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Congenital infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919624/frequency-distribution-of-congenital-anomaly-and-associated-maternal-risk-factors
#1
K Fatema, T Das, A Mannan, S M Zaman
This study was done to find out the maternal risk factors associated with congenital anomaly. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2011 to December 2011. During this study period 78 patients had pregnancy with congenital anomaly and delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Women with ultrasound report of congenitally abnormal fetus irrespective of gestational age were included...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918465/congenital-lumbar-kyphosis-with-skin-ulceration-and-osteomyelitis-in-a-myelomeningocele-child-a-case-report
#2
Benoit Vibert, Marco Turati, Pierre-Yves Rabattu, Marco Bigoni, Ahmad Eid, Aurélien Courvoisier
INTRODUCTION: Kyphosis is a frequent problem in children with spina bifida, and this deformity may cause different complications as respiratory insufficiency, bowel dysfunction, and skin ulcers. CASE REPORT: We report on a 13-year-old myelomeningocele male with a lumbar kyphoscoliosis associated to a septic skin ulceration that resulted in an acute sepsis. An X-ray revealed a kyphosis of 110° and a scoliosis of 25° between T9 and L5. The wound and blood cultures showed Staphylococcus aureus colonization, and an appropriate antibiotic therapy was started...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918445/pre-emptive-intestinal-transplant-the-surgeon-s-point-of-view
#3
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Ignazio R Marino, Kishore R Iyer
Pre-emptive transplantation is a well-established practice for certain types of end-organ failure such as in the use of kidney transplantation. For irreversible intestinal failure, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) remains the gold standard, due to the suboptimal long-term results of intestinal transplantation. As such, the only role for pre-emptive transplantation, if at all, will be for patients identified to be at high risk of complications and mortality while on definitive long-term TPN. In these patients, the timing of early listing and transplantation could become life-saving, taking into account that mortality on the waiting list is still the highest for intestinal candidates...
September 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915997/outbreak-of-anaplasmosis-associated-with-novel-genetic-variants-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-a-dairy-cattle
#4
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Özübek
During early lactation, dairy cows may present a transient immunosuppressive state and develop anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. In this study, clinical anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey was investigated with respect to within-herd prevalence, vertical transmission, and genetic diversity. In March and September 2015, thirty lactating cows showed primary clinical signs of anaplasmosis, including fever, anaemia, decreased milk yield, anorexia, and laboured breathing. Symptoms disappeared in most cows after administration of long-acting oxytetracycline, but nine of them (30%) died...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#5
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914749/raised-frequency-of-microcephaly-related-to-zika-virus-infection-in-two-birth-defects-surveillance-systems-in-bogot%C3%A3-and-cali-colombia
#6
Paula Hurtado-Villa, Angie K Puerto, Salomé Victoria, Gloria Gracia, Lesly Guasmayán, Patricia Arce, Gilberto Álvarez, Esperanza Blandón, Nubia Rengifo, Jorge A Holguín, Alexander Durán, Ignacio Zarante
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is now known to cause congenital microcephaly and severe brain defects. In 2016, rates of microcephaly appeared to start increasing around May, peaking in July, and declining through December. The occurrence of microcephaly appears to have increased nearly 4-fold in 2 large cities in Colombia, concurrently with the reported Zika virus epidemic in the country.
October 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912110/the-genetics-of-congenitally-small-brains
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Duerinckx, Marc Abramowicz
Primary microcephaly (PM) refers to a congenitally small brain, resulting from insufficient prenatal production of neurons, and serves as a model disease for brain volumic development. Known PM genes delineate several cellular pathways, among which the centriole duplication pathway, which provide interesting clues about the cellular mechanisms involved. The general interest of the genetic dissection of PM is illustrated by the convergence of Zika virus infection and PM gene mutations on congenital microcephaly, with CENPJ/CPAP emerging as a key target...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#8
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910635/gestational-stage-and-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-regulate-zikv-infection-in-utero
#9
Brett W Jagger, Jonathan J Miner, Bin Cao, Nitin Arora, Amber M Smith, Attila Kovacs, Indira U Mysorekar, Carolyn B Coyne, Michael S Diamond
Although Zika virus (ZIKV)-induced congenital disease occurs more frequently during early stages of pregnancy, its basis remains undefined. Using established type I interferon (IFN)-deficient mouse models of ZIKV transmission in utero, we found that the placenta and fetus were more susceptible to ZIKV infection at earlier gestational stages. Whereas ZIKV infection at embryonic day 6 (E6) resulted in placental insufficiency and fetal demise, infections at midstage (E9) resulted in reduced cranial dimensions, and infection later in pregnancy (E12) caused no apparent fetal disease...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905470/outcomes-of-berlin-heart-excor-%C3%A2-pediatric-ventricular-assist-device-support-in-patients-with-restrictive-and-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#10
Jennifer A Su, Jondavid Menteer
The outcomes of pediatric ventricular assist device support in patients with diastolic heart failure have not been well described. This study reviews the North American experience with Berlin Heart EXCOR(®) ventricular assist device implants in children with such physiology. The Berlin Heart clinical database was reviewed. Patients with primary diastolic dysfunction are included in this study. Twenty pediatric patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy (n = 13), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 3), or congenital heart disease with restrictive physiology (n = 4) who were supported with EXCOR(®) were identified...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905447/assessment-of-the-quality-of-neonatal-care-in-the-solomon-islands
#11
Shidan Tosif, Titus Nasi, Amy Gray, Nahad Sadr-Azodi, Divi Ogaoga, Trevor Duke
