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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913461/primary-immune-deficiencies-with-defects-in-neutrophil-function
#1
Mary C Dinauer
Immune deficiencies resulting from inherited defects in neutrophil function have revealed important features of the innate immune response. Although sharing an increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, these disorders each have distinctive features in their clinical manifestations and characteristic microbial pathogens. This review provides an update on several genetic disorders with impaired neutrophil function, their pathogenesis, and treatment strategies. These include chronic granulomatous disease, which results from inactivating mutations in the superoxide-generating nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913143/innate-immune-stimulatory-activity-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-fimbriae-is-eliminated-by-phase-separation-using-triton-x-114
#2
Kohji Nozoe, Terukazu Sanui, Masaaki Takeshita, Takao Fukuda, Akira Haraguchi, Yoshitomi Aida, Fusanori Nishimura
Fimbriae are virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In this study, the action of fimbriae on neutrophil respiratory burst and cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC) were investigated. Native or denatured form of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae contained endotoxin at an equivalence of 1-3μglipopolysaccharides(LPS)/mg protein. The endotoxin could be reduced to the equivalent of 1ng-LPS/mg protein by phase separation using Triton X-114. Unfractionated fimbriae caused serum-dependent priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst, but both native and denatured forms of Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae were not active at 100μg/mL...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911915/marathon-race-affects-neutrophil-surface-molecules-role-of-inflammatory-mediators
#3
Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Ana Paula Renno Sierra, Rodrigo Oliveira, Kim Guimarães Caçula, César Miguel Momesso, Fabio Takeo Sato, Maysa Braga Barros Silva, Heloisa Helena Oliveira, Maria Elizabeth Pereira Passos, Diego Ribeiro de Souza, Olivia Santos Gondim, Marino Benetti, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Nabil Ghorayeb, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Renata Gorjão, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura
The fatigue induced by marathon races was observed in terms of inflammatory and immunological outcomes. Neutrophil survival and activation are essential for inflammation resolution and contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marathon races on surface molecules related to neutrophil adhesion and extrinsic apoptosis pathway and its association with inflammatory markers. We evaluated 23 trained male runners at the São Paulo International Marathon 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907146/glycocalyx-degradation-induces-a-proinflammatory-phenotype-and-increased-leukocyte-adhesion-in-cultured-endothelial-cells-under-flow
#4
Karli K McDonald, Scott Cooper, Lisa Danielzak, Richard L Leask
Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903586/microrna-125a-5p-alleviates-the-deleterious-effects-of-ox-ldl-on-multiple-functions-of-human-brain-microvessel-endothelial-cells
#5
Qunwen Pan, Xiaorong Liao, Hua Liu, Yan Wang, Yanfang Chen, Bin Zhao, Eric Lazartigues, Yi Yang, Xiaotang Ma
MicroRNA-125a-5p(miR-125a-5p)could participate in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-125a-5p in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced functional changes in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) generation, senescence, apoptosis and functions of HBMEC were analyzed. For mechanism study, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and p-Akt were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#6
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895126/versican-deficiency-significantly-reduces-lung-inflammatory-response-induced-by-polyinosine-polycytidylic-acid-stimulation
#7
Inkyung Kang, Ingrid A Harten, Mary Y Chang, Kathleen R Braun, Alyssa Sheih, Mary P Nivison, Pamela Y Johnson, Gail Workman, Gernot Kaber, Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Mervyn J Merrilees, Steven F Ziegler, Michael G Kinsella, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Viral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases such as asthma via mechanisms which are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly I:C stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894096/shed-urinary-alcam-is-an-independent-prognostic-biomarker-of-three-year-overall-survival-after-cystectomy-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer
#8
Shanna A Arnold Egloff, Liping Du, Holli A Loomans, Alina Starchenko, Pei-Fang Su, Tatiana Ketova, Paul B Knoll, Jifeng Wang, Ahmed Q Haddad, Oluwole Fadare, Justin M Cates, Yair Lotan, Yu Shyr, Peter E Clark, Andries Zijlstra
Proteins involved in tumor cell migration can potentially serve as markers of invasive disease. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) promotes adhesion, while shedding of its extracellular domain is associated with migration. We hypothesized that shed ALCAM in biofluids could be predictive of progressive disease. ALCAM expression in tumor (n = 198) and shedding in biofluids (n = 120) were measured in two separate VUMC bladder cancer cystectomy cohorts by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892504/soluble-siglec-5-associates-to-psgl-1-and-displays-anti-inflammatory-activity
#9
Marion Pepin, Soraya Mezouar, Julie Pegon, Vincent Muczynski, Frédéric Adam, Elsa P Bianchini, Amine Bazaa, Valerie Proulle, Alain Rupin, Jerome Paysant, Laurence Panicot-Dubois, Olivier D Christophe, Christophe Dubois, Peter J Lenting, Cécile V Denis
Interactions between endothelial selectins and the leukocyte counter-receptor PSGL1 mediates leukocyte recruitment to inflammation sites. PSGL1 is highly sialylated, making it a potential ligand for Siglec-5, a leukocyte-receptor that recognizes sialic acid structures. Binding assays using soluble Siglec-5 variants (sSiglec-5/C4BP and sSiglec-5/Fc) revealed a dose- and calcium-dependent binding to PSGL1. Pre-treatment of PSGL1 with sialidase reduced Siglec-5 binding by 79 ± 4%. In confocal immune-fluorescence assays, we observed that 50% of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) simultaneously express PSGL1 and Siglec-5...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889334/leukocytes-in-expressed-breast-milk-of-asthmatic-mothers
#10
D-L Dixon, K D Forsyth
OBJECTIVE: Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers...
