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leukocyte adhesion

Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Yohko Hikiba, Aya Yamashita, Mayo Tsuboi, Masahiro Hata, Mitsuru Konishi, Nobumi Suzuki, Kosuke Sakitani, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Hayato Nakagawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
Background and Aims: Disturbance of intestinal homeostasis is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and TGF-β signaling impairment in mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) causes murine colitis with goblet cell depletion. Here, we examined an organoid-MP co-culture system to study the role of MPs in intestinal epithelial differentiation and homeostasis. Methods: Intestinal organoids were co-cultured with lamina propria leukocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from CD11c-cre Tgfbr2fl/fl mice...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Kyle T Amber, Manuel Valdebran, Sergei A Grando
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering disease. Patients develop non-healing erosions and blisters due to cell-cell detachment of keratinocytes (acantholysis), with subsequent suprabasal intraepidermal splitting. Identified almost 30 years ago, desmoglein-3 (Dsg3), a Ca2+ -dependent cell adhesion molecule belonging to the cadherin family, has been considered the "primary" autoantigen in PV. Proteomic studies have identified numerous autoantibodies in patients with PV that have known roles in the physiology and cell adhesion of keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Umberto Ciri, Rita Bhui, Jorge Bailon-Cuba, Heather N Hayenga, Stefano Leonardi
Atherosclerosis, an artery disease, is currently the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. The first step in the development of atherosclerosis involves leukocyte adhesion to the arterial endothelium. It is broadly accepted that blood flow, more specifically wall shear stress (WSS), plays an important role in leukocyte capture and subsequent development of an atherosclerotic plaque. What is less known is how instantaneous WSS, which can vary by up to 5 Pa over one cardiac cycle, influences leukocyte capture...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
C B Jacometo, A S Alharthi, Z Zhou, D Luchini, J J Loor
Pregnancy and early life are critical periods during which environmental factors such as nutrition can affect development. Rumen-protected methionine (Met; RPM) supplementation during the prepartum period improves not only performance but immune responses in dairy cows. We investigated the effects of enhanced maternal supply of Met via feeding RPM on whole-blood in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0, 0.01, or 5 μg/mL of blood) challenge and targeted microRNA and mRNA abundance in calf blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
Hans Bowles, Juan Ambrosioni, Gaspar Mestres, Marta Hernández-Meneses, Nuria Sánchez, Jaime Llopis, Xavier Yugueros, Manel Almela, Asunción Moreno, Vicenç Riambau, David Fuster, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) is a severe complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. Clinical diagnosis is complex, requiring image testing such as CT angiography or leukocyte scintigraphy, which has considerable limitations. The aim of this study was to know the diagnostic yield of PET/CT with 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) in patients with suspected PVGI. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 49 patients with suspected PVGI, median age of 62 ± 14 years...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Quanxin Li, Ziying Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiaqing Zhu, Liang Li, Xiaojie Wang, Xiaoyang Cui, Yu Sun, Wei Tang, Chengjiang Gao, Chunhong Ma, Fan Yi
There is significant progress in understanding the structure and function of NLRC5, a member of the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family. However, in the context of MHC class I gene expression, the functions of NLRC5 in innate and adaptive immune responses beyond the regulation of MHC class I genes remain controversial and unresolved. In particular, the role of NLRC5 in the kidney is unknown. NLRC5 was significantly upregulated in the kidney from mice with renal ischemia/reperfusion injury...
June 12, 2018: Kidney International
Sidsel Støy, Thomas Damgaard Sandahl, Anne Louise Hansen, Bent Deleuran, Thomas Vorup-Jensen, Hendrik Vilstrup, Tue Wenzel Kragstrup
OBJECTIVES: During alcoholic hepatitis (AH) monocytes traverse the vascular boundaries and massively invade the liver. In principle, tissue extravasation can be limited through shedding of CD18 integrins from leukocytes, including monocytes. The soluble (s) product sCD18 conceals adhesion receptors on the endothelium, which reduces monocyte extravasation. In AH, monocytes are dysfunctional, but whether this involves their self-generated anti-migration is unknown. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate monocyte CD18 dynamics in AH...
