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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926166/continuous-production-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-using-two-cascade-reactors-with-coimmobilized-enzymes
#1
Ming-Min Zheng, Fei-Fei Chen, Hao Li, Chun-Xiu Li, Jian-He Xu
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is an effective drug for the treatment of hepatitis. In this study, 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as 7β-HSDH and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), were co-immobilized onto an epoxy-functionalized resin (ES-103) for catalyzing the synthesis of UDCA from chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Through optimizing the immobilization pH, time and the loading ratio of enzymes to resin, the specific activities of immobilized LDH-7αHSDH@ES-103 and 7βHSDH-GDH@ES-103 were 43...
September 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925985/differential-effects-of-surface-functionalized-zirconium-oxide-nanoparticles-on-alveolar-macrophages-rat-lung-and-a-mouse-allergy-model
#2
Antje Vennemann, Francesca Alessandrini, Martin Wiemann
Nanoparticles (NPs) may affect the lung via their chemical composition on the surface. Here, we compared the bioactivity of zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) NPs coated with either aminopropilsilane (APTS), tetraoxidecanoic acid (TODS), polyethyleneglycol (PGA), or acrylic acid (Acryl). Supernatants from NPs-treated cultured alveolar macrophages (NR8383) tested for lactate dehydrogenase, glucuronidase, tumor necrosis factor α, and H₂O₂ formation revealed dose-dependent effects, with only gradual differences among particles whose gravitational settling and cellular uptake were similar...
September 19, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925980/changes-in-fatty-acid-composition-of-human-milk-in-response-to-cold-like-symptoms-in-the-lactating-mother-and-infant
#3
Andrew S Gardner, Ibrahim A Rahman, Ching T Lai, Anna Hepworth, Naomi Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy of this antimicrobial activity. This preliminary study investigates whether the proportions of FA in HM change in response to infections, leading to cold-like symptoms in the mother or infant. Milk samples were obtained from mothers (n = 26) when they and their infants were healthy, and when mother, infant, or both suffered cold-like symptoms...
September 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925267/absolute-quantification-of-human-milk-caseins-and-the-whey-casein-ratio-during-the-first-year-of-lactation
#4
Yalin Liao, Darren Weber, Wei Xu, Blythe P Durbin-Johnson, Brett S Phinney, Bo Lönnerdal
Whey proteins and caseins in breast milk provide bioactivities and also have different amino acid composition. Accurate determination of these two major protein classes will therefore provide a better understanding of human milk composition and function, further aid in developing improved infant formulas based on bovine whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we implemented a LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis based on iBAQ label-free quantitation, to estimate absolute concentrations of alpha-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein in human milk samples (n=88) collected between day 1 and day 360 post partum...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923649/hypothermic-machine-perfusion-s-protection-on-porcine-kidney-graft-uncovers-greater-akt-erk-phosphorylation
#5
N He, J-H Li, J-J Jia, K-D Xu, Y-F Zhou, L Jiang, H-H Lu, S-Y Yin, H-Y Xie, L Zhou, S-S Zheng
BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential mechanisms of hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP)'s beneficial effects on kidney graft over static cold storage (SCS) in vitro. METHODS: Ten kidneys of 5 Bama miniature male pigs were paired into 2 groups: SCS group and HMP group. Preservation solutions were taken at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours for the measurement of K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) using the standard laboratory methods...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#6
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921502/delayed-cord-clamping-and-cord-gas-analysis-at-birth
#7
Serena Xodo, Luigi Xodo, Vincenzo Berghella
Delayed cord clamping for at least 60 seconds in both term and preterm babies is a major recent change in clinical care. Delayed cord clamping has several effects on other possible interventions. One of these is the effect of delayed cord clamping on umbilical artery gas analysis. When indicated, umbilical artery gas analysis can safely be done either with early cord clamping, or, probably most of the times it is necessary, during delayed cord clamping with the cord still unclamped. Paired blood samples (one from the umbilical artery and one from the umbilical vein) can be taken from the pulsating and unclamped cord, immediately after birth, during delayed cord clamping, without any effect on either the accuracy of umbilical artery gas analysis or on the transfusion of blood through delayed cord clamping...
