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Arash Samadi, Timothy P Lillicrap, Douglas B Tweed
Recent work in computer science has shown the power of deep learning driven by the backpropagation algorithm in networks of artificial neurons. But real neurons in the brain are different from most of these artificial ones in at least three crucial ways: they emit spikes rather than graded outputs, their inputs and outputs are related dynamically rather than by piecewise-smooth functions, and they have no known way to coordinate arrays of synapses in separate forward and feedback pathways so that they change simultaneously and identically, as they do in backpropagation...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
Mary E Fischer, Karen J Cruickshanks, David M Nondahl, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, James S Pankow, Ted S Tweed, Dayna S Dalton, Adam J Paulsen
OBJECTIVES: The Dichotic Digits test (DDT) has been widely used to assess central auditory processing but there is limited information on observed DDT performance in a general population. The purpose of the study was to determine factors related to DDT performance in a large cohort spanning the adult age range. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional and subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a population-based investigation of age-related hearing loss, or the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), a study of aging in the adult offspring of the EHLS members...
December 7, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Mohammed Umar Farooq, Mohd Asadullah Khan, Shahid Imran, Ayesha Sameera, Arshad Qureshi, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Sujan Kumar, Mohd Aziz Ur Rahman
INTRODUCTION: For more than seven decades orthodontist used cephalometric analysis as one of the main diagnostic tools which can be performed manually or by software. The use of computers in treatment planning is expected to avoid errors and make it less time consuming with effective evaluation and high reproducibility. AIM: This study was done to evaluate and compare the accuracy and reliability of cephalometric measurements between computerized method of direct digital radiographs and conventional tracing...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Timothy P Lillicrap, Daniel Cownden, Douglas B Tweed, Colin J Akerman
The brain processes information through multiple layers of neurons. This deep architecture is representationally powerful, but complicates learning because it is difficult to identify the responsible neurons when a mistake is made. In machine learning, the backpropagation algorithm assigns blame by multiplying error signals with all the synaptic weights on each neuron's axon and further downstream. However, this involves a precise, symmetric backward connectivity pattern, which is thought to be impossible in the brain...
November 8, 2016: Nature Communications
Helen P Jarvie, Stephen M King, Colin Neal
River water-quality studies rarely measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) routinely, and there is a gap in our knowledge of the contributions of DIC to aquatic carbon fluxes and cycling processes. Here, we present the THINCARB model (THermodynamic modelling of INorganic CARBon), which uses widely-measured determinands (pH, alkalinity and temperature) to calculate DIC concentrations, speciation (bicarbonate, HCO3(-); carbonate, CO3(2-); and dissolved carbon dioxide, H2CO3(⁎)) and excess partial pressures of carbon dioxide (EpCO2) in freshwaters...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hannah Tweed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Medical Humanities
Andrew Nunn, Conor Tweed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nathan Vaughan, Jeff Tweed, Cynthia Greenwell, David M Notrica, Crystal S Langlais, Shawn D St Peter, Charles M Leys, Daniel J Ostlie, R Todd Maxson, Todd Ponsky, David W Tuggle, James W Eubanks, Amina Bhatia, Cynthia Greenwell, Nilda M Garcia, Karla A Lawson, Prasenjeet Motghare, Robert W Letton, Adam C Alder
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an epidemic in the pediatric population. Childhood obesity in trauma has been associated with increased incidence of long-bone fractures, longer ICU stays, and decreased closed head injuries. We investigated for differences in the likelihood of failure of non-operative management (NOM), and injury grade using a subset of a multi-institutional, prospective database of pediatric patients with solid organ injury (SOI). METHODS: We prospectively collected data on all pediatric patients (<18years) admitted for liver or splenic injury from September 2013 to January 2016...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mary E Fischer, Karen J Cruickshanks, Carla R Schubert, Alex A Pinto, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Ted S Tweed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. DESIGN: The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Annabelle South, Bec Hanley, Mitzy Gafos, Ben Cromarty, Richard Stephens, Kate Sturgeon, Karen Scott, William J Cragg, Conor D Tweed, Jacqueline Teera, Claire L Vale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Trials
Conor Tweed, Andrew Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Appakalai N Balamurugan, Michael L Green, Andrew G Breite, Gopalakrishnan Loganathan, Joshua J Wilhelm, Benjamin Tweed, Lenka Vargova, Amber Lockridge, Manikya Kuriti, Michael G Hughes, Stuart K Williams, Bernhard J Hering, Francis E Dwulet, Robert C McCarthy
UNLABELLED: Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. METHODS: We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield...
