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Perinatal infection

Karolina Louvanto, Michel Roger, Marie-Claude Faucher, Kari Syrjänen, Seija Grenman, Stina Syrjänen
Role of host factors in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection from mother to her offspring is not known. Our aim was to study whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G allele concordance among the mother-child pairs could facilitate vertical transmission of HPV, because HLA-G may contribute to immune tolerance in pregnancy. Altogether, 310 mother-child pairs were included from the Finnish Family HPV study. Overall, nine different HLA-G alleles were identified. The HLA-G genotype concordance of G∗01:01:01/01:04:01 increased the risk of high risk (HR)-HPV genotype positivity in cord blood and infant's oral mucosa...
March 12, 2018: Human Immunology
Charlene Eliza Thornton, Hannah Grace Dahlen
OBJECTIVES: To determine incidence, associated factors, outcomes and geographical occurrence of born before arrival (BBA) in New South Wales, Australia. DESIGN: A linked population data study involving population-based surveillance systems was undertaken for the years 2000-2011. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All women who underwent BBA compared with women who birthed in hospital/birth centre settings...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Li-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang, Shun-Li Liu, Yong-Mei Xie, Hui Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features of Enterococcus faecium meningitis in children. METHODS: The clinical data of nine children with Enterococcus faecium meningitis were analyzed. RESULTS: In all the nine children, Enterococcus faecium was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or peripherally inserted central catheters; 6 (67%) patients were neonates, 2 (22%) patients were younger than 6 months, and 1 (11%) patient was three years and four months of age...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Stephanie Benson, Katherine S Elkington, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Amelia Bucek, Curtis Dolezal, Patricia Warne, Claude Mellins
As youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection age, there is a need for studies that identify predictors and correlates of sexual risk behaviors. We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) with sexual risk behaviors in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and the Adolescent Sexual Behavior Assessment were administered to assess psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
William J Britt
The spread of Zika virus to the Americas was accompanied by surge in the number of infants with CNS abnormalities leading to a declaration of a health emergency by the WHO. This was accompanied by significant responses from governmental health agencies in the United States and Europe that resulted in significant new information described in the natural history of this perinatal infection in a very short period of time. Although much has been learned about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, limitations of current diagnostics and the challenges for accurate serologic diagnosis of acute Zika virus infection has restricted our understanding of the natural history of this perinatal infection to infants born to women with clinical disease during pregnancy and to Zika exposed infants with obvious clinical stigmata of disease...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Vita Boyar
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report on our experience with a portable, single-use negative pressure wound therapy device used in combination with activated active Leptospermum honey (ALH) in the treatment of colonized or infected, dehisced, thoracic wounds in neonates with complex congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: We reviewed medical records of 18 neonates and reported on findings from 11; the remaining 7 were not included secondary to incomplete records, transfer to a different institution prior to wound healing, or death...
March 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Gonzague Jourdain, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Linda Harrison, Luc Decker, Woottichai Khamduang, Camlin Tierney, Nicolas Salvadori, Tim R Cressey, Wasna Sirirungsi, Jullapong Achalapong, Prapap Yuthavisuthi, Prateep Kanjanavikai, Orada P Na Ayudhaya, Thitiporn Siriwachirachai, Sinart Prommas, Prapan Sabsanong, Aram Limtrakul, Supang Varadisai, Chaiwat Putiyanun, Pornnapa Suriyachai, Prateung Liampongsabuddhi, Suraphan Sangsawang, Wanmanee Matanasarawut, Sudanee Buranabanjasatean, Pichit Puernngooluerm, Chureeratana Bowonwatanuwong, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Virat Klinbuayaem, Satawat Thongsawat, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, George K Siberry, Diane H Watts, Nahida Chakhtoura, Trudy V Murphy, Noele P Nelson, Raymond T Chung, Stanislas Pol, Nantasak Chotivanich
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with an elevated viral load of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a risk of transmitting infection to their infants, despite the infants' receiving hepatitis B immune globulin. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind clinical trial performed in Thailand, we randomly assigned hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive pregnant women with an alanine aminotransferase level of 60 IU or less per liter to receive tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or placebo from 28 weeks of gestation to 2 months post partum...