September 16, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920437/real-time-metabolic-interactions-between-two-bacterial-species-using-a-carbon-based-ph-microsensor-as-a-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-secm-probe
#8
Vrushali Subhash Joshi, Partha Sarathi Sheet, Nyssa Cullin, Jens Kreth, Dipankar Koley
We have developed a carbon-based, fast-response potentiometric pH microsensor for use as a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) chemical probe to quantitatively map the microbial metabolic exchange between two bacterial species, commensal Streptococcus gordonii and pathogenic Streptococcus mutans. The 25-μm diameter H+ ion-selective microelectrode or pH microprobe showed a Nernstian slope of 59 mV/pH and high selectivity against major ions such Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition, the unique conductive membrane composition aided us in performing an amperometric approach curve to position the probe and obtain a high-resolution pH map of the microenvironment produced by the lactate-producing S...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918153/linseed-oil-and-dgat1-k232a-polymorphism-effects-on-methane-emission-energy-and-nitrogen-metabolism-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-composition-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#9
S van Gastelen, M H P W Visker, J E Edwards, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, S J J Alferink, W H Hendriks, H Bovenhuis, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918149/predicting-methane-emissions-of-lactating-danish-holstein-cows-using-fourier-transform-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-of-milk
#10
N Shetty, G Difford, J Lassen, P Løvendahl, A J Buitenhuis
Enteric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is among the main targets of mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A measurement technique that is rapid, inexpensive, easy to use, and applicable at the population level is desired to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cows. In the present study, feasibility of milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production (L/d) is explained. The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#11
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917232/compressed-food-with-added-functional-oligopeptides-improves-performance-during-military-endurance-training
#12
Zhi-Qiang Zheng, Zhan-Hui Geng, Jia-Xi Liu, Shun-Tang Guo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Oligosaccharide or oligopeptide supplementation may have a significant impact on endurance performance. This study evaluated the effects of adding maltooligosaccharides (MO) or soy oligopeptides (SO) to compressed food (CF) on the physical response of soldiers to daily military training. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Twelve soldiers were randomized to four diet groups: regular meals, CF, CFMO, and CFSO (crossover design). They participated in exercise tests including 90 minutes running at 55-65% VO2max and exhaustive running...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916726/the-nqo1-bioactivatable-drug-%C3%AE-lapachone-alters-the-redox-state-of-nqo1-pancreatic-cancer-cells-causing-perturbation-in-central-carbon-metabolism
#13
Molly A Silvers, Stanislaw Deja, Naveen Singh, Robert A Egnatchik, Jessica Sudderth, Xiuquan Luo, Muhammad S Beg, Shawn C Burgess, Ralph J DeBerardinis, David A Boothman, Matthew E Merritt
Many cancer treatments, such as those for managing recalcitrant tumors like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cause off-target toxicities in normal, healthy tissue, highlighting the need for more tumor-selective chemotherapies. β-Lapachone is bioactivated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This enzyme exhibits elevated expression in most solid cancers and therefore is a potential cancer-specific target. β-Lapachone's therapeutic efficacy partially stems from the drug's induction of a futile NQO1-mediated redox cycle that causes high levels of superoxide, then peroxide formation, which damages DNA and causes hyperactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in extensive NAD+/ATP depletion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915997/outbreak-of-anaplasmosis-associated-with-novel-genetic-variants-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-a-dairy-cattle
#14
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Özübek
During early lactation, dairy cows may present a transient immunosuppressive state and develop anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. In this study, clinical anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey was investigated with respect to within-herd prevalence, vertical transmission, and genetic diversity. In March and September 2015, thirty lactating cows showed primary clinical signs of anaplasmosis, including fever, anaemia, decreased milk yield, anorexia, and laboured breathing. Symptoms disappeared in most cows after administration of long-acting oxytetracycline, but nine of them (30%) died...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915790/the-process-related-dynamics-of-microbial-community-during-a-simulated-fermentation-of-chinese-strong-flavored-liquor