November 23, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888551/selective-targeting-of-high-affinity-lfa-1-does-not-augment-costimulation-blockade-in-a-nonhuman-primate-renal-transplantation-model
#11
K P Samy, D A Anderson, D J Lo, M S Mulvihill, M Song, A B Farris, B S Parker, A L MacDonald, C Lu, T A Springer, S C Kachlany, K A Reimann, T How, F V Leopardi, K S Franke, K D Williams, B H Collins, A D Kirk
Costimulation blockade (CoB) via belatacept is a lower morbidity alternative to calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. However, it has higher rates of early acute rejection. These early rejections are mediated in part by memory T cells, which have reduced dependence on the pathway targeted by belatacept, and increased adhesion molecule expression. One such molecule is Leukocyte Function Associated Antigen (LFA)-1. LFA-1 exists in two forms, a commonly expressed, low-affinity form, and a transient, high-affinity form, expressed only during activation...
November 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887929/anti-vascular-inflammatory-effects-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-from-astilbe-rivularis-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Hyejin Kang, Sae-Kwang Ku, Jongdoo Kim, Jiwoo Chung, Sang Chan Kim, Wei Zhou, MinKyun Na, Jong-Sup Bae
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory condition resulting from bacterial infections. It is associated with high mortality rates, and its therapeutic options are limited. Transforming growth factor β induced protein (TGFBIp) is an extracellular matrix protein that functions as a mediator of experimental sepsis. C-27-carboxylated pentacyclic triterpenoids are specifically found in species of the genus Astilbe, and show several biological effects. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of pentacyclic triterpenoids, we investigated the effects of 3β-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-olean-12-en-27-oic acid (1) and 6β-hydroxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-27-oic acid (2) on TGFBIp-mediated vascular inflammatory responses...
November 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883202/the-role-of-platelets-in-inflammatory-immune-responses-in-generalized-aggressive-periodontitis
#13
Yalin Zhan, Ruifang Lu, Huanxin Meng, Xian'e Wang, Xiaojun Sun, Jianxia Hou
AIM: To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and platelet size in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal, inflammatory, and platelet indices were compared between 59 GAgP patients and 59 healthy subjects. Gingival biopsies from 5 patients and 5 healthy subjects were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Changes in patient periodontal and platelet indices were re-evaluated at 3 months after periodontal therapy...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879252/high-density-lipoprotein-associated-apolipoprotein-m-limits-endothelial-inflammation-by-delivering-sphingosine-1-phosphate-to-the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1
#14
Mario Ruiz, Cecilia Frej, Andreas Holmér, Li J Guo, Sinh Tran, Björn Dahlbäck
OBJECTIVE: Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are potent antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory particles. However, HDL particles are highly heterogenic in composition, and different HDL-mediated functions can be ascribed to different subclasses of HDL. Only a small HDL population contains apolipoprotein M (ApoM), which is the main plasma carrier of the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Vascular inflammation is modulated by S1P, but both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles have been ascribed to S1P...
