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Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Bethan M Jones, Sonia Blanco-Ameijeiras, Mervyn Greaves, Maria Huete-Ortega, Mario Lebrato
Upwelling is the process by which deep, cold, relatively high-CO2, nutrient-rich seawater rises to the sunlit surface of the ocean. This seasonal process has fueled geoengineering initiatives to fertilize the surface ocean with deep seawater to enhance productivity and thus promote the drawdown of CO2. Coccolithophores, which inhabit many upwelling regions naturally 'fertilized' by deep seawater, have been investigated in the laboratory in the context of ocean acidification to determine the extent to which nutrients and CO2 impact their physiology, but few data exist in the field except from mesocosms...
2017: PloS One
Marta Moyano, Caroline Candebat, Yannick Ruhbaum, Santiago Álvarez-Fernández, Guy Claireaux, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Myron A Peck
Most of the thermal tolerance studies on fish have been performed on juveniles and adults, whereas limited information is available for larvae, a stage which may have a particularly narrow range in tolerable temperatures. Moreover, previous studies on thermal limits for marine and freshwater fish larvae (53 studies reviewed here) applied a wide range of methodologies (e.g. the static or dynamic method, different exposure times), making it challenging to compare across taxa. We measured the Critical Thermal Maximum (CTmax) of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae using the dynamic method (ramping assay) and assessed the effect of warming rate (0...
2017: PloS One
Lilian S Catenacci, Aisla Nascimento, Elza S Muniz-Neta, Camila R Cassano, Sharon L Deem, Elizabeth S Travassos da Rosa, Patricia Parker, Alexandre D Munhoz
Bradypus torquatus is a rare and endemic sloth species from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Due to a lack of medical information including hematologic reference parameters for the species, hematologic baseline values were determined using samples from 14 clinically healthy B. torquatus , under captive (n = 7) and free-living (n = 7) conditions in Bahia State, Brazil. Additionally, the morphology of the blood cells is presented, with a demonstration that the Barr body chromosome may assist with sex determination of the species...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Stefanie Böhnke, Mirjam Perner
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. This autotrophic CO2 fixation cycle accounts for almost all the assimilated carbon on Earth. Due to the primary role that RubisCO plays in autotrophic carbon fixation, it is important to understand how its gene expression is regulated and the enzyme is activated. Since the majority of all microorganisms are currently not culturable, we used a metagenomic approach to identify genes and enzymes associated with RubisCO expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hojun Song, Bert Foquet, Ricardo Mariño-Pérez, Derek A Woller
Locusts are grasshoppers that can form dense migrating swarms through an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity, known as locust phase polyphenism. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Schistocerca, which contains both non-swarming grasshoppers and swarming locusts. We find that the desert locust, S. gregaria, which is the only Old World representative of the genus, is the earliest diverging lineage. This suggests that the common ancestor of Schistocerca must have been a swarming locust that crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to America approximately 6 million years ago, giving rise to the current diversity in the New World...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoshimitsu Chikamoto, Axel Timmermann, Matthew J Widlansky, Magdalena A Balmaseda, Lowell Stott
Past severe droughts over North America have led to massive water shortages and increases in wildfire frequency. Triggering sources for multi-year droughts in this region include randomly occurring atmospheric blocking patterns, ocean impacts on atmospheric circulation, and climate's response to anthropogenic radiative forcings. A combination of these sources translates into a difficulty to predict the onset and length of such droughts on multi-year timescales. Here we present results from a new multi-year dynamical prediction system that exhibits a high degree of skill in forecasting wildfire probabilities and drought for 10-23 and 10-45 months lead time, which extends far beyond the current seasonal prediction activities for southwestern North America...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arne M Müller, Nicolas Langwieser, Christian Bradaric, Bernhard Haller, Massimiliano Fusaro, Ilka Ott, Nicolas von Beckerath, Adnan Kastrati, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Tareq Ibrahim
We evaluated safety and long-term outcome of endovascular therapy for steno-occlusive iliac artery disease. All endovascular procedures of iliac artery lesions performed at our institution between 2001 and 2014 (n = 676) were retrospectively analyzed. The overall technical success rate was 99% and yielded 100% for stenoses (n = 596) and 95% for chronic total occlusions (n = 80). Lesion complexity defined by the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II classification had no impact on success rates (TASC A + B vs C + D; 99...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
Gimena Dellapé, Karine D Colpo, María C Melo, Sara I Montemayor, Pablo M Dellapé
Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lucas Cardoso, Maurício L Martins, Jéssica E S DE Aquíno Golzio, Carolina N C Bomfim, Ricardo L M DE Oliveira, Leilane B G Dos Santos, Ana Carolina F Lacerda
Parasitic isopods of fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. This study investigated the occurrence of gill parasites in 120 specimens of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, marine fish of great economic importance for fishery community. The fish were captured monthly in the Coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, between October 2012 and September 2013. Eleven isopods were found and identified as Rocinela signata. We observed lower infections in the gills of P. maculatus (prevalence 8...