March 8, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Allison J Kwong, Matthew S Chang, Ruth E Tuomala, Laura E Riley, Julian N Robinson, Muthoka L Mutinga, Karin L Andersson, Robert S Brown, Emily Oken, Chinweike Ukomadu, Anna E Rutherford
Objectives Hepatitis B (HBV) remains a significant public health burden, despite effective therapy. Routine HBV screening is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of vertical transmission, but the rates of follow-up care peri-partum are low. The aim of this study was to evaluate physician practices and knowledge regarding HBV in women diagnosed perinatally. Methods A survey was distributed to obstetricians and midwives within the Partners HealthCare system at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital...
March 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Elizabeth E Krans, Scott D Rothenberger, Penelope K Morrison, Seo Young Park, Leah C Klocke, Mary J Turocy, Susan Zickmund
Objectives To evaluate Hepatitis C virus (HCV) knowledge and awareness among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods From May through November 2015, a one-time survey was distributed to a convenience sample of pregnant women with OUD to assess their knowledge and awareness of (a) risk factors for HCV infection, (b) HCV transmission prevention strategies, (c) hepatotoxic risk reduction and (d) perinatal transmission and neonatal implications of HCV infection. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare demographic characteristics and HCV knowledge between participants who were HCV positive and negative...
March 3, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Emma R Allanson, Robert C Pattison, Nathan A Elizabeth, Jan E Dickinson
OBJECTIVES: To assess umbilical artery lactate levels and perinatal outcomes among women with and without HIV infection. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study recruited women planning to undergo vaginal delivery at Kalafong Hospital, South Africa, between March 3 and November 12, 2014. Umbilical artery lactate levels were measured and perinatal outcome data were recorded. Outcome analyses were stratified by maternal HIV status, and a subgroup analysis was performed where women with a CD4 count below 350×106 cells/L were compared with women without HIV...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Timothy A Kellogg, Andrea A Kim, Anne Mwangi, Mary Mwangi, Joyce Wamicwe, George W Rutherford
Understanding how HIV is acquired can inform interventions to prevent infection. We constructed a risk profile of 10-24 year olds participating in the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey and classified them as perinatally infected if their biological mother was infected with HIV or had died, or if their father was infected with HIV or had died (for those lacking mother's data). The remaining were classified as sexually infected if they had sex, and the remaining as parenterally infected if they had a blood transfusion...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Claudia Beltrán-Arroyave, Catalina Mesa, Hernán Vásquez, Nayibe Hincapié, Alejandro Díaz-Díaz
Children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can present early or late clinical disease. HIV-associated lymphoma is a later manifestation that is associated with advanced immunosuppression (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -AIDS). This is a case of a 9-year-old boy with recent diagnosis of HIV with Burkitt's lymphoma as first clinical manifestation. In children, the frequency of this association is very low and there are few cases reported.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Soya S Sam, Jessica Ingersoll, Lori D Racsa, Angela M Caliendo, Patrick N Racsa, Doris Igwe, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Cassandra Josephson, Colleen S Kraft
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of intrauterine and perinatal viral infection. The most common route of CMV transmission in newborns is through breastmilk and this can lead to infant morbidity and mortality. Breast milk that has been frozen for an extended period may need to be tested for CMV DNA to determine the source of infection. It has been a challenge for clinical laboratories to ensure the stability of CMV DNA in frozen breast milk for accurate viral load measurement...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Tanvi S Sharma, Gabriel Somarriba, Kristopher L Arheart, Daniela Neri, M Sunil Mathew, Patricia L Graham, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has allowed youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV+) to live into adulthood, but many youth may experience metabolic and body composition changes that predispose to greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This longitudinal study evaluated changes in body composition measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cohort of PHIV+ youth compared to HIV- controls over a 7-year period. METHODS: PHIV+ youth and HIV- controls were prospectively enrolled in a single-site study to assess nutrition and CVD risk...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Donghoon Lee, Hyun-Young Shin, Sang Min Park
Background: In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65-75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
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