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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165366/nitroxides-as-antioxidants-and-anticancer-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Marcin Lewandowski, Krzysztof Gwozdzinski
Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165163/the-potential-protective-effect-of-commelina-nudiflora-l-against-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats-mediated-by-suppression-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#2
Muhammad Dawood Shah, Urban J A D'Souza, Mohammad Iqbal
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Commelina nudiflora against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. METHOD: Antioxidant activities were determined. Phytochemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In the in vivo study, Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with C. nudiflora (150, 300, and 450 mg kg body weight (b.wt.)) once daily for 14 days followed by two doses of CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.wt.). After 2 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and hepatoprotective analysis was performed...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165092/synthesis-characterization-and-biological-activities-of-new-symmetric-bis-1-2-3-triazoles-with-click-chemistry
#3
Fatih Celik, Yasemin Unver, Burak Barut, Arzu Ozel, Kemal Sancak
BACKGROUND: 1,2,3-Triazole and its derivatives have important biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-allergic, analgesic, anti-HIV, antiinflammatory, anticancer, antimalarial and antituberculosis. Other significant triazole derivatives are 1,2,4-triazoles which play a very important role in the medicinal chemistry due to the antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antimigraine, anticancer, antimicrobial and antimycotic activities. In this study, we aimed to synthesize a new series of bis-1,2,3-triazole derivatives including 1,2,4-triazole to obtain more effective biological activities METHODS: In this study, a new series of bis-1,2,3-triazole compounds (9,10,11) were synthesized...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164679/novel-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-peptides-from-the-siamese-crocodile-crocodylus-siamensis-hemoglobin-hydrolysate
#4
Jiraporn Lueangsakulthai, Santi Phosri, Tinnakorn Theansungnoen, Nisachon Jangpromma, Theeranan Temsiripong, John E Mckendrick, Watcharee Khunkitti, Sompong Klaynongsruang
Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides were isolated from hydrolysates of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin. Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysates (CHHs) were obtained by pepsin digestion at different incubation times (2, 4, 6 and 8 H) at 37 °C and subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity assessment. CHH obtained by 2-H hydrolysis (2H-CHH) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with respect to decreasing nitric oxide (NO) production, while the strongest antioxidant activity was found for 6-H hydrolysis (6H-CHH) against nitric oxide radicals...
November 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164345/ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-of-the-reactivity-of-vitamin-c-toward-hydroxyl-and-formula-see-text-radicals
#5
Laure Lespade
Vitamin C is one of the most abundant exogenous antioxidants in the cell, and it is of the utmost importance to elucidate its mechanism of action against radicals. In this study, the reactivity of vitamin C toward OH and [Formula: see text] radicals in aqueous medium was analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics using CPMD code. The simulations led to results similar to those of static studies or experiments for the pair of [Formula: see text] radicals but bring new insights for the reactivity with hydroxyl radical: the reaction takes place before the formation of an adduct and consists of two steps: first an electron is transferred to hydroxyl radical and then the ascorbyl radical loses a proton...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164133/role-of-dietary-antioxidants-in-the-preservation-of-vascular-function-and-the-modulation-of-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Saradhadevi Varadharaj, Owen J Kelly, Rami N Khayat, Purnima S Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Jay L Zweier
In vascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) occurs secondary to altered function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A novel redox regulated pathway was identified through which eNOS is uncoupled due to S-glutathionylation of critical cysteine residues, resulting in superoxide free radical formation instead of the vasodilator molecule, nitric oxide. In addition, the redox sensitive cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, BH4, is also essential for eNOS coupling...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163922/bright-and-sensitive-ratiometric-fluorescent-probe-enabling-endogenous-fa-imaging-and-mechanistic-exploration-of-indirect-oxidative-damage-due-to-fa-in-various-living-systems
#7
Kun Dou, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Lingxin Chen, Ziping Cao, Tao Chen, Yulin Li, Jinmao You
As a notorious toxin, formaldehyde (FA) poses an immense threat to human health. Aberrantly elevated FA levels lead to serious pathologies, including organ damage, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Unfortunately, current techniques limit FA imaging to general comparative studies, instead of a mechanistic exploration of its biological role, and this is presumably due to the lack of robust molecular tools for reporting FA in living systems. More importantly, despite being reductive, FA, however, can induce oxidative damage to organisms, thus providing a challenge to the mechanistic study of FA using fluorescence imaging...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163733/can-antioxidative-status-be-involved-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Cintia Castro-Correia, M Luz Maia, Sonia Norberto, Cristina Costa-Santos, M Fatima Barroso, Ana Carvalho, Manuel Fontoura, Valentina Domingues, Conceicao Calhau
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin deficiency. It is now clear that environmental factors also play a role in disease development. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children and young people in Portugal is 0.16% between 0 and 19 years of age. The main cause of death in T1DM is cardiovascular disease, and early endothelial dysfunction is its pathophysiologycal precursor. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased production of free radicals and increased oxidative stress...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163230/physiological-levels-of-nitric-oxide-diminish-mitochondrial-superoxide-potential-role-of-mitochondrial-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-and-nitrosothiols
#9
Sergey I Dikalov, Vladimir I Mayorov, Alexander V Panov
Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of "antioxidant" effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163162/a-randomized-double-blinded-clinical-trial-on-effects-of-a-vitis-vinifera-extract-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#10
Gioacchino Calapai, Francesco Bonina, Andrea Bonina, Luisa Rizza, Carmen Mannucci, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Germana Laganà, Angela Alibrandi, Concetta Pollicino, Santi Inferrera, Umberto Alecci
Introduction: Gradual population aging is creating a new set of needs in the general population. Memory capacity decreases with age, and memory deficits are considered an early symptom of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), one of the most prevalent cognitive disorders in older people. Numerous studies have shown that grape polyphenolic compounds (GPs) are able to attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce brain lesions in experimental AD animal models. These GP effects are associated with improvement in brain antioxidant status and prevention of free radical-induced neuronal damage...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162516/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-from-the-skin-of-tropical-frogs
#11
Eder Barbosa, Ana Oliveira, Alexandra Plácido, Renato Socodato, Camila C Portugal, Ana Carolina Mafud, Alicia S Ombredane, Daniel C Moreira, Nuno Vale, Lucinda J Bessa, Graziella A Joanitti, Cláudia Alves, Paula Gomes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Yvonne Primerano Mascarenhas, Mariela M Marani, João B Relvas, Manuela Pintado, José Roberto S A Leite
The amphibian skin plays an important role protecting the organism from external harmful factors such as microorganisms or UV radiation. Based on biorational strategies, many studies have investigated the cutaneous secretion of anurans as a source of bioactive molecules. By a peptidomic approach, a novel antioxidant peptide (AOP) with in vitro free radical scavenging ability was isolated from Physalaemus nattereri. The AOP, named antioxidin-I, has a molecular weight [M+H](+) = 1543.69Da and a TWYFITPYIPDK primary amino acid sequence...