July 20, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Bianca Porto Kuraiem, Marcelo Knoff, Nilza Nunes Felizardo, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, Delir Corrêa Gomes, Sérgio Carmona de São Clemente
Priacanthus arenatus is a fish that occurs in the waters of the western Atlantic Ocean and has few records of parasitism. This study aimed to report histological changes caused by the larvae of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum. Between July and December, 2013, 30 samples of P. arenatus were obtained from fish markets in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fragments of spleen, liver, stomach wall and mesentery tissues containing nodules and free parasites were extracted to histopathological study...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Orangel Aguilera, Guilherme Oliveira Andrade Silva, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Alessandra Silveira Machado, Thaís Maria Dos Santos, Gabriela Marques, Thayse Bertucci, Thayanne Aguiar, Jorge Carrillo-Briceño, Felix Rodriguez, Carlos Jaramillo
Fossil Diodontidae in Tropical America consist mostly of isolated and fused beak-like jawbones, and tooth plate batteries. These durophagous fishes are powerful shell-crushing predators on shallow water invertebrate faunas from Neogene tropical carbonate bottom, rocky reefs and surrounding flats. We use an ontogenetic series of high-resolution micro CT of fossil and extant species to recognize external and internal morphologic characters of jaws and tooth plate batteries. We compare similar sizes of jaws and/or tooth-plates from both extant and extinct species...
2017: PloS One
Calum R Wilson, Noel W Davies, Ross Corkrey, Annabel J Wilson, Alison M Mathews, Guy C Westmore
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes sporadic but serious disease in Australian potato crops. TSWV is naturally spread to potato by thrips of which Thrips tabaci is the most important. Prior studies indicated possible non-preference of potato cultivars to T. tabaci. Select potato cultivars were assessed for non-preference to T. tabaci in paired and group choice trials. Cultivars 'Bismark', 'Tasman' and 'King Edward' were less preferred than 'Atlantic', 'Russet Burbank' and 'Shepody'. Green leaf volatiles were sampled using solid-phase microextraction from the headspace of potato cultivars of two ages that differed in T...
2017: PloS One
Å H Garseth, M C Gjessing, T Moldal, A G Gjevre
In 2016, the Norwegian health monitoring programme for wild salmonids conducted a real-time PCR-based screening for salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) in anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), anadromous and non-anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and trout (Salmo trutta L.). SGPV was widely distributed in wild Atlantic salmon returning from marine migration. In addition, characteristic gill lesions, including apoptosis, were detected in this species. A low amount of SGPV DNA, as indicated by high Ct-values, was detected in anadromous trout, but only in fish cohabiting with SGPV-positive salmon...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
M Rozas-Serri, R Ildefonso, A Peña, R Enríquez, S Barrientos, L Maldonado
Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) is the most prevalent bacterial disease in Chilean salmon aquaculture and is responsible for high economic losses. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize the pathogenesis of SRS in post-smolt Atlantic salmon during the early and late stages of infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89-like (PS-LF-89) and EM-90-like (PS-EM-90) using a cohabitation challenge. The pathogenesis of cohabitant fish infected with the two isolates was relatively different due to cohabitant fish infected with PS-EM-90 showing higher cumulative mortality and shorter time until death compared with PS-LF-89 fish...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Agustin J Elias-Costa, Rachel Montesinos, Taran Grant, Julián Faivovich
Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
K Frisch, S B Småge, Ø J Brevik, H Duesund, A Nylund
Mouthrot infections (bacterial stomatitis) have a significant impact on the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry in Western Canada due to economic losses and fish welfare. Bacteria isolated from lesions in the field have been identified as Tenacibaculum maritimum. Mouthrot is different to classical tenacibaculosis, which is most commonly associated with ulcerative lesions, frayed fins and tail rot. The marine fish pathogen T. maritimum is found worldwide; however, in Western Canada, the knowledge of the genetic profile of T...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Zhiliang Yu, Yunting Ma, Weihong Zhong, Juanping Qiu, Jun Li
Methanopyrus spp. are usually isolated from harsh niches, such as high osmotic pressure and extreme temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms for their environmental adaption are poorly understood. Archaeal species is commonly considered as primitive organism. The evolutional placement of archaea is a fundamental and intriguing scientific question. We sequenced the genomes of Methanopyrus strains SNP6 and KOL6 isolated from the Atlantic and Iceland, respectively. Comparative genomic analysis revealed genetic diversity and instability implicated in niche adaption, including a number of transporter- and integrase/transposase-related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Binoy Rajan, Deepti M Patel, Yoichiro Kitani, Kiron Viswanath, Monica F Brinchmann
This study presents the first report of purification of natterin-like protein (Nlp) in a non-venomous fish. The peptide identities of purified cod Nlp were confirmed through LC-MSMS and matched to a cod expressed sequence tag (EST). A partial cod nlp nucleotide sequence was amplified and sequenced based on this EST. Multiple sequence alignment of cod Nlp showed considerable homology with other teleost Nlps and the presence of an N-terminal jacalin-like lectin domain coupled with a C-terminal toxin domain. nlp expression was higher in skin, head kidney, liver and spleen than in other tissues studied...
July 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhijie M Yu, Louise Parker, Trevor J B Dummer
Consumption of coffee and diet drinks and the use of non-nutritive sweeteners is commonplace worldwide. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to investigate the associations between coffee consumption and non-nutritive sweetener use and depression among populations in Atlantic Canada. During 2009 to 2013, we recruited 18838 participants aged 35-69 years (5854 men and 12984 women) for the baseline survey of the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health cohort study. Coffee consumption, sweetener use, and major depression were assessed using a set of standardized questionnaires...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brian D Grieve, Jon A Hare, Vincent S Saba
Calanus finmarchicus is vital to pelagic ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies suggest the species is vulnerable to the effects of global warming, particularly on the Northeast U.S. Shelf, which is in the southern portion of its range. In this study, we evaluate an ensemble of six different downscaled climate models and a high-resolution global climate model, and create a generalized additive model (GAM) to examine how future changes in temperature and salinity could affect the distribution and density of C...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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