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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340530/effect-of-severe-plastic-deformation-on-structure-and-properties-of-al-sc-ta-and-al-sc-ti-alloys
#1
Alla Berezina, Tetiana Monastyrska, Olexandr Davydenko, Oleh Molebny, Sergey Polishchuk
The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340512/activation-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-by-binding-to-fibronectin-a-computational-study
#2
Lingyun Wang, Di Pan, Qi Yan, Yuhua Song
Integrin αVβ3 plays an important role in regulating cellular activities and in human diseases. Although the structure of αVβ3 has been studied by crystallography and electron microscopy, the detailed activation mechanism of integrin αVβ3 induced by fibronectin (Fn) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the conformational and dynamical motion changes of Mn(2+) -bound integrin αVβ3 by binding to Fn with molecular dynamics simulations. Results showed that Fn binding to integrin αVβ3 caused the changes of the conformational flexibility of αVβ3 domains, the essential mode of motion for the domains of αV subunit and β3 subunit and the degrees of correlated motion of residues between the domains of αV subunit and β3 subunit of integrin αVβ3...
March 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340363/benchmark-integral-neutron-experiments-for-fe-be-and-c-with-dt-neutron-by-liquid-scintillation-detector
#3
He Tie, Zheng Pu, Xiao Jun, Zhu Chuanxin, Yang Jian, Guo Haiping
The measurements of iron, beryllium and carbon sphere neutron leakage spectra using BC501A detector by DT neutron source are presented. The experiments were carried out in Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry (INPC), China. Neutron leakage spectra in a wide energy range at angles of 0° and 30° from the direction of incident deuteron beam were obtained. The results show the leakage neutron flux decreases notably with the spherical shell increasing when neutron energy >10MeV. When neutron energy <6MeV the leakage neutron distribution tends to lower energy side with the shell increase...
December 20, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340311/early-clinical-efficacy-comparison-study-of-gamma3-nail-percutaneous-compression-plate-pccp-and-femoral-head-replacement-fhr-treatment-on-senile-unstable-intertrochanteric-fractures
#4
Shaofeng Yang, Yanan Liu, Tongqi Yang, Jun Zou, Huilin Yang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the early clinical efficacy of Gamma 3 nail, percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) and femoral head replacement (FHR) treatments on senile unstable intertrochanteric fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally 116 patients were included to perform an retrospective study, which involved analysis of the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and hemoglobin reduction on the first postoperative day compared with preoperative levels, fracture gap, neck shaft angle and tip apex distance on the first postoperative X-ray, hospital stay, time from surgery to mobilization, Harris hip scores and Barthel index six months after operation, and complications postoperative meanwhile were evaluated respectively among three groups...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340297/atomic-scale-snapshots-of-the-formation-and-growth-of-hollow-ptni-c-nanocatalysts
#5
Raphael Chattot, Tristan Asset, Jakub Drnec, Pierre Bordet, Jaysen Nelayah, Laetitia Dubau, Frédéric Maillard
Determining the formation and growth mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with atomic detail is fundamental to synthesize efficient 'catalysts by design'. However, the understanding of the elementary steps, which take place during their synthesis remains elusive. Herein, we have exploited scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, operando wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering and electrochemistry to unveil the formation and growth mechanism of hollow PtNi/C NPs...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340178/morphometric-covariation-between-palatal-shape-and-skeletal-pattern-in-class-ii-growing-subjects
#6
Valeria Paoloni, Roberta Lione, Francesca Farisco, Demetrios J Halazonetis, Lorenzo Franchi, Paola Cozza
Objectives: To evaluate the patterns of covariation between palatal and craniofacial morphology in Class II subjects in the early mixed dentition by means of geometric morphometrics. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 85 Class II subjects (44 females, 41 males; mean age 8.7 years ± 0.8) was collected retrospectively according to the following inclusion criteria: European ancestry (white), Class II skeletal relationship, Class II division 1 dental relationship, early mixed dentition, and prepubertal skeletal maturation...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340021/phenamil-an-amiloride-derivative-restricts-long-bone-growth-and-alters-keeled-sternum-bone-architecture-in-growing-chickens
#7
Tara R Price, Kristin Moncada, Hector Leyva-Jimenez, Kye Won Park, Peter Tontonoz, Rosemary L Walzem
"Broiler-type" chickens are fast-grow-ing, heavy-bodied birds with high demands on bone quality. Phenamil increased mineralization in cultured murine mesenchymal stem cells. Phenamil effects were tested in 2 groups of weight and gender matched day-old broiler chickens (n = 13). Oral administration of 30 mg phenamil/kg body weight d 1 to 13 reduced growth of chicks d 5 to 14 (P = 0.002); with phenamil-treated (PT) chick body weight being 84% of vehicle-treated (VT) chicks' body weight on d 14. Tissues collected on d 15 showed that femur lengths and widths did not differ, but tibias from PT chicks were 6% shorter (P = 0...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339736/extractions-retention-and-stability-the-search-for-orthodontic-truth
#8
Sheldon Peck
Background and objectives: From the beginnings of modern orthodontics, questions have been raised about the extraction of healthy permanent teeth in order to correct malocclusions. A hundred years ago, orthodontic tooth extraction was debated with almost religious intensity by experts on either side of the issue. Sheldon Friel and his mentor Edward H. Angle both had much to say about this controversy. Today, after significant progress in orthodontic practice, similar arguments are being voiced between nonextraction expansionists and those who see the need for tooth extractions in some orthodontic patients...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339603/optimization-of-stem-imaging-conditions-for-cryo-tomography
#9
Kazuhiro Aoyama, Kotaro Nagano, Kaoru Mitsuoka
For three-dimensional analysis of cryo-specimens using tomography at low and medium magnifications, the use of STEM images has some important advantages over TEM. A clear understanding of the electron dose in STEM is essential for optimized cryo-microscopy so a dose estimation technique for STEM imaging has been developed. The STEM convergence angle was shown to have a large impact on the image quality, in particular on the signal-to-noise ratio in the acquired images. Importantly, there is a clear trade-off between good STEM spatial resolution in the images with a large convergence angle and the signal-to-noise ratio, which is improved by reducing the convergence angle as much as possible...
