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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606114/the-order-of-complexity-of-visuomotor-learning
#1
John Kim, Fariya Mostafa, Douglas Blair Tweed
BACKGROUND: Learning algorithms come in three orders of complexity: zeroth-order (perturbation), first-order (gradient descent), and second-order (e.g., quasi-Newton). But which of these are used in the brain? We trained 12 people to shoot targets, and compared them to simulated subjects that learned the same task using various algorithms. RESULTS: Humans learned significantly faster than optimized zeroth-order algorithms, but slower than second-order ones. CONCLUSIONS: Human visuomotor learning is too fast to be explained by zeroth-order processes alone, and must involve first or second-order mechanisms...
June 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565862/preliminary-evaluation-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-three-dimensional-cephalometry-for-clinical-application
#2
Na Li, Bo Hu, Fanglin Mi, Jinlin Song
The present study was conducted to evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) cephalometry accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 40 newly diagnosed orthodontic patients (including 18 males and 22 females; age range, 12-18 years) were subjected to CBCT scanning and X-ray imaging in order to obtain lateral cephalograms. The 3D CBCT cephalograms were reconstructed and measured with in vivo 5.1 software, and compared with the results from the conventional 2D lateral cephalograms. Measurements in the two images were performed twice using the Steiner and Tweed standards and a single analyzer paired t-test was used to analyze the differences between the two cephalometric methods...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558908/state-level-geographic-variation-in-prompt-access-to-care-for-children-after-motor-vehicle-crashes
#3
Lindsey L Wolf, Ritam Chowdhury, Jefferson Tweed, Lori Vinson, Elena Losina, Adil H Haider, Faisal G Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a principal cause of death in children; fatal MVCs and pediatric trauma resources vary by state. We sought to examine state-level variability in and predictors of prompt access to care for children in MVCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 2010-2014 Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we identified passengers aged <15 y involved in fatal MVCs (crashes on US public roads with ≥1 death, adult or pediatric, within 30 d)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552450/factors-associated-with-pediatric-mortality-from-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-the-united-states-a-state-based-analysis
#4
Lindsey L Wolf, Ritam Chowdhury, Jefferson Tweed, Lori Vinson, Elena Losina, Adil H Haider, Faisal G Qureshi
OBJECTIVE: To examine geographic variation in motor vehicle crash (MVC)-related pediatric mortality and identify state-level predictors of mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Using the 2010-2014 Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we identified passengers <15 years of age involved in fatal MVCs, defined as crashes on US public roads with ≥1 death (adult or pediatric) within 30 days. We assessed passenger, driver, vehicle, crash, and state policy characteristics as factors potentially associated with MVC-related pediatric mortality...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525418/an-international-survey-on-ventilator-practices-among-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-centers
#5
Christopher L Jenks, Jefferson Tweed, Kristin H Gigli, Ramgopal Venkataraman, Lakshmi Raman
Although the optimal ventilation strategy is unknown for patients placed on extracorporeal support, there are increasing reports of extubation being used. Our objective is to describe the change in ventilation strategies and use of tracheostomy and bronchoscopy practices among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers across the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional 22 item survey of neonatal, pediatric, and adult ECMO centers was used to evaluate ventilator strategies, extubation, bronchoscopy, and tracheostomy practices...
May 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460696/caring-for-kids-bridging-gaps-in-pediatric-emergency-care-through-community-education-and-outreach
#6
REVIEW
Ann Luckstead-Gosdin, Lori Vinson, Cynthia Greenwell, Jefferson Tweed
The Pediatric Emergency Services Network (PESN) was developed to provide ongoing continuing education on pediatric guidelines and pediatric emergency care to rural and nonpediatric hospitals, physicians, nurses, and emergency personnel. A survey was developed and given to participants attending PESN educational events to determine the perceived benefit and application to practice of the PESN outreach program. Overall, 91% of participants surveyed reported agreement that PESN educational events were beneficial to their clinical practice, provided them with new knowledge, and made them more knowledgeable about pediatric emergency care...
June 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457918/skeletal-and-dento-alveolar-norms-conventional-and-based-on-true-vertical-in-a-lebanese-population
#7
Emilie El Hayeck, Nayla Bassil-Nassif, Carole Mouhanna-Fattal, Joseph Bouserhal
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the cephalometric norms in a Lebanese population of young adults, to find the differences in cranio-facial morphology between males and females and to establish the equivalency between conventional measurements and those based on the true horizontal. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety subjects divided into 43 women and 47 men, aged from 18 to 30years, were selected based on specific criteria. The lateral cephalograms were taken in the natural head position...