June 15, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Farhana Jahan, Sudarrshan Madhavan, Taisia Rolova, Larisa Viazmina, Mikaela Grönholm, Carl G Gahmberg
The integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) plays a pivotal role in leukocyte adhesion and migration, but the mechanism(s) by which this integrin is regulated has remained incompletely understood. LFA-1 integrin activity requires phosphorylation of its β2-chain and interactions of its cytoplasmic tail with various cellular proteins. The α-chain is constitutively phosphorylated and necessary for cellular adhesion, but how the α-chain regulates adhesion has remained enigmatic. We now show that substitution of the α-chain phosphorylation site (S1140A) in T cells inhibits the phosphorylation of the functionally important Thr-758 in the β2-chain, binding of α-actinin and 14-3-3 protein, and expression of an integrin-activating epitope after treatment with the stromal cell-derived factor-1α...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Koji Maruta, Chikako Watanabe, Hideaki Hozumi, Chie Kurihara, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Takeshi Takajo, Yoshikiyo Okada, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Masaaki Higashiyama, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Shigeaki Nagao, Toshiaki Ishizuka, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari
The enhanced recruitment of leukocytes to the inflamed colon is a key feature of ulcerative colitis (UC). The gut-specific adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment have emerged as recent therapeutic targets. Nicotine absorbed from smoking has been reported to work protectively in UC patients. Our hypothesis is that nicotine may suppress the aberrant leukocyte recruitment and colonic inflammation via the suppression of the overexpressed gut-specific adhesion molecules in the inflamed colon. To test this hypothesis, the severity of colitis and the degree of leukocyte recruitment induced by gut-specific adhesion molecules were assessed in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis mice (C57BL/6J mice treated with 3% DSS) with or without nicotine treatment...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Anna Holthenrich, Volker Gerke
Endothelial cells serve as gatekeepers of vascular hemostasis and local inflammatory reactions. They can rapidly respond to changes in the environment, caused, for example, by blood vessel injury, tissue damage or infection, by secreting in a strictly regulated manner factors regulating these processes. These factors include adhesion receptors for circulating leukocytes and platelets, P-selectin and von-Willebrand factor (VWF) that are stored in specialized secretory granules of endothelial cells, the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Priya Govindaraju, Leslie Todd, Snehal Shetye, James Monslow, Ellen Puré
Cutaneous wound healing consists of three main phases: inflammation, re-epithelialization, and tissue remodeling. During normal wound healing, these processes are tightly regulated to allow restoration of skin function and biomechanics. In many instances, healing leads to an excess accumulation of fibrillar collagen (the principal protein found in the extracellular matrix - ECM), and the formation of scar tissue, which has compromised biomechanics, tested using ramp to failure tests, compared to normal skin (Corr and Hart, 2013 [1])...
June 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Rüdiger von Bauer, Dimitrios Oikonomou, Alba Sulaj, Stefan Kopf, Thomas Fleming, Gottfried Rudofsky, Peter Nawroth
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder in which several converging immune responses modulate and induce lipid accumulation in macrophages. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been described as a structural homologue of HDL-receptor and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), while its soluble form sALCAM is involved in ALCAM-dependent and -independent immune mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aggressive removal of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp [a]) by lipoprotein-apheresis (LA) on sALCAM and blood viscosity as well as to evaluate its association with lipoproteins and serum markers of inflammation...
June 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Sophie Dogné, Bruno Flamion, Nathalie Caron
The endothelial glycocalyx (EG), which covers the apical surface of the endothelial cells and floats into the lumen of the vessels, is a key player in vascular integrity and cardiovascular homeostasis. The EG is composed of PGs (proteoglycans), glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans, in particular hyaluronan (HA). HA seems to be implicated in most of the functions described for EG such as creating a space between blood and the endothelium, controlling vessel permeability, restricting leukocyte and platelet adhesion, and allowing an appropriate endothelial response to flow variation through mechanosensing...
