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Neonatal infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042916/the-proposal-of-paediatric-virology-and-its-perspectives-an-interview-with-professor-of-paediatrics-maria-theodoridou
#1
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042866/effects-of-cord-blood-vitamin-d-levels-on-the-risk-of-neonatal-sepsis-in-premature-infants
#2
Birgul Say, Nurdan Uras, Suzan Sahin, Halil Degirmencioglu, Serife Suna Oguz, Fuat Emre Canpolat
PURPOSE: Vitamin D plays a key role in immune function. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of infections, and low levels of circulating vitamin D are strongly associated with infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of low vitamin D levels in cord blood on neonatal sepsis in preterm infants. METHODS: One hundred seventeen premature infants with gestational age of <37 weeks were enrolled. In the present study, severe vitamin D deficiency (group 1) was defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <5 ng/mL; vitamin D insufficiency (group 2), 25(OH)D concentration ≥5 ng/mL and <15 ng/mL; and vitamin D sufficiency (group 3), 25(OH)D concentration ≥15 ng/mL...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039746/preclinical-testing-of-an-oncolytic-parvovirus-standard-protoparvovirus-h-1pv-efficiently-induces-osteosarcoma-cell-lysis-in-vitro
#3
Carsten Geiss, Zoltán Kis, Barbara Leuchs, Monika Frank-Stöhr, Jörg R Schlehofer, Jean Rommelaere, Christiane Dinsart, Jeannine Lacroix
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells...
October 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023477/possible-cases-of-leprosy-from-the-late-copper-age-3780-3650-cal-bc-in-hungary
#4
Kitti Köhler, Antónia Marcsik, Péter Zádori, Gergely Biro, Tamás Szeniczey, Szilvia Fábián, Gábor Serlegi, Tibor Marton, Helen D Donoghue, Tamás Hajdu
At the Abony-Turjányos dűlő site, located in Central Hungary, a rescue excavation was carried out. More than 400 features were excavated and dated to the Protoboleráz horizon, at the beginning of the Late Copper Age in the Carpathian Basin, between 3780-3650 cal BC. Besides the domestic and economic units, there were two special areas, with nine-nine pits that differed from the other archaeological features of the site. In the northern pit group seven pits contained human remains belonging to 48 individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#5
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971246/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-and-programming-of-the-newborn-immune-system
#6
REVIEW
Madeleine F Jennewein, Bahaa Abu-Raya, Yiwei Jiang, Galit Alter, Arnaud Marchant
As placental mammals, the pregnant women and the fetus have intense and prolonged interactions during gestation. There is increasing evidence that multiple molecular as well as cellular components originating in pregnant women are transferred to the fetus. The transfer of maternal antibodies has long been recognized as a central component of newborn immunity against pathogens. More recent studies indicate that inflammatory mediators, micronutrients, microbial products and maternal cells are transferred in utero and influence the fetal immune system...
October 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950278/yakult-intestinal-flora-scan-a-novel-culture-independent-analytical-method-for-detection-of-bacteria-in-the-bloodstream
#7
Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto
We have developed a highly sensitive microbial analytical system, the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN (YIF-SCAN), based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to quantify the intestinal microbiota. Targeting ribosomal RNA "molecules," which are present in abundant copies in the microorganisms, YIF-SCAN is at least hundreds of times more sensitive (detection limits: 102-3 cells/g feces, 1 cell/mL blood) than conventional DNA-based methods, and hence enables highly sensitive and precise detection of viable microorganisms in various types of samples, such as stools, blood etc...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942051/clinical-cystoisosporosis-associated-to-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-suid-herpesvirus-2-infection-in-fattening-pigs
#8
Walter Basso, Hanna Marti, Monika Hilbe, Titus Sydler, Anina Stahel, Esther Bürgi, Xaver Sidler
Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis is the causative agent of neonatal porcine coccidiosis and one of the main causes of diarrhoea in suckling piglets worldwide. Infection with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV, Suid herpesvirus 2) causes inclusion body rhinitis in pigs. In a Swiss pig herd (n=2 boars, 7 sows, 2 gilts, 18 finishing pigs, 30 fattening pigs, 54 suckling piglets), an outbreak of PCMV infection with high morbidity in all age categories, characterized by fever, anorexia, reduced general condition, respiratory signs and increased piglet mortality, was diagnosed by histopathology and molecular methods...
