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Neonatal infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#1
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#2
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226008/time-trends-in-hospitalizations-for-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-among-children-under-five-years-old-in-cear%C3%A3-brazil-2000-2012
#3
Líllian de Queiroz Costa, Elzo Pereira Pinto, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to analyze time trends and describe the causes of hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) in children under five years old in Ceará, Brazil, 2000-2012. METHODS: this is an ecological time series study using data from the National Hospital Information System; trends were analyzed using Prais-Winsten regression. RESULTS: from 2000 and 2016 ACSC hospitalization rates fell from 32.5 to 11.2/1,000 inhabitants under five years old (annual variation of -16...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196555/dohad-at-the-intersection-of-maternal-immune-activation-and-maternal-metabolic-stress-a-scoping-review
#4
J A Goldstein, S A Norris, D M Aronoff
The prenatal environment is now recognized as a key driver of non-communicable disease risk later in life. Within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm, studies are increasingly identifying links between maternal morbidity during pregnancy and disease later in life for offspring. Nutrient restriction, metabolic disorders during gestation, such as diabetes or obesity, and maternal immune activation provoked by infection have been linked to adverse health outcomes for offspring later in life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177969/zika-virus-practical-information-for-the-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgeon
#5
Nicholas A Calotta, Justin M Sacks, Anand R Kumar
The ongoing Zika virus outbreak in South, Central, and, most recently, North America has become a global health care emergency. Originally thought to be a benign, self-limiting viral syndrome, the newest epidemic has provided convincing evidence that maternal Zika virus infection can lead to neonatal malformations, the so-called congenital Zika syndrome. The alarming number of microcephalic neonates being born during the current outbreak is most notable, though several other anomalies, such as arthrogryposis, redundant scalp tissue, and cranial collapse, have been reported...
February 8, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177804/entry-infection-replication-and-egress-of-human-polyomaviruses-an-update
#6
Soumen Bhattacharjee, Sutanuka Chattaraj
Polyomaviruses (PyVs), belonging to the family Polyomaviridae, are a group of small, nonenveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA viruses widely distributed in the vertebrates. PyVs cause no apparent disease in adult laboratory mice but cause a wide variety of tumors when artificially inoculated into neonates or semipermissive animals. A few human PyVs, such as BK, JC, and Merkel cell PyVs, have been unequivocally linked to pathogenesis under conditions of immunosuppression. Infection is thought to occur early in life and persists for the lifespan of the host...
October 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168206/passive-immunoprophylaxis-for-the-protection-of-the-mother-and-her-baby-insights-from-in-vivo-models-of-antibody-transport
#7
Yanqun Xu, Iftekhar Mahmood, Lilin Zhong, Pei Zhang, Evi B Struble
Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167590/chikungunya-and-neonatal-immunity-fatal-vertically-transmitted-chikungunya-infection
#8
Tracy Evans-Gilbert
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has emerged as a global pathogen. The virus can pass vertically from mother to child especially during the perinatal period, with an intrapartum vertical transmission rate of 50%. Approximately half of the neonates infected with chikungunya present with severe symptoms and infrequently death. This report summarizes two severe cases of vertically transmitted neonatal chikungunya infection. One case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the other fulfilled clinical and epidemiological criteria...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164065/localized-tetanus-in-an-adult-patient-case-report
#9
Mohamed Amirali Gulamhussein, Yueyang Li, Abhijit Guha
INTRODUCTION: Tetanus is a severe and potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. Of all the cases described in literature, generalized tetanus is by far the most common presentation, but it may also present as neonatal tetanus, cephalic tetanus, and localized tetanus, the latter two being much rarer. In this case report, we present the rare form of this disease, i.e., localized tetanus in an adult male with a history of minimal trauma as well as a late, unusual mode of presentation...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#10
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment. METHODS: Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, and the pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures are reported...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157251/varicella-a-potential-threat-to-maternal-and-fetal-health
#11
Maria Biskupska, Ilona Małecka, Joanna Stryczyńska-Kazubska, Jacek Wysocki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the following: i) number of midwives and nurses at risk for contracting varicella; ii) effectiveness of infectious disease prevention among healthcare personnel; iii) attitude of healthcare person-nel towards immunization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 524 midwives and nurses from obstetric, neonatal, and pediatric wards were investigated. Quantitative data analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 14...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093109/neonatal-anaplasma-platys-infection-in-puppies-further-evidence-for-possible-vertical-transmission
#12
I A Matei, S Stuen, D Modrý, A Degan, G D'Amico, A D Mihalca
Anaplasma platys, the aetiological agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopaenia, infects platelets of dogs, usually causing mild or asymptomatic disease. Although A. platys is transmitted by ticks, as for other Anaplasma species, alternative modes of transmission may be involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of A. platys infection in litters of puppies, which could suggest possible vertical transmission. Twelve litters, together with the respective bitches, were included in the study for the detection of A...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089549/modified-live-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv-vaccine-delays-infection-of-neonatal-broiler-chickens-with-variant-ibdv-compared-to-turkey-herpesvirus-hvt-ibdv-vectored-vaccine
#13
Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Kalhari Goonewardene, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Shelly Popowich, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Chickens are commonly processed around 35-45days of age in broiler chicken industry hence; diseases that occur at a young age are of paramount economic importance. Early age infection with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) results in long-lasting immunosuppression and profound economic losses. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the protection efficacy of modified live (MdLV) IBDV and herpesvirus turkey (HVT)-IBDV vaccines against early age variant IBDV (varIBDV) infection in chicks. Experiments were carried out in IBDV maternal antibody (MtAb) positive chicks (n=330), divided into 6 groups (n=50-60/group), namely Group 1 (saline), Group 2 (saline+varIBDV), Group 3 (HVT-IBDV), Group 4 (HVT-IBDV+varIBDV), Group 5 (MdLV) and Group 6 (MdLV+varIBDV)...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079652/long-term-survival-and-causes-of-late-death-in-children-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#14
Viktor von Bahr, Jan Hultman, Staffan Eksborg, Roxana Gerleman, Øyvind Enstad, Björn Frenckner, Håkan Kalzén
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support...
January 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067830/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-long-term-pulmonary-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Lauren M Davidson, Sara K Berkelhamer
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who required mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for acute respiratory distress. While advances in neonatal care have resulted in improved survival rates of premature infants, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Lack of progress may in part be attributed to the limited therapeutic options available for prevention and treatment of BPD. Several lung-protective strategies have been shown to reduce risks, including use of non-invasive support, as well as early extubation and volume ventilation when intubation is required...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#16
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#18
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005910/melioidosis-in-malaysia-a-review-of-case-reports
#19
Paul Vijay Kingsley, Mark Leader, Nandika Suranjith Nagodawithana, Meghan Tipre, Nalini Sathiakumar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. METHODS: We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003042/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-infection-in-finland-implications-for-immunisation-policy
#20
Tanja Karvonen, Kari Auranen, Markku Kuusi, Tuija Leino
OBJECTIVES: We describe the current epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections in Finland. We estimate the total incidence of chronic hepatitis B following from the current incidence of acute infections and the influx of chronic carriers of hepatitis B associated with net immigration. We evaluate the incidence of hepatitis B infections preventable by a universal vaccination programme among infants. METHODS: We analysed hepatitis B cases reported to the National Infectious Disease Register during 2004-2012 and used pre-developed methods to adjust for acute asymptomatic infections...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
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