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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431136/c1-lateral-mass-displacement-and-transverse-atlantal-ligament-failure-in-jefferson-s-fracture-a-biomechanical-study-of-the-rule-of-spence
#1
Rafeek O Woods, Serkan Inceoglu, Yusuf T Akpolat, Wayne K Cheng, Brice Jabo, Olumide Danisa
BACKGROUND: Jefferson's fracture, first described in 1927, represents a bursting fracture of the C1 ring with lateral displacement of the lateral masses. It has been determined that if the total lateral mass displacement (LMD) exceeds 6.9 mm, there is high likelihood of transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) rupture, and if LMD is less than 5.7 mm TAL injury is unlikely. Several recent radiographic studies have questioned the accuracy and validity of the "rule of Spence" and it lacks biomechanical support...
April 20, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429853/molecular-cloning-of-mda5-phylogenetic-analysis-of-rig-i-like-receptors-rlrs-and-differential-gene-expression-of-rlrs-interferons-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-after-in%C3%A2-vitro-challenge-with-ipnv-isav-and-sav-in-the-salmonid-cell-line-to
#2
I-K G Nerbøvik, M A Solheim, H Ø Eggestøl, A Rønneseth, R A Jakobsen, H I Wergeland, G T Haugland
The RIG-I receptors RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 are involved in viral recognition, and they have different ligand specificity and recognize different viruses. Activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) leads to production of cytokines essential for antiviral immunity. In fish, most research has focused on interferons, and less is known about the production of proinflammatory cytokines during viral infections. In this study, we have cloned the full-length MDA5 sequence in Atlantic salmon, and compared it with RIG-I and LGP2...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429818/piscirickettsia-salmonis-infection-in-cultured-lumpfish-cyclopterus-lumpus-l
#3
M Marcos-López, N M Ruane, F Scholz, M Bolton-Warberg, S O Mitchell, S Murphy O'Sullivan, A Irwin Moore, H D Rodger
A Piscirickettsia salmonis infection was diagnosed in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) juveniles held in a marine research facility on the west coast of Ireland. The main clinical signs and pathology included marked ascites, severe multifocal liver necrosis and severe diffuse inflammation and necrosis of the exocrine pancreas and peri-pancreatic adipose tissue. Numerous Piscirickettsia-like organisms were observed by histopathology in the affected organs, and the bacterial species was characterized by molecular analysis...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429804/identifying-tagging-snps-for-african-specific-genetic-variation-from-the-african-diaspora-genome
#4
Henry Richard Johnston, Yi-Juan Hu, Jingjing Gao, Timothy D O'Connor, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Genevieve L Wojcik, Christopher R Gignoux, Pierre-Antoine Gourraud, Antoine Lizee, Mark Hansen, Rob Genuario, Dave Bullis, Cindy Lawley, Eimear E Kenny, Carlos Bustamante, Terri H Beaty, Rasika A Mathias, Kathleen C Barnes, Zhaohui S Qin
A primary goal of The Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) is to develop an 'African Diaspora Power Chip' (ADPC), a genotyping array consisting of tagging SNPs, useful in comprehensively identifying African specific genetic variation. This array is designed based on the novel variation identified in 642 CAAPA samples of African ancestry with high coverage whole genome sequence data (~30× depth). This novel variation extends the pattern of variation catalogued in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Projects to a spectrum of populations representing the wide range of West African genomic diversity...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428843/rad-sequencing-reveals-genomewide-divergence-between-independent-invasions-of-the-european-green-crab-carcinus-maenas-in-the-northwest-atlantic
#5
Nicholas W Jeffery, Claudio DiBacco, Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Lorraine C Hamilton, Ryan R E Stanley, Renée Bernier, Jennifer FitzGerald, K Matheson, C H McKenzie, Praveen Nadukkalam Ravindran, Robert Beiko, Ian R Bradbury
Genomic studies of invasive species can reveal both invasive pathways and functional differences underpinning patterns of colonization success. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) was initially introduced to eastern North America nearly 200 years ago where it expanded northwards to eastern Nova Scotia. A subsequent invasion to Nova Scotia from a northern European source allowed further range expansion, providing a unique opportunity to study the invasion genomics of a species with multiple invasions...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427330/pan-genome-and-crispr-analyses-of-the-bacterial-fish-pathogen-moritella-viscosa
#6
Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde, Terje Klemetsen, Nils Peder Willassen
BACKGROUND: Winter-ulcer Moritella viscosa infections continue to be a significant burden in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farming. M. viscosa comprises two main clusters that differ in genetic variation and phenotypes including virulence. Horizontal gene transfer through acquisition and loss of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification. To gain insight into genomic traits that could affect sublineage evolution within this bacterium we examined the genome sequences of twelve M...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426406/infection-of-the-lesser-spotted-dogfish-with-proleptus-obtusus-dujardin-1845-nematoda-spirurida-reflects-ontogenetic-feeding-behaviour-and-seasonal-differences-in-prey-availability