January 2016: Transplantation Direct
Leanne Grafmuller, Cong Wei, Ragu Ramanathan, Frank Barletta, Rick Steenwyk, Joseph Tweed
AIM: The application of high-resolution MS to antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) drug development may provide insight into their safety and efficacy. Quantification of unconjugated cytotoxic drug (payload) and characterization of drug-to-antibody ratio distribution were determined in plasma using orthogonal acceleration quadrupole-time-of-flight MS. RESULTS: Unconjugated payload quantification determined by quadrupole-time-of-flight-based MRM(highresolution) and triple quadrupole-based multiple reaction monitoring were comparable and achieved detection limits of 0...
August 2016: Bioanalysis
Annabelle South, Bec Hanley, Mitzy Gafos, Ben Cromarty, Richard Stephens, Kate Sturgeon, Karen Scott, William J Cragg, Conor D Tweed, Jacqueline Teera, Claire L Vale
BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU) at University College London varies by research type and setting. We developed a series of case studies of PPI to document and share good practice. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to identify studies representing the scope of research at the MRC CTU and different approaches to PPI. We carried out semi-structured interviews with staff and patient representatives...
2016: Trials
Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Samira Hassan, Miles Tweed, Daniel Paris, Gogce Crynen, Zuchra Zakirova, Stefan Crynen, Fiona Crawford
Context • Telomeres are repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences (TTAGGG) that are located on the 5' ends of chromosomes, and they control the life span of eukaryotic cells. Compelling evidence has shown that the length of a person's life is dictated by the limited number of times that a human cell can divide. The enzyme telomerase has been shown to bind to and extend the length of telomeres. Thus, strategies for activating telomerase may help maintain telomere length and, thus, may lead to improved health during aging...
June 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
J Q Huang, S Y Liu, J H Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of Tweed-Merrifield technique in correction of severe bimaxillary protrusion adult patients on the measurement of the dental and skeletal changes after orthodontic treatment by Johnston analysis and the regular cephalomatric analysis. METHODS: Twelve adolescent patients with severe bimaxillary protrusion were included in this self-control retrospective study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before and after treatments...
June 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Nicolas Pinto-Sander, Elaney Youssef, Marc Tweed, Gillian Dean, Daniel Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Ekhard K H Salje, Marin Alexe, Sergey Kustov, Mads C Weber, Jason Schiemer, Guillaume F Nataf, Jens Kreisel
Polar tweed was discovered in mechanically stressed LaAlO3. Local patches of strained material (diameter ca. 5 μm) form interwoven patterns seen in birefringence images, Piezo-Force Microscopy (PFM) and Resonant Piezoelectric Spectroscopy (RPS). PFM and RPS observations prove unequivocally that electrical polarity exists inside the tweed patterns of LaAlO3. The local piezoelectric effect varies greatly within the tweed patterns and reaches magnitudes similar to quartz. The patterns were mapped by the shift of the Eg soft-mode frequency by Raman spectroscopy...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carla R Schubert, Mary E Fischer, A Alex Pinto, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Ted S Tweed, Karen J Cruickshanks
BACKGROUND: Sensory impairments increase with age and the majority of older people will experience a sensory impairment if they live long enough. However, the relationships of hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments with mortality are not well understood. METHODS: Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study participants (n = 2,418) aged 53-97 years (mean = 69 years) were examined in 1998-2000 and hearing, visual acuity, and olfaction were measured. Participants were followed for mortality for up to 17 years (mean = 12...
March 4, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Violet Lee, Ang Liu, Elizabeth Groeber, Mehran Moghaddam, James Schiller, Joseph A Tweed, Gregory S Walker
Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis conference, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Cambridge, MA, USA, 14-16 September 2015 The Boston Society's 11th Annual Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) conference took place at the Hyatt Regency hotel in Cambridge, MA, on 14-16 September 2015. The 3-day conference affords pharmaceutical professionals, academic researchers and industry regulators the opportunity to collectively participate in meaningful and relevant discussions impacting the areas of pharmaceutical drug development...
February 2016: Bioanalysis
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