June 7, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Tee Yee Sim, Hanis Hazeera Harith, Chau Ling Tham, Nur Fariesha Md Hashim, Khozirah Shaari, Mohd Roslan Sulaiman, Daud Ahmad Israf
Alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction contributes to lung edema and can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). The features include increased epithelial permeability, upregulation of inflammatory mediators and downregulation of junctional complex molecules; these changes are often induced by inflammation. tHGA is an acetophenone analogue with therapeutic potential in asthma. Its therapeutic potential in ALI is presently unknown. Herein, the effects of tHGA on epithelial barrier dysfunction were determined in TNF-α-induced human alveolar epithelial cells...
June 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Knut A Mosevoll, Silje Johansen, Øystein Wendelbo, Ina Nepstad, Øystein Bruserud, Håkon Reikvam
The inflammatory response is a well-established part of, and a prerequisite for, venous thrombosis. To better understand the pathophysiology of venous thrombosis and to identify improved diagnostic biomarkers, further studies of the relationship between inflammation and coagulation are needed. We review previous studies concerning inflammatory biomarkers in venous thromboembolism, in particular cytokines, soluble adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteases as predisposing, diagnostic and prognostic factors in venous thrombosis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Teresa Mastantuono, Martina Di Maro, Martina Chiurazzi, Laura Battiloro, Espedita Muscariello, Gilda Nasti, Noemy Starita, Antonio Colantuoni, Dominga Lapi
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play a major role in many pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia and reperfusion injury. The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vivo cyanidin (anthocyanin) effects on damages induced by rat pial microvascular hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury by cerebral blood flow decrease (CBFD) and subsequent cerebral blood flow recovery (CBFR). In particular, the main purpose was to detect changes in ROS production after cyanidin administration. Rat pial microvasculature was investigated using fluorescence microscopy through a cranial window (closed); Strahler's method was utilized to define the geometric features of pial vessels...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yuan Li, Quan Li, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Bai-He Hu, Yu-Ying Liu, Lei Yang, Ping Huang, Shao-Yang Zhao, Chuan-She Wang, Jing-Yu Fan, Xue-Mei Wang, Jing-Yan Han
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is closely correlated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disease. Bushen Huoxue (BSHX) is a compound Chinese medicine used clinically to treat diabetes-induced cognitive impairment. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, KKAy mice, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes with obesity and insulin resistant hyperglycemia, received a daily administration of BSHX for 12 weeks. Blood glucose was measured every 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, BSHX treatment significantly ameliorated the T2DM related insults, including the increased blood glucose, the impaired spatial memory, decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), occurrence of albumin leakage, leukocyte adhesion and opening capillary rarefaction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Muhammad Mukarram Bashir, Muhammad Hussain, Dawood Ahmad, Hamid Nawaz Tipu
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that codes for CD18, the beta chain of beta-2 integrins, located on the long arm of chromosome 21. This defect results in failure of leukocyte migration to the site of infection due to the absence of surface integrins. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency should be suspected in any patient with recurrent infections, impaired wound healing, history of delayed umbilical cord separation, periodontitis, leukocytosis, recurrent soft tissue and oral infections...
June 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Pascaline Nguemgo Kouam, Günther A Rezniczek, Anja Kochanneck, Bettina Priesch-Grzeszkowiak, Thomas Hero, Irenäus A Adamietz, Helmut Bühler
Glioblastoma is a primary brain tumor with a poor prognosis despite of many treatment regimens. Radiotherapy significantly prolongs patient survival and remains the most common treatment. Slit2 and Robo1 are evolutionarily conserved proteins involved in axon guidance, migration, and branching of neuronal cells. New studies have shown that Slit2 and Robo1 could play important roles in leukocyte chemotaxis and glioblastoma cell migration. Therefore, we investigated whether the Slit2/Robo1 complex has an impact on the motility of glioblastoma cells and whether irradiation with therapeutic doses modulates this effect...
2018: PloS One
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