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Perinatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081328/cytomegalovirus-hepatitis-in-49-pediatric-patients-with-normal-immunity
#1
Hasan Tezer, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Belgin Gülhan, Aslı Nur Özkaya Parlakay, Ceyda Tuna Kırsaçlıoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis is generally asymptomatic or rarely can lead to severe complications in immunocompetent hosts. This study aims to evaluate CMV hepatitis in immunocompetent young children, which is discussed relatively rarely in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 49 pediatric patients with CMV hepatitis from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 5...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077516/early-onset-invasive-candidiasis-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-perinatal-acquisition-predicts-poor-outcome
#3
Michelle Barton, Alex Shen, Karel O'Brien, Joan L Robinson, H Dele Davies, Kim Simpson, Elizabeth Asztalos, Joanne Langley, Nicole Le Saux, Reginald Sauve, Anne Synnes, Ben Tan, Louis de Repentigny, Earl Rubin, Chuck Hui, Lajos Kovacs, Yvonne Cw Yau, Susan E Richardson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC)presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features and disease outcomeshave not been studied in early onset disease (EOD, ≤7d) or compared to late onset disease (LOD, >7d). METHODS: All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000g) cases with IC and controls froma multicentre study of neonatal candidiasisenrolledfrom 2001 to 2003were included in this study...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064548/amniotic-fluid-sludge-prevalence-and-clinical-significans-of-it-in-asymptomatic-patients-at-high-risk-for-spontaneous-preterm-delivery
#4
Ilknur Adanir, Ozgur Ozyuncu, Ayse Filiz Gokmen Karasu, Lutfu S Onderoglu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study is to determine prevalence and clinical significance of the presence of amniotic fluid 'sludge' among asymptomatic patients at high-risk for spontaneous preterm delivery, prospectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study, 99 patients at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery were evaluated for the presence of amniotic fluid sludge with transvaginal ultrasonography at 20-22., 26-28. and 32-34. gestational weeks, prospectively; between August 2009 and October 2010 in Hacettepe University Hospital...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#5
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#6
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052217/prevalence-of-molar-incisor-hypomineralization-in-mexican-children
#7
Brenda Jaime Gurrusquieta, Victor Manuel Mendoza Núñez, María Lilia Adriana Juárez López
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. STUDY DESIGN: This study included 1156 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years, living in Mexico City. A previously standardised examiner (k = 0.79) applied the diagnostic criteria for MIH from the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Children's parents completed a questionnaire about medical conditions in the perinatal period and the first 3 years of their children's lives...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050900/planned-early-birth-versus-expectant-management-waiting-for-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-at-term-37-weeks-or-more
#8
REVIEW
Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Vicki Flenady, Rosemary D McBain, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042001/relationship-between-ccr5-wt-%C3%AE-32-heterozygosity-and-hiv-1-reservoir-size-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection
#9
Marta Martínez-Bonet, A González-Serna, Maria Isabel Clemente, Sara Morón-López, Laura Díaz, Marisa Navarro, Maria C Puertas, Manuel Leal, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Javier Martinez-Picado, Maria Angeles Muñoz Fernández
BACKGROUND: Several host factors contribute to HIV disease progression in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Among them, the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is known to be the main coreceptor used by HIV-1 to enter target cells during the early stages of an HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of CCR5((WT/Δ32)) heterozygosity with HIV-1 reservoir size, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and immunosenescence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-infection receiving cART...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039902/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-in-infants-born-to-mothers-treated-during-the-second-or-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#10
Guo-Rong Han, Hong-Xiu Jiang, Cui-Min Wang, Yi Ding, Gen-Ju Wang, Xin Yue, Liu Zhou, Wei Zhao
Telbivudine, an FDA pregnancy category B drug, has been found to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission with no safety concerns in infants aged up to 1 year. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of telbivudine in 214 infants born to 210 pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B infection who were treated with telbivudine during pregnancy (weeks 20-32 of gestation). The infants were followed for up to 5 years after birth. The efficacy endpoint was the rate of perinatal transmission, which was established by HBsAg and HBV DNA levels at 7 and 12 months...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030527/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-testing-among-pregnant-women-united-states-2014
#11
Maureen Kolasa, Yuping Tsai, Jing Xu, Nancy Fenlon, Sarah Schillie
BACKGROUND: Post-exposure prophylaxis administered to infants shortly after birth prevents approximately 90% of cases of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) transmission. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all pregnant women be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy to detect active infection with HBV. This study sought to determine the proportion and characteristics of pregnant women tested\not tested according to ACIP recommendations METHODS:: We analyzed MarketScan databases to assess prenatal HBsAg testing among women with commercial and Medicaid health care coverage according to demographic and clinical characteristics...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029224/preterm-prelabour-rupture-of-membranes-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-association-with-adverse-outcome-in-subsequent-pregnancy
#12
I M Aris, S Logan, C Lim, M Choolani, A Biswas, S Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of first pregnancy preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in the next pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Grampian, Scotland, UK. POPULATION: Women with first deliveries recorded in the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, 1986-2005. METHODS: Women identified from the AMND database (n = 37 776) were classified into exposed (PPROM in first pregnancy; n = 1979) and unexposed (no PPROM in first pregnancy; n = 35 797) cohorts...
