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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933474/thinking-ethical-and-regulatory-frameworks-in-medicine-from-the-perspective-of-solidarity-on-both-sides-of-the-atlantic
#1
Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e...
December 8, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933452/responses-of-tropical-legumes-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest-to-simulated-acid-rain
#2
Guilherme C Andrade, Luzimar C Silva
We investigated the morphological and anatomical effects of simulated acid rain on leaves of two species native to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Paubrasilia echinata and Libidibia ferrea var. leiostachya. Saplings were subjected to acid rain in a simulation chamber during 10 days for 15 min daily, using H2SO4 solution pH 3.0 and, in the control, deionized water. At the end of the experiment, fragments from young and expanding leaves were anatomically analyzed. Although L. ferrea var. leiostachya leaves are more hydrophobic, rain droplets remained in contact with them for a longer time, as in the hydrophilic P...
December 8, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932931/new-distribution-records-of-the-savanna-specialist-fungus-farming-ant-cyatta-sosa-calvo-et-al-hymenoptera-formicidae-myrmicinae
#3
Aline Machado Oliveira, Rodrigo Machado Feitosa, Heraldo Luis Vasconcelos, Jonas Maravalhas
BACKGROUND: The fungus-farming ant genus Cyatta (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is represented by a single species, C. abscondita Sosa-Calvo et al., known from a few localities in Brazil (in the states of Ceará, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and the Distrito Federal), and a single locality in the Misiones province, Argentina. Cyatta is known to occur predominantly in savanna habitats and occasionally in the transition zones between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. NEW INFORMATION: The new records reported here significantly expand the previously known distribution of Cyatta abscondita and provide further support for the intimate relation between this species and the savannas of South America...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931869/a-genetic-overview-of-atlantic-coastal-populations-from-europe-and-north-west-africa-based-on-a-17-x-str-panel
#4
Endika Prieto-Fernández, Ana Díaz-de Usera, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Faiza Chbel, Sellama Nadifi, Karen Rouault, Claude Férec, Orla Hardiman, Fátima Pinheiro, Marian M de Pancorbo
The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930958/protected-areas-and-agricultural-expansion-biodiversity-conservation-versus-economic-growth-in-the-southeast-of-brazil
#5
Mayra Cristina Prado de Moraes, Kaline de Mello, Rogério Hartung Toppa
The conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and urban areas plays a threat to the protected areas and the natural ecosystems conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the agricultural expansion and its impact on the landscape spatial and temporal patterns in a buffer zone of a protected area located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use and land cover were mapped between 1971 and 2008 and landscape metrics were calculated to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of the forest structure and the expansion of the croplands...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927169/comparative-phylogeography-in-the-atlantic-forest-and-brazilian-savannas-pleistocene-fluctuations-and-dispersal-shape-spatial-patterns-in-two-bumblebees
#6
Elaine Françoso, Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini, Ana Carolina Carnaval, Maria Cristina Arias
BACKGROUND: Bombus morio and B. pauloensis are sympatric widespread bumblebee species that occupy two major Brazilian biomes, the Atlantic forest and the savannas of the Cerrado. Differences in dispersion capacity, which is greater in B. morio, likely influence their phylogeographic patterns. This study asks which processes best explain the patterns of genetic variation observed in B. morio and B. pauloensis, shedding light on the phenomena that shaped the range of local populations and the spatial distribution of intra-specific lineages...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925069/helminth-parasites-of-galictis-cuja-carnivora-mustelidae-from-localities-in-the-atlantic-forest-of-brazil
#7
Pilar Corrêa, Cecília Bueno, Fabiano Matos Vieira, Luís Cláudio Muniz-Pereira
The current study aimed to investigate the helminth parasites of a population of Galictis cuja (Carnivora, Mustelidae) that occur in Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern region of Brazil. We necropsied 18 specimens of G. cuja, collected between January 2009 and May 2014, ran over victims on BR-040 highway, between the municipalities of Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro and Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, localities inserted in Atlantic rainforest Biome. A total of six species of helminths were identified: Dioctophyme renale, Molineus elegans, Physaloptera sp...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925068/occurrence-of-neospora-caninum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-dogs-from-rural-properties-surrounding-a-biological-reserve-espirito-santo-brasil
#8
Igor da Cunha Lima Acosta, Luana D'Avila Centoducatte, Herbert Sousa Soares, Arlei Marcili, Maria Fernanda Naegeli Gondim, João Luiz Rossi, Solange Maria Gennari
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50)...
December 1, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924169/hospital-acquired-infections-after-cardiac-surgery-and-current-physician-practices-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Scott O'Keefe, Kenneth Williams, Jean-Francois Legare
BACKGROUND: The management of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with respect to physician practices remains largely unexplored despite increasing efforts to standardize care. In the present study, we report findings from a 2-month audit of all patients that have undergone cardiac surgery at a large referral center in Atlantic Canada. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures during May and June 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923466/predicting-lethal-entanglements-as-a-consequence-of-drag-from-fishing-gear
#10
Julie M van der Hoop, Peter Corkeron, Allison G Henry, Amy R Knowlton, Michael J Moore
Large whales are frequently entangled in fishing gear and sometimes swim while carrying gear for days to years. Entangled whales are subject to additional drag forces requiring increased thrust power and energy expenditure over time. To classify entanglement cases and aid potential disentanglement efforts, it is useful to know how long an entangled whale might survive, given the unique configurations of the gear they are towing. This study establishes an approach to predict drag forces on fishing gear that entangles whales, and applies this method to ten North Atlantic right whale cases to estimate the resulting increase in energy expenditure and the critical entanglement duration that could lead to death...