November 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158919/antioxidant-and-antiradical-properties-of-selected-flavonoids-and-phenolic-compounds
#12
Zübeyir Huyut, Şükrü Beydemir, İlhami Gülçin
Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158873/contribution-and-interactions-of-hydroxycinnamic-acids-found-in-bran-and-wholegrain-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-effects-on-the-antioxidant-capacity-and-inhibition-of-human-erythrocyte-hemolysis
#13
Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Francisco J Cinco-Moroyoqui, Ofelia Rouzaud-Sández, J Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Maribel Robles-Sánchez
An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants is known as oxidative stress, and it promotes cellular aging and the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases. The bioactive compounds present in food play an important role in preventing oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions and interactions of the hydroxycinnamic acids found in the bran and whole grain of sorghum and to evaluate their effects on the antioxidant capacity and inhibition of the hemolysis of human erythrocytes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158705/melatonin-attenuates-thiocyanate-induced-vasoconstriction-in-aortic-rings
#14
Alexander M Prusa, Christian A Plass
Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN(-)) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN(-) levels are increased...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157903/enzymatic-synthesis-of-quaternary-ammonium-chitosan-silk-fibroin-peptide-copolymer-and-its-characterization
#15
Lian Min, Meng Liu, Liangling Liu, Ziqie Rao, Chen Zhu, Lihong Fan
Free radicals are closely related to the occurrence and development of aging, cancer and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to improve the antioxidant effects of quaternary ammonium chitosan (QCS) by modified with silk fibroin peptide (SFP). The modification had been confirmed by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Degree of substitution (DS) of QCS-SFP could be controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. In this paper, the results of moisture absorption and retention test showed that QCS-SFP had excellent moisture absorption and retention properties...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157606/high-performance-thin-layer-chromatography-hptlc-direct-bioautography-as-a-method-of-choice-for-alpha-amylase-and-antioxidant-activity-evaluation-in-marine-algae
#16
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, David W Morton
High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with DPPH free radical method and α-amylase bioassay was used to compare antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from 10 marine macroalgae species (3 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta and 3 Rhodophyta) from Blue Lagoon beach (Malaysia). Samples were also evaluated for their phenolic and stigmasterol content. On average, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the ethyl acetate extracts (55.1mg/100g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) compared to 35...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157166/sub-chronic-boldine-treatment-exerts-anticonvulsant-effects-in-mice
#17
Leila Moezi, Siranoush Yahosseini, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Mona Dastgheib, Fateme Pirsalami
OBJECTIVES: Boldine is an aporphine alkaloid which is best known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective characteristics. It seems that all these activities are related to boldine ability to scavenge reactive free radicals. As indicated by several pieces of evidence, free radicals generation are involved in initiation and propagation of epilepsy. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the sub-chronic effects of boldine on intraperitoneal and intravenous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models and electroshock-induced seizure in mice...
November 20, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157082/radioprotective-efficacy-of-ginkgo-biloba-and-angelica-archangelica-extract-against-technetium-99m-sestamibi-induced-oxidative-stress-and-lens-injury-in-rats
#18
Mahmoud H Khedr, Medhat W Shafaa, Amany Abdel-Ghaffar, Ahmed Saleh
PURPOSE: Technetium-99m is a radioactive tracer that emits gamma rays. Its half-life time is 6 hours. Similar to other ionizing radiations, the main mechanism of radiation-induced effects is initiated through the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of Ginkgo-Biloba and Angelica-Archangelica against oxidative organ damage that was induced by (99m)Tc-sestamibi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed on thirty-six Wistar-rats which were subdivided into control groups and groups exposed to (99m)Tc-sestamibi...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156979/determination-of-lignans-phenolic-acids-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-transformed-hairy-root-culture-of-linum-usitatissimum
#19
Ahmed M M Gabr, Hoda B Mabrok, Emam A Abdel-Rahim, Mohamed K El-Bahr, Iryna Smetanska
Hairy root culture is a promising alternative method for the production of secondary metabolites. In this study, transformed root of Linum usitatissimum was established using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 strain from root cultures for lignans, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity determination. Total lignin content (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol) was 55.5% higher in transformed root cultures than in the non-transformed root culture. Secoisolariciresinol was detected in higher concentration (2...
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156652/comparison-of-the-chemical-profiles-and-antioxidant-activities-of-different-parts-of-cultivated-cistanche-deserticola-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-a-1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-based-assay
#20
Xiaoming Wang, Jinfang Wang, Huanyu Guan, Rong Xu, Xiaomei Luo, Meifeng Su, Xiaoyan Chang, Wenting Tan, Jun Chen, Yue Shi
In this study, a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array coupled to quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method and a 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-based assay were used to determine the chemical constituents and screen the antioxidant activity profiles of the methanol extracts of different parts of cultivated Cistanche deserticola (C. deserticola). First, qualitative and quantitative chemical composition analyses of the different parts of cultivated C. deserticola were conducted...
November 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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