April 27, 2017: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430304/pre-ecmo-coagulopathy-does-not-increase-the-occurrence-of-hemorrhage-during-extracorporeal-support
#8
Pilar Anton-Martin, Lakshmi Raman, Nikhil Thatte, Jefferson Tweed, Vinai Modem, Janna Journeycake
INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between precannulation coagulopathy and the occurrence of hemorrhage during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonatal and pediatric patients at a tertiary children's hospital. RESULTS: Of 241 patients supported with ECMO between January 2009 and December 2014, 175 (72.6%) had precannulation coagulation laboratory data and were included in the study. Of the eligible patients, 84 (48%) were identified as coagulopathic and 91 (52%) were noncoagulopathic...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284318/obtaining-tissue-diagnosis-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-poor-performance-status-and-its-influence-on-treatment-and-survival
#9
John D Maclay, John M B Farley, Colin McCowan, Conor Tweed, Robert Milroy
INTRODUCTION: 25% of patients with lung cancer have performance status 3 or 4. A pragmatic approach to investigative procedures is often adopted based on the risks and benefits in these patients and whether tissue diagnosis is necessary for anticipated future treatment. This cohort study investigated factors influencing a clinician's decision to pursue a tissue diagnosis in patients with lung cancer and performance status 3 and 4 and to examine the association of tissue diagnosis with subsequent management and survival...
March 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271360/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-patient-positioning-on-the-reliability-of-lateral-cephalometry
#10
Ovidiu-Tiberiu David, Robert-Angelo Tuce, Oana Munteanu, Adrian Neagu, Irinel Panainte
Two-dimensional cephalometry is widely used for monitoring orthodontic treatments and for quantifying the outcome of maxillofacial surgery. Despite careful use of a cephalostat, successive radiographs might differ due to slight differences in patient posture. This study evaluates the reliability of lateral cephalometric measurements and estimates the impact of patient positioning on this reliability. We studied cephalograms of 104 patients; 31 of them had two radiographs because the first was deemed unsuitable for cephalometric analysis...
July 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095195/deep-learning-with-dynamic-spiking-neurons-and-fixed-feedback-weights
#11
Arash Samadi, Timothy P Lillicrap, Douglas B Tweed
Recent work in computer science has shown the power of deep learning driven by the backpropagation algorithm in networks of artificial neurons. But real neurons in the brain are different from most of these artificial ones in at least three crucial ways: they emit spikes rather than graded outputs, their inputs and outputs are related dynamically rather than by piecewise-smooth functions, and they have no known way to coordinate arrays of synapses in separate forward and feedback pathways so that they change simultaneously and identically, as they do in backpropagation...
March 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941404/dichotic-digits-test-performance-across-the-ages-results-from-two-large-epidemiologic-cohort-studies
#12
Mary E Fischer, Karen J Cruickshanks, David M Nondahl, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, James S Pankow, Ted S Tweed, Dayna S Dalton, Adam J Paulsen
OBJECTIVES: The Dichotic Digits test (DDT) has been widely used to assess central auditory processing but there is limited information on observed DDT performance in a general population. The purpose of the study was to determine factors related to DDT performance in a large cohort spanning the adult age range. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional and subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a population-based investigation of age-related hearing loss, or the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), a study of aging in the adult offspring of the EHLS members...
May 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891451/assessing-the-reliability-of-digitalized-cephalometric-analysis-in-comparison-with-manual-cephalometric-analysis
#13
Mohammed Umar Farooq, Mohd Asadullah Khan, Shahid Imran, Ayesha Sameera, Arshad Qureshi, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Sujan Kumar, Mohd Aziz Ur Rahman
INTRODUCTION: For more than seven decades orthodontist used cephalometric analysis as one of the main diagnostic tools which can be performed manually or by software. The use of computers in treatment planning is expected to avoid errors and make it less time consuming with effective evaluation and high reproducibility. AIM: This study was done to evaluate and compare the accuracy and reliability of cephalometric measurements between computerized method of direct digital radiographs and conventional tracing...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824044/random-synaptic-feedback-weights-support-error-backpropagation-for-deep-learning
#14
Timothy P Lillicrap, Daniel Cownden, Douglas B Tweed, Colin J Akerman
The brain processes information through multiple layers of neurons. This deep architecture is representationally powerful, but complicates learning because it is difficult to identify the responsible neurons when a mistake is made. In machine learning, the backpropagation algorithm assigns blame by multiplying error signals with all the synaptic weights on each neuron's axon and further downstream. However, this involves a precise, symmetric backward connectivity pattern, which is thought to be impossible in the brain...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769641/inorganic-carbon-dominates-total-dissolved-carbon-concentrations-and-fluxes-in-british-rivers-application-of-the-thincarb-model-thermodynamic-modelling-of-inorganic-carbon-in-freshwaters
#15
Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756773/accessing-the-future-a-disability-themed-anthology-of-speculative-fiction
#16
Hannah Tweed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725060/treatment-regimens-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-highlighting-a-research-gap
#17
Andrew Nunn, Conor Tweed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707653/the-impact-of-morbid-obesity-on-solid-organ-injury-in-children-using-the-atomac-protocol-at-a-pediatric-level-i-trauma-center
#18
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611845/age-related-sensory-impairments-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment
#19
Mary E Fischer, Karen J Cruickshanks, Carla R Schubert, Alex A Pinto, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Ted S Tweed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. DESIGN: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604652/erratum-to-models-and-impact-of-patient-and-public-involvement-in-studies-carried-out-by-the-medical-research-council-clinical-trials-unit-at-university-college-london-findings-from-ten-case-studies
#20
Annabelle South, Bec Hanley, Mitzy Gafos, Ben Cromarty, Richard Stephens, Kate Sturgeon, Karen Scott, William J Cragg, Conor D Tweed, Jacqueline Teera, Claire L Vale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Trials
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