December 3, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922016/gabaergic-anxiolytic-drug-in-water-increases-migration-behaviour-in-salmon
#11
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick, Tomas Brodin
Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922004/annually-resolved-north-atlantic-marine-climate-over-the-last-millennium
#12
D J Reynolds, J D Scourse, P R Halloran, A J Nederbragt, A D Wanamaker, P G Butler, C A Richardson, J Heinemeier, J Eiríksson, K L Knudsen, I R Hall
Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ(18)O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ(18)O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920953/age-growth-and-population-structure-of-invasive-lionfish-pterois-volitans-miles-in-northeast-florida-using-a-length-based-age-structured-population-model
#13
Eric G Johnson, Mary Katherine Swenarton
The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader's life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920380/genetic-architecture-of-age-at-maturity-can-generate-divergent-and-disruptive-harvest-induced-evolution
#14
Anna Kuparinen, Jeffrey A Hutchings
Life-history traits are generally assumed to be inherited quantitatively. Fishing that targets large, old individuals is expected to decrease age at maturity. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it has recently been discovered that sea age at maturity is under strong control by a single locus with sexually dimorphic expression of heterozygotes, which makes it less intuitive to predict how life histories respond to selective fishing. We explore evolutionary responses to fishing in Atlantic salmon, using eco-evolutionary simulations with two alternative scenarios for the genetic architecture of age at maturity: (i) control by multiple loci with additive effects and (ii) control by one locus with sexually dimorphic expression...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917476/pop-up-satellite-archival-tag-effects-on-the-diving-behaviour-growth-and-survival-of-adult-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-at-sea
#15
R D Hedger, A H Rikardsen, E B Thorstad
The effects of large, externally attached pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were compared with those of small implanted data storage tags (DSTs) on adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during their ocean migration in regards to depth utilization, diving depth, diving rate, diving speed and temperatures experienced. Additionally the return rate and growth of individuals tagged with PSATs was compared with those of small acoustic tags and DSTs. Overall, the depth distribution of individuals tagged with PSATs was similar to that of those tagged with DSTs, reflecting the pelagic nature of S...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917055/distribution-and-species-identification-in-the-crustacean-isopod-genus-dynamene-leach-1814-along-the-north-east-atlantic-black-sea-axis
#16
Pedro E Vieira, Henrique Queiroga, Filipe O Costa, David M Holdich
Sphaeromatid isopods, such as Dynamene, are common and abundant members of the invertebrate fauna of littoral and shallow sublittoral substrates. Six species of Dynamene occur in the northern hemisphere. Only two species exist outside this range, in Australia. The distribution of the various species in the NE Atlantic-Black Sea axis has been controversial due to the difficulty in the identification of the different species. This has led to inaccurate records of their distribution, ultimately generating uncertain or faulty assessments on the biodiversity of these habitats...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917054/mammals-in-the-mzna-vertebrate-collection-of-university-of-navarra-spain
#17
Nora Escribano, David Galicia, Arturo H Ariño, Carmen Escala
In this paper five datasets are described that provide information about records of mammals in the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra (MZNA-VERT). The datasets contain 3,466 records belonging to 20 species of mammals sampled across the transition zone between the Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeographical regions (north Iberian Peninsula). The datasets include both distributional data (georeferenced records) and basic biometric data of most of the vouchered specimens stored in the museum facilities...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917046/a-new-species-of-pentamera-ayres-1852-from-the-brazilian-coast-holothuroidea-dendrochirotida-phyllophoridae
#18
Jéssica Prata, Martin L Christoffersen
Pentamera paraibanensissp. n. is described from more than 3000 specimens as a new species of Phyllophoridae from northeast Brazil, in the tropical southwestern Atlantic. It is distinguished from its congeners by the shape of the calcareous ring with moderate posterior processes, and by the tables in the body wall with a usually quadrilocular disc and a low, toothed spire composed of two pillars. The body is brown, with the tube feet in double rows per ambulacrum, and tentacles more lightly colored. The species was found inside rodoliths in large numbers...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917031/a-new-perspective-on-sustainable-soil-remediation-case-study-suggests-novel-fungal-genera-could-facilitate-in-situ-biodegradation-of-hazardous-contaminants
#19
L M Czaplicki, E Cooper, P L Ferguson, H M Stapleton, R Vilgalys, C K Gunsch
Deciding upon a cost effective and sustainable method to address soil pollution is a challenge for many remedial project managers. High pressure to quickly achieve cleanup goals pushes for energy-intensive remedies that rapidly address the contaminants of concern with established technologies, often leaving little room for research and development especially for slower treatment technologies, such as bioremediation, for the more heavily polluted sites. In the present case study, new genomic approaches have been leveraged to assess fungal biostimulation potential in soils polluted with particularly persistent hydrophobic contaminants...
2016: Remediation (N Y)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914929/structured-additive-distributional-regression-for-analyzing-landings-per-unit-effort-in-fisheries-research
#20
Valeria Mamouridis, Nadja Klein, Thomas Kneib, Carmen Cadarso Suarez, Francesc Maynou
We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index)...
November 30, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
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