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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910848/a-grand-unified-model-for-liganded-gold-clusters
#1
Wen Wu Xu, Beien Zhu, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yi Gao
A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three 'flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The 'composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910847/efficiency-limits-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#2
Katherine T Fountaine, Hans Joachim Lewerenz, Harry A Atwater
Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#3
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#4
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909020/the-design-and-transformation-of-biofundamentals-a-nonsurvey-introductory-evolutionary-and-molecular-biology-course
#5
Michael W Klymkowsky, Jeremy D Rentsch, Emina Begovic, Melanie M Cooper
Many introductory biology courses amount to superficial surveys of disconnected topics. Often, foundational observations and the concepts derived from them and students' ability to use these ideas appropriately are overlooked, leading to unrealistic expectations and unrecognized learning obstacles. The result can be a focus on memorization at the expense of the development of a meaningful framework within which to consider biological phenomena. About a decade ago, we began a reconsideration of what an introductory course should present to students and the skills they need to master...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908238/thermodynamic-analysis-of-fast-stages-of-specific-lesion-recognition-by-dna-repair-enzymes
#6
REVIEW
N A Kuznetsov, O S Fedorova
The methodology of determination of the thermodynamic parameters of fast stages of recognition and cleavage of DNA substrates is described for the enzymatic processes catalyzed by DNA glycosylases Fpg and hOGG1 and AP endonuclease APE1 during base excision repair (BER) pathway. For this purpose, stopped-flow pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of tryptophan fluorescence intensity changes in proteins and fluorophores in DNA substrates was performed at various temperatures. This approach made it possible to determine the changes of standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential steps of DNA-substrate binding, as well as activation enthalpy and entropy for the transition complex formation of the catalytic stage...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908100/a-unified-theoretical-framework-for-mapping-models-for-the-multi-state-hamiltonian
#7
Jian Liu
We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908096/minimum-exponents-ansatz-for-molecular-dynamics-and-quantum-dissipation
#8
Jin-Jin Ding, Hou-Dao Zhang, Yao Wang, Rui-Xue Xu, Xiao Zheng, YiJing Yan
A unified theory for minimum exponential-term ansatzes on bath correlation functions is proposed for numerically efficient and physically insightful treatments of non-Markovian environment influence on quantum systems. For a general Brownian oscillator bath of frequency Ω and friction ζ, the minimum ansatz results in the correlation function a bi-exponential form, with the effective Ω¯ and friction ζ¯ being temperature dependent and satisfying Ω¯/Ω=(ζ¯/ζ)(1/2)=r¯BO/rBO≤ 1, where r¯BO=ζ¯/(2Ω¯) and rBO=ζ/(2Ω)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#9
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906773/suppression-of-aimp1-protects-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-3xtg-ad
#10
Sooah Jang, Jung Ho Lee, Bo Kyung Sohn, Eosu Kim, Sang Gyu Park, Kang Jun Yoon, Minsun Park, Eun Woo Kim, Jihyeon Jeong, Jun-Young Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Kee Namkoong
Neuroinflammation has been raised as a candidate of unifying pathogenesis and a target of a disease-modifying strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (ARS)-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a cytokine that is known to amplify the actions of tumor necrosis factor-α and to be involved in microglial activation and neuronal death. In this respect, AIMP1 could be a plausible target for the treatment of AD. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether anti-AIMP1 antibody could exert therapeutic effects against cognitive impairment using 3xTg-AD mice...
November 30, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906265/implementation-of-multidirectional-moir%C3%A3-computerized-tomography-multidirectional-affine-calibration
#11
Yang Song, Jia Wang, Ying Jin, Zhenyan Guo, Yunjing Ji, Anzhi He, Zhenhua Li
To realize three-dimensional (3D) instantaneous diagnoses for flow fields, many multidirectional optical computerized tomographic (optical CT) techniques based on laser interferometry have been proposed. Projections from different directions of these tomographic systems are captured simultaneously to reconstruct the test field. These projections are independent from each other. However, due to the inevitable errors from installation and difference between optical elements, projections will be imaged with different distortion and located at different positions on the sensors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905953/improving-the-usefulness-of-us-mortality-data-new-methods-for-reclassification-of-underlying-cause-of-death
#12
Kyle J Foreman, Mohsen Naghavi, Majid Ezzati
BACKGROUND: Mortality data are affected by miscertification of the medical cause of death deaths and changes to cause of death classification systems. We present both mappings of ICD9 and ICD10 to a unified list of causes, and a new statistical model for reducing the impact of misclassification of cause of death. METHODS: We propose a Bayesian mixed-effects multinomial logistic model that can be run on individual record level death certificates to reclassify "garbage-coded" deaths onto causes that are more meaningful for public health purposes...
April 28, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905381/-epidemiology-of-stroke-in-irkutsk-the-data-of-the-territorial-population-register-2009-2013
#13
I Yu Saldina, O A Klochikhina, V V Shprakh, L V Stakhovskaya
AIM: To study the changes in the main epidemiological induces of stroke in Irkutsk over 2009-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To obtain significant epidemiological data, a unified method of territorial/population register was used. Stroke morbidity and mortality among persons aged over 25 years is presented. RESULTS: The highest indices of morbidity among men (5,6 per 1000 population) were recorded in 2010, among women (3,9 per 1000 population) in 2009...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905204/editorial-a-unified-birth-defects-research
#14
EDITORIAL
George P Daston, Rocky S Tuan, Michel Vekemans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905170/recommendations-for-neoadjuvant-pathologic-staging-yptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#15
Thomas W Rice, Hemant Ishwaran, David P Kelsen, Wayne L Hofstetter, Carolyn Apperson-Hansen, Eugene H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups (ypTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 7,773 had pathologic assessment after neoadjuvant therapy. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed. Random forest analysis identified data-driven neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#16
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903898/transfer-rna-is-highly-unstable-during-early-amino-acid-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Sine Lo Svenningsen, Mette Kongstad, Thomas Søndergaard Stenum, Ana J Muñoz-Gómez, Michael A Sørensen
Due to its long half-life compared to messenger RNA, bacterial transfer RNA is known as stable RNA. Here, we show that tRNAs become highly unstable as part of Escherichia coli's response to amino acid starvation. Degradation of the majority of cellular tRNA occurs within twenty minutes of the onset of starvation for each of several amino acids. Both the non-cognate and cognate tRNA for the amino acid that the cell is starving for are degraded, and both charged and uncharged tRNA species are affected. The alarmone ppGpp orchestrates the stringent response to amino acid starvation...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903799/cxcr6-mediated-sivagmsab-entry-into-sabaeus-african-green-monkey-lymphocytes-implicates-widespread-use-of-non-ccr5-pathways-in-natural-host-infections
#18
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Sarah T C Elliott, Dino Romero, Beatrice Jacquelin, Beatrice H Hahn, Michaela Muller-Trutwin, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Ronald G Collman
: African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of SIV, which do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. SIV natural hosts express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo, and blocking CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of PBMC from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903734/deviations-from-critical-dynamics-in-interictal-epileptiform-activity
#19
Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903626/a-unified-perspective-on-ankle-push-off-in-human-walking
#20
REVIEW
Karl E Zelik, Peter G Adamczyk
Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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