#7
Carlota Silva, Ana Veríssimo, Pedro Cardoso, Jo Cable, Raquel Xavier
Proleptus obtusus Dujardin, 1845 is the most common parasite infecting the gut of the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus). This nematode is trophically transmitted from an intermediate crustacean host to the definitive elasmobranch host. Sexual and age-related differences in habitat occupancy and feeding behaviour of the lesser spotted dogfish make this parasite-host dyad ideal for testing which aspects of host biology influence parasite transmission. Here, the relationship between P. obtusus burden and host condition, sex and age were investigated in lesser spotted dogfish captured in the Northeast Atlantic...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425429/evidence-of-horizontal-transmission-of-the-cancer-associated-steamer-retrotransposon-among-ecological-cohort-bivalve-species
#8
Ashley N Paynter, Michael J Metzger, Jocelyn A Sessa, Mark E Siddall
Bivalve specimens from legacy frozen tissue collections, and others freshly obtained, were surveyed for the presence of the Steamer long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon associated with disseminated hemic neoplasia of the soft-shelled clam Mya areneria. Of 22 species investigated using primers for the pol region, only Atlantic M. arenaria, Atlantic and North Sea razor clams Ensis directus, and Baltic clams Macoma balthica from the North Sea were found to possess copies of Steamer in their genomes. Notably, close relatives like Mya truncata and Siliqua patula did not exhibit evidence of Steamer...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#9
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425037/a-new-species-of-caryospora-l%C3%A3-ger-1904-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-the-guanabara-spotted-night-snake-siphlophis-pulcher-raddi-reptilia-dipsadidae-in-the-atlantic-forest-brazil
#10
Marcos Tobias de Santana Miglionico, Lúcio André Viana
A new coccidian species of the genus Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is described based on material from the Guanabara spotted night snake Siphlophis pulcher (Raddi) (Reptilia: Dipsadidae) in a coastal area of the Atlantic Forest in Ilha Grande Island, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Caryospora ceadsensis n. sp. possesses spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal oöcysts measuring 17-24 × 17-24 (22.1 × 22.0) µm, with a c.1.3 µm thick bi-layered wall (inner layer smooth, outer layer slightly striated), length/width (L/W) ratio of 1...
April 19, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423463/temperature-regulation-of-marine-heterotrophic-prokaryotes-increases-latitudinally-as-a-breach-between-bottom-up-and-top-down-controls
#11
Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Josep M Gasol, Massimo C Pernice, Jean-François Mangot, Ramon Massana, Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Carlos M Duarte
Planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes make up the largest living biomass and process most organic matter in the ocean. Determining when and where the biomass and activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes are controlled by resource availability (bottom-up), predation and viral lysis (top-down) or temperature will help in future carbon cycling predictions. We conducted an extensive survey across subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans during the Malaspina 2010 Global Circumnavigation Expedition and assessed indices for these three types of controls at 109 stations (mostly from the surface to 4000 m depth)...
April 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422974/variation-in-benthic-long-term-data-of-transitional-waters-is-interpretation-more-than-speculation
#12
Michael Lothar Zettler, René Friedland, Mayya Gogina, Alexander Darr
Biological long-term data series in marine habitats are often used to identify anthropogenic impacts on the environment or climate induced regime shifts. However, particularly in transitional waters, environmental properties like water mass dynamics, salinity variability and the occurrence of oxygen minima not necessarily caused by either human activities or climate change can attenuate or mask apparent signals. At first glance it very often seems impossible to interpret the strong fluctuations of e.g. abundances or species richness, since abiotic variables like salinity and oxygen content vary simultaneously as well as in apparently erratic ways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422135/genomic-evidence-of-hybridization-between-two-independent-invasions-of-european-green-crab-carcinus-maenas-in-the-northwest-atlantic
#13
N W Jeffery, C DiBacco, B F Wringe, R R E Stanley, L C Hamilton, P N Ravindran, I R Bradbury
Invasive species have been associated with significant negative impacts in their introduced range often outcompeting native species, yet the long-term evolutionary dynamics of biological invasions are not well understood. Hybridization, either among waves of invasion or between native and introduced populations, could alter the ecological and evolutionary impacts of invasions yet has rarely been studied in marine invasive species. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) invaded eastern North America twice from northern and southern locations in its native range...