AIM: To identify strengths and obstacles for improving the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands. Improving the quality of newborn care is a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Action Plan for Healthy Newborns in the Western Pacific. The neonatal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, a lower-middle-income country, has improved slower than overall child mortality. In 2013, neonatal mortality (13.2/1000) constituted 44% of under-5 deaths (30.1/1000). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of newborn care in five provincial hospitals using a World Health Organization assessment tool for hospital quality of care...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904689/severe-neonatal-cytomegalovirus-infection-about-a-case
#12
Brahim El Hasbaoui, Amal Bousselamti, Mohammed Amine Redouani, Amina Barkat
Maternofoetal infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection and a leading cause of mental retardation and sensori-neural hearing loss. Population-based studies indicate that at least 0.5% of all infants born alive have CMV of whom approximately 10% have clinically evident symptomsat birth. The Justification of systematic screening for foetal CMV infection is still controversial and is not recommended in most developed countries. This is mainly justified by the paucity of antenatal prognostic factors and the lack of established intrauterine treatment when foetal infection has been diagnosed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904674/-a-rare-cause-of-exertional-dry-cough-agenesis-of-the-left-pulmonary-artery-associated-with-pulmonary-hypoplasia
#13
Azzeddine Laaraje, Naima El Hafidi, Chafik Mahraoui
Agenesis of the left pulmonary artery associated with hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung is a rare congenital malformation in children; it can be discovered fortuitously or because of the presence of recurrent respiratory infections. Diagnosis is based on thoracic angioscanner. Treatment is essentially conservative. We report the case of a 6-year old child with agenesis of the left pulmonary artery associated with hypoplasia of the ipsilateral lung detected because of exertional dry cough.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#14
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903024/neospora-caninum-in-non-pregnant-and-pregnant-mouse-models-cross-talk-between-infection-and-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Adriana Aguado-Martínez, Afonso P Basto, Alexandre Leitão, Andrew Hemphill
Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian which causes abortion in cattle, with a high economic impact globally. Vaccination is considered to be the most cost-effective strategy to control and prevent bovine neosporosis. However, there is no commercial vaccine available to date. To investigate this disease under laboratory conditions, mouse models were developed, and they have been efficiently used as an initial proof-of-concept platform to investigate different immunogenic formulations. We here provide a detailed review on the current knowledge on immunity against neosporosis in non-pregnant as well as pregnant mice, and present a general overview of the most relevant parameters that may be responsible for protective immunity, which in turn could be relevant for vaccine development...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902010/posterior-amorphous-corneal-dystrophy-associated-with-keratoglobus-a-case-report
#16
Jonathan Fay, Alexandra A Herzlich, George J Florakis
PURPOSE: Posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy (PACD) is a rare disorder characterized by sheet-like opacification of the posterior corneal stroma, corneal thinning, and decreased corneal curvature. It is not known to be associated with progressive corneal ectasia. In this report, we examine the course of a patient with PACD who developed bilateral keratoglobus-type corneal ectasia. METHODS: The clinical history of a single patient is reviewed from birth through age 15...
September 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900758/in-utero-development-of-memory-t-cells
#17
REVIEW
Dania Zhivaki, Richard Lo-Man
Pathogen-specific immune memory develops subsequent to primary exposure to antigen, mainly in the context of infection or vaccination to provide protection. Although a safe fetal life requires a tolerogenic environment in order to circumvent unnecessary inflammatory responses, it needs to be prepared in utero to face the microbial environment outside the womb. The possibility of immune memory generation in the fetus would help such transition providing protection in early life. This requires fetal T cell exposure to foreign antigens presented by dendritic cells...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898891/new-insights-into-the-natural-history-of-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome
#18
María Guadalupe Lovagnini Frutos, José Héctor Ochoa, María Gabriela Barbás, Héctor Dante Lucchini, Martín Moya, Gustavo Malinger
We describe the prenatal evolution of the brain findings in a patient with proved Zika virus infection at 8 weeks of gestation showing the very early appearance at 17 weeks of ventriculomegaly and signs of brain parenchymal involvement without microcephaly. The involvement of the brain becomes more evident at 22 and 27 weeks with the apparition of calcifications and microcephaly. Interestingly, the postnatal findings failed to show significant worsening when compared to these prenatal findings.
September 13, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895096/palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#19
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome. METHODS: In this multicenter, post-marketing surveillance study (December 2013 to December 2015), children aged ≤24 months with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome (without hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease) receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during two RSV seasons were observed until 30 days after the final palivizumab injection...
September 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893652/a-new-threat-to-human-reproduction-system-posed-by-zika-virus-zikv-from-clinical-investigations-to-experimental-studies
#20
REVIEW
Xiangdong Li, Wenqiang Ma, Gary Wong, Shuoqian Ma, Shihua Li, Yuhai Bi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV has since been silently circulating in a number of equatorial countries for over 50 years. The largest outbreak in humans occurred in Brazil in 2015-2016. Unlike its flavivirus relatives, sexual and post-transfusion transmissions of ZIKV have been reported. In addition, fetal infection can result in microcephaly and congenital Zikv syndrome has been reported in neonates. Moreover, ZIKV RNA can persist for at least 6 months in semen and 11 weeks in vaginal secretions after the infection, suggesting potential tropism for the male and female genital tracts...
September 8, 2017: Virus Research
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