch, Ross Andrews, Jonathan Carapetis, Joseph McDonnell, Vicki Krause, Peter Stanley Morris
INTRODUCTION: Otitis media (OM) starts within weeks of birth in almost all Indigenous infants living in remote areas of the Northern Territory (NT). OM and associated hearing loss persist from infancy throughout childhood and often into adulthood. Educational and social opportunities are greatly compromised. Pneumococcus and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are major OM pathogens that densely colonise the nasopharynx and infect the middle ear from very early in life. Our hypothesis is that compared to current single vaccine schedules, a combination of vaccines starting at 1 month of age, may provide earlier, broadened protection...
January 16, 2015: BMJ Open
Ceri Hirst, Shirley Owusu-Ofori
Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2012. People with sickle cell disease are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable, and the 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate of 10 per 100 patient years of pneumococcal septicaemia in children under the age of three.Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population...
November 6, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Laura Burgess, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease is associated with significant mortality and many countries have introduced routine pneumococcal vaccination into their childhood immunisation programmes. Whilst pneumococcal disease in cystic fibrosis is uncommon, pneumococcal immunisation may offer some protection against pulmonary exacerbations caused by this pathogen. In the USA and UK pneumococcal vaccination is currently recommended for all children and adults with cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines in reducing morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lamberto Manzoli, Maria Elena Flacco, Maddalena D'Addario, Lorenzo Capasso, Corrado De Vito, Carolina Marzuillo, Paolo Villari, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of non-publication or delayed publication of registered randomized trials on vaccines, and to investigate potential determinants of delay to publication. DESIGN: Survey. DATA SOURCES: Trials registry websites, Scopus, PubMed, Google. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the safety or the efficacy or immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV), pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza, and meningococcal, pneumococcal, and rotavirus vaccines that were registered in ClinicalTrials...
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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