November 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873306/activated-leukocyte-cell-adhesion-molecule-alcam-is-a-marker-of-recurrence-and-promotes-cell-migration-invasion-and-metastasis-in-early-stage-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer
#15
Laura Devis, Cristian P Moiola, Nuria Masia, Elena Martinez-Garcia, Maria Santacana, Tomita Vasilica Stirbat, Françoise Brochard-Wyart, Ángel García, Francesc Alameda, Silvia Cabrera, Jose Palacios, Gema Moreno-Bueno, Miguel Abal, William Thomas, Sylvie Dufour, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Anna Santamaria, Jaume Reventos, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in western countries, being the most common subtype of endometrioid tumours. Most patients are diagnosed at an early stage and present an excellent prognosis. However, a number of those continue to suffer recurrence, without means of identification by risk classification systems. Thus, finding a reliable marker to predict recurrence becomes an important unmet clinical issue. ALCAM is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily that has been associated with genesis of many cancers...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873163/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunomodulators-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#16
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Surjit Singh
The genomic revolution in the past decade fuelled by breathtaking advances in sequencing technologies has defined several new genetic diseases of the immune system. Many of these newly characterized diseases are a result of defects in genes involved in immune regulation. The discovery of these diseases has opened a vista of new therapeutic possibilities. Immunomodulatory agents, a hitherto unexplored therapeutic option in primary immunodeficiency diseases have been tried in a host of these newly described maladies...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860536/the-advantageous-role-of-annexin-a1-in-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Renske Johanna de Jong, Giovanna Leoni, Maik Drechsler, Oliver Soehnlein
The inflammatory response protects the human body against infection and injury. However, uncontrolled and unresolved inflammation can lead to tissue damage and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, active resolution of inflammation is essential to restore tissue homeostasis. This review focuses on the pro-resolving molecule annexin A1 (ANXA1) and its derived peptides. Mechanisms instructed by ANXA1 are multidisciplinary and affect leukocytes as well as endothelial cells and tissue resident cells like macrophages and mast cells...
November 18, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859540/the-impact-of-citrate-concentration-on-adhesion-of-platelets-and-leukocytes-to-adsorbents-in-whole-blood-lipoprotein-apheresis
#18
René Weiss, Michael B Fischer, Viktoria Weber
Lipoprotein apheresis is applied to deplete low density lipoprotein and other apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins in patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia associated pancreatitis, or lipoprotein (a)-hyperlipoproteinemia. Anticoagulation of the extracorporeal circuit may influence cellular activation, as evidenced by a reduction of inflammatory parameters during regional citrate anticoagulation with acid citrate dextrose A (ACD-A) commonly used in whole blood lipid apheresis...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858246/sequential-therapy-consisting-of-glucocorticoid-infusions-followed-by-granulocyte-monocyte-absorptive-apheresis-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#19
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Yoshihito Uchida, Kayoko Sugawara, Kayoko Naiki, Mie Inao, Nobuaki Nakayama, Satoshi Mochida
BACKGROUND: Activated leukocytes infiltrating the liver contribute to the provocation of alcoholic hepatitis. Glucocorticoid induces the demargination of leukocytes from the hepatic sinusoids, whereas granulocyte-monocyte absorptive apheresis (GMA) removes leukocytes from the circulation. Thus, the usefulness of a sequential therapy consisting of glucocorticoid infusions followed by GMA was evaluated in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis received intravenous injections of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 3 or 4 days, and then GMA was performed every day for 3 days...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853810/inflammation-but-not-recruitment-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-requires-signalling-through-mac-1-cd11b-cd18-in-diet-induced-obesity-dio
#20
Dennis Wolf, Nora Bukosza, David Engel, Marjorie Poggi, Felix Jehle, Nathaly Anto Michel, Yung-Chih Chen, Christian Colberg, Natalie Hoppe, Bianca Dufner, Louis Boon, Hermann Blankenbach, Ingo Hilgendorf, Constantin von Zur Muhlen, Jochen Reinöhl, Björn Sommer, Timoteo Marchini, Mark A Febbraio, Christian Weber, Christoph Bode, Karlheinz Peter, Esther Lutgens, Andreas Zirlik
Cell accumulation is a prerequisite for adipose tissue inflammation. The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2) is a classic adhesion receptor critically regulating inflammatory cell recruitment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a genetic deficiency and a therapeutic modulation of Mac-1 regulate adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57Bl6/J mice genetically deficient (Mac-1(-/-)) or competent for Mac-1 (WT) consumed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Surprisingly, Mac-1(-/-) mice presented with increased diet-induced weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and in the liver in insulin-clamps, insulin secretion deficiency and elevated glucose levels in fasting animals, and dyslipidaemia...
November 17, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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