February 9, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339510/3d-dentofacial-photogrammetry-reference-values-a-novel-approach-to-orthodontic-diagnosis
#10
Mohamed I Masoud, Neetu Bansal, Jose C Castillo, Amornrut Manosudprasit, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Arshan Haghi, Hannah C Hawkins, Erik Otárola-Castillo
Background: Orthodontic diagnostic standards generally use the cranial base as a reference and rely on samples selected by orthodontists. Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide male and female standards for a novel non-radiographic approach for orthodontic diagnosis that utilizes 3D dentofacial photogrammetry using the eyes and natural head orientation as references instead of the cranial base. Methods: One hundred and eighty females and 200 males between the ages of 18 and 35 years from 2 modeling agencies were orthodontically screened for near ideal occlusion...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339455/response-to-letter-optimal-angle-of-contralateral-oblique-view-in-cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injection-safety-or-precision
#11
Jeong Hun Suh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339454/optimal-angle-of-contralateral-oblique-view-in-cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injections-safety-or-precision
#12
Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339450/reliability-and-safety-of-contra-lateral-oblique-view-for-interlaminar-epidural-needle-placement-standardization-of-the-appropriate-angle
#13
Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339395/effect-of-ovariectomy-and-sideritis-euboea-extract-administration-on-large-artery-mechanics-morphology-and-structure-in-middle-aged-rats
#14
Dimitrios P Sokolis, Constantinos A Dimitriou, Pavlos Lelovas, Nikolaos G Kostomitsopoulos, Ismene A Dontas
BACKGROUND: Arterial function is regulated by estrogen, but no consistent pattern of arterial mechanical remodeling in response to depleted estrogen levels is available. OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on the mechanical properties, morphology, and histological structure of carotid artery in middle-aged rats and a potentially protective effect of Sideritis euboea extract (SID), commonly consumed as "mountain tea". METHODS: 10-month-old female Wistar rats were allocated into control (sham-operated), OVX, OVX+SID, and OVX+MALT (maltodextrin; excipient used for dilution of SID) groups...
March 20, 2017: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339367/the-functional-significance-of-morphological-changes-in-the-dentitions-of-early-mammals
#15
Andrew J Conith, Michael J Imburgia, Alfred J Crosby, Elizabeth R Dumont
The Mesozoic marked a time of experimentation in the tooth morphology of early mammals. One particular experiment involved the movement of three points, or cusps, on the surface of a molar tooth from a line into a triangle. This transition is exemplified by two extinct insectivorous mammals, Morganucodon (cusps in a line) and Kuehneotherium (cusps in a triangle). Here we test whether this difference in cusp arrangement, alongside cusp heights and angles between cusps, is associated with differences in the ability of the teeth to fracture proxy-insect prey...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339350/the-effect-of-initial-knee-angle-on-concentric-only-squat-jump-performance
#16
Lachlan J Mitchell, Christos K Argus, Kristie-Lee Taylor, Jeremy M Sheppard, Dale W Chapman
PURPOSE: There is uncertainty as to which knee angle during a squat jump (SJ) produces maximal jump performance. Importantly, understanding this information will aid in determining appropriate ratios for assessment and monitoring of the explosive characteristics of athletes. METHOD: This study compared SJ performance across different knee angles-90º, 100º, 110º, 120º, 130º, and a self-selected depth-for jump height and other kinetic characteristics. For comparison between SJ and an unconstrained dynamic movement, participants also performed a countermovement jump from a self-selected depth...
March 24, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339260/dynamic-chiral-magnetic-effect-and-faraday-rotation-in-macroscopically-disordered-helical-metals
#17
J Ma, D A Pesin
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339253/distinct-evolutions-of-weyl-fermion-quasiparticles-and-fermi-arcs-with-bulk-band-topology-in-weyl-semimetals
#18
N Xu, G Autès, C E Matt, B Q Lv, M Y Yao, F Bisti, V N Strocov, D Gawryluk, E Pomjakushina, K Conder, N C Plumb, M Radovic, T Qian, O V Yazyev, J Mesot, H Ding, M Shi
The Weyl semimetal phase is a recently discovered topological quantum state of matter characterized by the presence of topologically protected degeneracies near the Fermi level. These degeneracies are the source of exotic phenomena, including the realization of chiral Weyl fermions as quasiparticles in the bulk and the formation of Fermi arc states on the surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that these two key signatures show distinct evolutions with the bulk band topology by performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, supported by first-principles calculations, on transition-metal monophosphides...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339248/anderson-transition-of-cold-atoms-with-synthetic-spin-orbit-coupling-in-two-dimensional-speckle-potentials
#19
Giuliano Orso
We investigate the metal-insulator transition occurring in two-dimensional (2D) systems of noninteracting atoms in the presence of artificial spin-orbit interactions and a spatially correlated disorder generated by laser speckles. Based on a high order discretization scheme, we calculate the precise position of the mobility edge and verify that the transition belongs to the symplectic universality class. We show that the mobility edge depends strongly on the mixing angle between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339186/quantum-chemical-strain-analysis-for-mechanochemical-processes
#20
Tim Stauch, Andreas Dreuw
The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching...
March 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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