April 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421914/seeing-the-forest-but-not-the-trees-heterogeneity-in-community-size-effects-in-canadian-ice-hockey-players
#14
N Wattie, J Schorer, J Baker
The community size effect (or birthplace effect) suggests that high-performance athletes are less likely to emerge from regions with population sizes that are very small or very large. However, previous research on elite Canadian ice hockey players has not considered the influence of intra-national regional variation of population distributions with respect to community size effects. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the heterogeneity of the community size effect between Canadian National Hockey League draftees (2000-2014: n = 1505), from 7 provincial regions within Canada (i...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421609/description-and-quantitative-analysis-of-the-dentition-of-the-southern-thorny-skate-amblyraja-doellojuradoi
#15
REVIEW
G Delpiani, M C Spath, M Deli Antoni, M Delpiani
A description of the tooth morphology of 234 jaws from the southern thorny skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is given. Seven rows of teeth were selected and length and width of each tooth in these rows were measured. It was found that functional series corresponds to the third teeth and the average width and length of these teeth were compared among jaws, maturity stages, sexes and rows. Generalized linear models were used to determine the subset of measures that most contribute to explain the variability between groups...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421270/climate-variability-impacts-on-rainfed-cereal-yields-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#16
Milad Nouri, Mehdi Homaee, Mohammad Bannayan
In order to assess the response of wheat and barley to climate variability, the correlation between variations of yields with local and global climate variables was investigated in west and northwest Iran over 1982-2013. The global climate variables were the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signals. Further, minimum (T min), maximum (T max), and mean (T mean) temperature, diurnal temperature range (DTR), precipitation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was used as local weather factors...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421038/bacteriophages-against-serratia-as-fish-spoilage-control-technology
#17
Igor Hernández
Bacteria of the genus Serratia, mainly S. proteamaculans and S. fonticola, are important spoilage agents in Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). In order to evaluate whether bacteriophages against Serratia could delay the spoilage process, 11 viral strains active against this genus were isolated from food and best candidate was applied to fresh mackerel filets. All the phages belong to the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families and were active at multiplicity of infection (MOI) levels below 1:1 in Long & Hammer broth...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419285/genomic-differentiation-and-demographic-histories-of-atlantic-and-indo-pacific-yellowfin-tuna-thunnus-albacares-populations
#18
J M I Barth, M Damerau, M Matschiner, S Jentoft, R Hanel
Recent developments in the field of genomics have provided new and powerful insights into population structure and dynamics that are essential for the conservation of biological diversity. As a commercially highly valuable species, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is intensely exploited throughout its distribution in tropical oceans around the world, and is currently classified as near threatened. However, conservation efforts for this species have so far been hampered by limited knowledge of its population structure, due to incongruent results of previous investigations...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419112/lens-metabolomic-profiling-as-a-tool-to-understand-cataractogenesis-in-atlantic-salmon-and-rainbow-trout-reared-at-optimum-and-high-temperature
#19
Sofie Charlotte Remø, Ernst Morten Hevrøy, Olav Breck, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Rune Waagbø
Periods of high or fluctuating seawater temperatures result in several physiological challenges for farmed salmonids, including an increased prevalence and severity of cataracts. The aim of the present study was to compare cataractogenesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at two temperatures, and investigate whether temperature influences lens metabolism and cataract development. Atlantic salmon (101±2 g) and rainbow trout (125±3 g) were reared in seawater at either 13°C (optimum for growth) or 19°C during the 35 days experiment (n = 4 tanks for each treatment)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416963/mitochondrial-acclimation-potential-to-ocean-acidification-and-warming-of-polar-cod-boreogadus-saida-and-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#20
Elettra Leo, Kristina L Kunz, Matthias Schmidt, Daniela Storch, Hans-O Pörtner, Felix C Mark
BACKGROUND: Ocean acidification and warming are happening fast in the Arctic but little is known about the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the physiological performance and survival of Arctic fish. RESULTS: In this study we investigated the metabolic background of performance through analyses of cardiac mitochondrial function in response to control and elevated water temperatures and PCO2 of two gadoid fish species, Polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an endemic Arctic species, and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which is a temperate to cold eurytherm and currently expanding into Arctic waters in the wake of ocean warming...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
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