#15
Yanyan Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xiangzhen Li, Yong Tao, Jia Jia, Xiaohong He
BACKGROUND: Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. RESULTS: A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915495/impact-of-chemotherapy-on-metabolic-reprogramming-characterization-of-the-metabolic-profile-of-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells-using-1-h-hr-mas-nmr-spectroscopy
#16
Roberta M Maria, Wanessa F Altei, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, Luiz A Colnago
Doxorubicin, cisplatin, and tamoxifen are part of many chemotherapeutic regimens. However, studies investigating the effect of chemotherapy on the metabolism of breast cancer cells are still limited. We used (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to study the metabolic profile of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells either untreated (control) or treated with tamoxifen, cisplatin, and doxorubicin. (1)H HR-MAS NMR single pulse spectra evidenced signals from all mobile cell compounds, including fatty acids (membranes), water-soluble proteins, and metabolites...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915314/-1-h-mrs-processing-parameters-affect-metabolite-quantification-the-urgent-need-for-uniform-and-transparent-standardization
#17
Alex A Bhogal, Remmelt R Schür, Lotte C Houtepen, Bart van de Bank, Vincent O Boer, Anouk Marsman, Peter B Barker, Tom W J Scheenen, Jannie P Wijnen, Christiaan H Vinkers, Dennis W J Klomp
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of (1) H-MRS metabolite quantification. It is currently unknown to what extent variations in the analysis pipeline used to quantify (1) H-MRS data affect outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the quantification of identical (1) H-MRS scans across independent and experienced research groups would yield comparable results...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914359/changes-in-acid-base-and-ion-balance-during-exercise-in-normoxia-and-normobaric-hypoxia
#18
Olaf Lühker, Marc Moritz Berger, Alexander Pohlmann, Lorenz Hotz, Tilmann Gruhlke, Marcel Hochreiter
PURPOSE: Both exercise and hypoxia cause complex changes in acid-base homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether during intense physical exercise in normoxia and hypoxia, the modified physicochemical approach offers a better understanding of the changes in acid-base homeostasis than the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 19 healthy males completed an exercise test until voluntary fatigue on a bicycle ergometer on two different study days, once during normoxia and once during normobaric hypoxia (12% oxygen, equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m)...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914356/in-vivo-treatment-with-nitazoxanide-induces-anaerobic-metabolism-in-experimental-intraperitoneal-cysticercosis
#19
Joelma M Nasareth, Carolina M Fraga, Nayana F Lima, Guaraciara A Picanço, Tatiane L Costa, Ruy S Lino-Junior, Marina Clare Vinaud
Taenia crassiceps cysticerci are used as experimental model to study the host-parasite relationship and treatment of cysticercosis. One of the described mode of actions of nitazoxanide (NTZ) is to block the pyruvate ferredoxine oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme which is an essential enzyme to the parasite metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo influence of one dosage of NTZ on the energetic metabolism of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Thirty days after the intraperitoneal inoculation of T. crassiceps cysticerci, BALB/c mice were orally treated with 7...
September 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905695/description-of-anaerotignum-aminivorans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-strictly-anaerobic-amino-acid-decomposing-bacterium-isolated-from-a-methanogenic-reactor-and-reclassification-of-clostridium-propionicum-clostridium-neopropionicum-and-clostridium-lactatifermentans-as
#20
Atsuko Ueki, Kazushi Goto, Yoshimi Ohtaki, Nobuo Kaku, Katsuji Ueki
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (SH021T) was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, motile, straight or slightly curved rods. The optimum temperature for growth was 35 °C, and the optimum pH was 6.1-7.7. The strain was asaccharolytic and utilized amino acids as growth substrates. The strain produced acetate and propionate from l-alanine and l-serine, and propionate and butyrate from l-threonine. Branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine) were utilized weakly, and isovalerate or isobutyrate was produced...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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