December 28, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025631/amniotic-band-syndrome-perinatal-hospice-and-palliative-care-versus-active-management
#13
Shadi Rezai, Justin Faye, Annika Chadee, Sri Gottimukkala, Ruchi Upadhyay, Carla Lara, Benamanahalli H Rajegowda, Andrew D Corwin, Rasila V Lala, Jessica Vernon, Dilfuza Nuritdinova, Stephen Chasen, Cassandra E Henderson
Introduction. Amniotic band syndrome and sequence are a relatively rare condition in which congenital anomalies occur as a result of the adherence and entrapment of fetal parts with coarse fibrous bands of the amniotic membrane. A large percentage of reported cases have an atypical gestational history. The frequency of this obstetric complication is not affected by fetal gender, genetic abnormality, or prenatal infection. Case. A 21-year-old, G1P0 female parturient at 18 weeks and 5 days with a single intrauterine gestation during a routine ultrasound evaluation was noted to have amniotic band sequence...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018673/caregivers-lack-of-disclosure-skills-delays-disclosure-to-children-with-perinatal-hiv-in-resource-limited-communities-multicenter-qualitative-data-from-south-africa-and-botswana
#14
Sphiwe Madiba
To promote the appropriate implementation of procedures for health disclosure to children, it is important to understand the reasons why caregivers delay the disclosure of healthcare information to children. This paper explored the views of caregivers on what makes disclosure to children with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH) difficult and what could make disclosure in these cases easier. Data were collected using focus group interviews with caregivers who were purposely selected from a multicenter study conducted in Botswana and South Africa...
2016: Nursing Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#15
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005487/perinatal-hiv-exposure-surveillance-and-reporting-in-the-united-states-2014
#16
Kathleen A Brady, Deborah S Storm, Azita Naghdi, Toni Frederick, Jessica Fridge, Mary Jo Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES. METHODS: In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California)...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999804/perinatal-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-patients-who-were-diagnosed-with-neural-tube-defect-in-midtrimester-fetal-ultrasound-scan-and-refused-request-for-termination-of-pregnancy
#17
Rauf Melekoglu, Sevil Eraslan, Ebru Celik, Yavuz Simsek
Objectives. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the perinatal and neonatal outcomes of patients who were diagnosed with neural tube defect (NTD) in the midtrimester fetal ultrasound scan and refused the request for termination of pregnancy. Material and Methods. The records of 69 patients, for whom NTD was detected in the midtrimester fetal ultrasound scan and who preferred the continuation of the pregnancy after comprehensive counselling about the possible prognosis and treatment options during the period between January 2011 and February 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999017/efficacy-and-tolerance-of-dolutegravir-based-combined-art-in-perinatally-hiv-1-infected-adolescents-a-french-multicentre-retrospective-study
#18
Coralie Briand, Catherine Dollfus, Albert Faye, Elie Kantor, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Marion Caseris, Diane Descamps, Véronique Schneider, Marie-Dominique Tabone, Geneviève Vaudre, Florence Veber, Stéphane Blanche, Pierre Frange
OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of a dolutegravir-based regimen in perinatally HIV-1-infected adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentre study of 50 adolescents beginning dolutegravir-based treatment regimens between January 2014 and December 2015. Clinical and biological data collected before and after dolutegravir initiation were analysed. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a plasma viral load (PVL) <50 copies/mL within 3 months of dolutegravir initiation (for patients with detectable viraemia at baseline) and maintaining virological suppression (PVL <50 copies/mL) until the last follow-up visit (for all patients)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997679/the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-adolescents-12-to-17-years-old-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection
#19
William F Balistreri, Karen F Murray, Philip Rosenthal, Sanjay Bansal, Lin Chuan-Hao, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Yanni Zhu, Bittoo Kanwar, Polina German, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Diana M Brainard, Jessica Wen, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, Kathleen Schwarz
: No all-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens have been approved for children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a Phase 2, multi-center, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients ages 12 to 17 years received a combination tablet of 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir once daily for 12 weeks. On the 10(th) day following initiation of dosing, 10 patients underwent an intensive pharmacokinetic evaluation of the concentrations of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and the sofosbuvir metabolite GS-331007...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994921/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-in-turkey-in-2001-and-2008
#20
Burcu Tokuç, Serap Ayhan, Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu
BACKGROUND: Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is a measure that is used to evaluate losses due to premature deaths. AIMS: The present study provides an analysis of premature mortality in Turkey for the years 2001 and 2008 and supplies evidence for making policies and setting health agendas over the long term. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study calculated SEYLL by gender, age group and causes of death in Turkey in 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
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