December 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919115/global-regional-and-national-under-5-mortality-adult-mortality-age-specific-mortality-and-life-expectancy-1970-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#10
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality between 1970 and 2016 for 195 countries and territories and at the subnational level for the five countries with a population greater than 200 million in 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#11
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884908/analysis-of-dermatologic-consultations-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-over-a-7-year-period-retrospective-review-of-60-cases
#13
Jeong Nan Kang, Do Hyeong Kim, So Hee Park, Jung Eun Seol, Hyojin Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The need for dermatology consultations for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients is increasing, but no study has systemically examined the skin diseases of patients in NICUs. The aim of this study was to analyze dermatology consultations in the NICU of a tertiary medical center in Korea and determine the effect of the dermatology consultation on the clinical course and management of the patients after the consultation. METHODS: The medical records of patients undergoing dermatologic consultation during their stay in a NICU between March 2009 and February 2016 were reviewed retrospectively...
September 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877754/association-between-suspected-zika-virus-disease-during-pregnancy-and-giving-birth-to-a-newborn-with-congenital-microcephaly-a-matched-case-control-study
#14
Ticiane Henriques Santa Rita, Renata Barcelos Barra, Gisele Pasquali Peixoto, Pedro Goes Mesquita, Gustavo Barcelos Barra
OBJECTIVE: In early 2015, an outbreak of an acute exanthematous illness with dengue-like symptoms occurred in northeastern Brazil. By the end of the same year, an unexpected increase in the number of cases of microcephaly was observed in the region. The microcephaly outbreak cause was unknown and rumors pointing to various potential causes arose. Since we were unaware at the time if this scenario would attract the interest of the broader scientific community, due to the neglected regions associated and as often happens with many others health conditions related to infectious diseases in Latin America...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861076/case-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-caused-by-an-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-strain-of-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#15
Khalit S Khaertynov, Vladimir A Anokhin, Yuri N Davidyuk, Irina V Nicolaeva, Svetlana V Khalioullina, Dina R Semyenova, Evgeny Y Alatyrev, Natalia N Skvortsova, Levon G Abrahamyan
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important infectious agents among neonates. This pathogen has a potential to develop an increased antimicrobial resistance and virulence. The classic non-virulent strain of K. pneumoniae, producing an extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), is associated with nosocomial infection mainly in preterm neonates. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains are associated with invasive infection among previously healthy ambulatory patients, and most of them exhibit antimicrobial susceptibility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859955/human-placentophagy-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Alex Farr, Frank A Chervenak, Laurence B McCullough, Rebecca N Baergen, Amos Grünebaum
Placentophagy or placentophagia, the postpartum ingestion of the placenta, is widespread among mammals; however, no contemporary human culture incorporates eating placenta postpartum as part of its traditions. At present, there is an increasing interest in placentophagy among postpartum women, especially in the United States. The placenta can be eaten raw, cooked, roasted, dehydrated, or encapsulated or through smoothies and tinctures. The most frequently used preparation appears to be placenta encapsulation after steaming and dehydration...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859768/no-233-antibiotic-therapy-in-preterm-premature-rupture-of-the-membranes
#17
Mark H Yudin, Julie van Schalkwyk, Nancy Van Eyk
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence and provide recommendations on the use of antibiotics in preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). OUTCOMES: Outcomes evaluated include the effect of antibiotic treatment on maternal infection, chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library, using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (PPROM, infection, and antibiotics)...
September 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844055/what-is-mr-spectroscopy
#18
Karen Angela Manias, Andrew Peet
(1)H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a novel advanced imaging technique used as an adjunct to MRI to reveal complementary non-invasive information about the biochemical composition of imaged tissue. Clinical uses in paediatrics include aiding diagnosis of brain tumours, neonatal disorders such as hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, inherited metabolic diseases, traumatic brain injury, demyelinating conditions and infectious brain lesions. MRS has potential to improve diagnosis and treatment monitoring of childhood brain tumours and other CNS diseases, facilitate biopsy and surgical planning, and provide prognostic biomarkers...
August 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736507/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736265/preparing-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-the-perinatal-population
#20
Kathleen O'Rourke, Teresa Murphy, Sindhu K Srinivas, David A Pegues
The unprecedented scale of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa and the recent emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus infection and resultant neonatal sequelae show that the geographic range, spread, and effect of emerging infections are unpredictable. Lessons learned from analyzing the response of an academic medical center to care for pregnant women with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease can help health care professionals address future threats from emerging infections.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
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