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Neonatal infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234319/they-are-what-you-eat-can-nutritional-factors-during-gestation-and-early-infancy-modulate-the-neonatal-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Prentice
The ontogeny of the human immune system is sensitive to nutrition even in the very early embryo, with both deficiency and excess of macro- and micronutrients being potentially detrimental. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to the immaturity of the immune system and modulation of nutritional immunity may play a role in this sensitivity. This review examines whether nutrition around the time of conception, throughout pregnancy, and in early neonatal life may impact on the developing infant immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229361/a-literature-review-on-maternal-fetal-and-reproductive-disorders-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
REVIEW
Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Hamed Behniafar, Shahrokh Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205640/presepsin-as-a-predictor-of-positive-blood-culture-among-newborns-suspected-sepsis
#4
Yukihide Miyosawa, Yohei Akazawa, Motoko Kamiya, Chizuko Nakamura, Yusuke Takeuchi, Mai Kusakari, Tomohiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of neonatal sepsis is decreasing, neonatal sepsis remains a severe life-threatening disease. No current biochemical marker can provide perfect diagnostic accuracy for neonatal sepsis. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the accuracy of presepsin (P-SEP) as a novel biomarker of bacterial infection for neonatal sepsis diagnosis. METHODS: We prospectively studied newborns with sepsis (sepsis group n=13) during the first 30 days after birth and compared them with control preterm newborns (control group n=18)...
December 5, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197124/breast-milk-cells-trafficking-induces-microchimerism-mediated-immune-system-maturation-in-the-infant
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Molès, Edouard Tuaillon, Chipepo Kankasa, Anne-Sophie Bedin, Nicolas Nagot, Arnaud Marchant, Joann M McDermid, Philippe Van de Perre
Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breast milk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196453/physician-preferences-surrounding-urinary-tract-infection-management-in-neonates
#6
Neha S Joshi, Brian P Lucas, Alan R Schroeder
OBJECTIVES: Variability exists in the treatment of neonates with urinary tract infection (UTI), potentially reflecting an overuse of resources. A cross-sectional vignette survey was designed to examine variability in physician preferences for intravenous (IV) antibiotic duration, genitourinary imaging, and prophylactic antibiotics and to evaluate drivers of resource use. METHODS: The survey was administered to a random sample of pediatricians through the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile...
December 1, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189694/committee-opinion-no-726-hospital-disaster-preparedness-for-obstetricians-and-facilities-providing-maternity-care
#7
(no author information available yet)
Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189692/committee-opinion-no-726-summary-hospital-disaster-preparedness-for-obstetricians-and-facilities-providing-maternity-care
#8
(no author information available yet)
Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182219/hepatitis-b-in-poland-in-2015
#9
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2015 in relation to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation carried out based on analysis of data from individual reports on acute hepatitis B cases registered by the sanitary-epidemiological stations, aggregate data published in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” and data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland”...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166972/long-term-sex-differential-effects-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-in-vitro-cytokine-responses
#10
Kristoffer J Jensen, Mia J Søndergaard, Andreas Andersen, Cesario Martins, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Aaby, Katie L Flanagan, Christine Stabell Benn
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166948/cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-in-brazil-and-states-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#11
Elisabeth B França, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Bruce B Duncan, Antonio Luiz P Ribeiro, Mark D C Guimarães, Daisy M X Abreu, Ana Maria N Vasconcelos, Mariângela Carneiro, Renato Teixeira, Paulo Camargos, Ana Paula S Melo, Bernardo L Queiroz, Maria Inês Schmidt, Lenice Ishitani, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Otaliba L Morais-Neto, Maria Tereza Bustamante-Teixeira, Maximiliano R Guerra, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo, Meghan Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on cause of death (COD) are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states...
November 22, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166461/presumed-zika-virus-related-congenital-brain-malformations-the-spectrum-of-ct-and-mri-findings-in-fetuses-and-newborns
#12
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165157/the-hokkaido-birth-cohort-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health-cohort-profile-updated-2017
#13
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Machiko Minatoya, Tomoyuki Hanaoka, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Yu Ait Bamai, Keiko Yamazaki, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura, Kumiko Ito, Houman Goudarzi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#14
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#15
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042916/the-proposal-of-paediatric-virology-and-its-perspectives-an-interview-with-professor-of-paediatrics-maria-theodoridou
#16
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042866/effects-of-cord-blood-vitamin-d-levels-on-the-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis-in-premature-infants
#17
Birgul Say, Nurdan Uras, Suzan Sahin, Halil Degirmencioglu, Serife Suna Oguz, Fuat Emre Canpolat
PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays a key role in immune function. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of infections, and low levels of circulating vitamin D are strongly associated with infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of low vitamin D levels in cord blood on neonatal sepsis in preterm infants. METHODS: One hundred seventeen premature infants with gestational age of <37 weeks were enrolled. In the present study, severe vitamin D deficiency (group 1) was defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <5 ng/mL; vitamin D insufficiency (group 2), 25(OH)D concentration ≥5 ng/mL and <15 ng/mL; and vitamin D sufficiency (group 3), 25(OH)D concentration ≥15 ng/mL...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039746/preclinical-testing-of-an-oncolytic-parvovirus-standard-protoparvovirus-h-1pv-efficiently-induces-osteosarcoma-cell-lysis-in-vitro
#18
Carsten Geiss, Zoltán Kis, Barbara Leuchs, Monika Frank-Stöhr, Jörg R Schlehofer, Jean Rommelaere, Christiane Dinsart, Jeannine Lacroix
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells...
October 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023477/possible-cases-of-leprosy-from-the-late-copper-age-3780-3650-cal-bc-in-hungary
#19
Kitti Köhler, Antónia Marcsik, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biro, Tamás Szeniczey, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Tibor Marton, Helen D Donoghue, Tamás Hajdu
At the Abony-Turjányos dűlő site, located in Central Hungary, a rescue excavation was carried out. More than 400 features were excavated and dated to the Protoboleráz horizon, at the beginning of the Late Copper Age in the Carpathian Basin, between 3780-3650 cal BC. Besides the domestic and economic units, there were two special areas, with nine-nine pits that differed from the other archaeological features of the site. In the northern pit group seven pits contained human remains belonging to 48 individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#20
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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