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Neonatal infectious disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693463/descriptive-analysis-of-cochrane-child-relevant-systematic-reviews-an-update-and-comparison-between-2009-and-2013
#1
Katelynn Crick, Denise Thomson, Ricardo M Fernandes, Megan Nuspl, Dean T Eurich, Brian H Rowe, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews support health systems and clinical decision-making by identifying and summarizing all existing studies on a particular topic. In 2009, a comprehensive description of child-relevant systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was compiled. This study aims to provide an update, and to describe these systematic reviews according to their content and methodological approaches. METHODS: All child-relevant systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Collaboration in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) as of March, 2013 were identified and described in relation to their content and methodological approaches...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662103/high-prevalence-of-gii-norovirus-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-beijing
#3
Liping Jia, You Zhang, Liying Liu, Huijin Dong, Linqing Zhao, Yuan Qian
This study was addressed to the relationship between norovirus and acute diarrhea in hospitalized children, including hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and community-acquired infection (CAI) in a children's hospital in Beijing. RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in stool specimen, followed by sequence analysis for PCR products. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 1248 specimens, including 661 from the HAI group and 587 from the CAI group were tested for norovirus. Norovirus were detected in 380 of 1248 (30.4%) diarrheal specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649577/in%C3%A2-vivo-murine-matured-human-cd3-cells-as-a-preclinical-model-for-t-cell-based-immunotherapies
#4
Kevin G Haworth, Christina Ironside, Zachary K Norgaard, Willimark M Obenza, Jennifer E Adair, Hans-Peter Kiem
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy is a promising and powerful method for the treatment of a broad range of malignant and infectious diseases. Although the concept of cellular immunotherapy was originally proposed in the 1990s, it has not seen successful clinical application until recent years. Despite significant progress in creating engineered receptors against both malignant and viral epitopes, no efficient preclinical animal models exist for rapidly testing and directly comparing these engineered receptors...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#5
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641304/hyperemesis-gravidarum-a-review-of-recent-literature
#6
Viktoriya London, Stephanie Grube, David M Sherer, Ovadia Abulafia
BACKGROUND: In the United States, hyperemesis gravidarum is the most common cause of hospitalization during the first half of pregnancy and is second only to preterm labor for hospitalizations in pregnancy overall. In approximately 0.3-3% of pregnancies, hyperemesis gravidarum is prevalent and this percentage varies on account of different diagnostic criteria and ethnic variation in study populations. Despite extensive research in this field, the mechanism of the disease is largely unknown...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632739/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-tool-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-pediatric-deaths-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#7
Quique Bassat, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Tacilta Nhampossa, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sónia Bandeira, Calvino Sambo, Valeria Chicamba, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Pau Cisteró, Alfredo Mayor, Anelsio Cossa, Inacio Mandomando, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Jordi Vila, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Llorenç Quintó, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Clara Menéndez, Jaume Ordi
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the world has witnessed unprecedented progress in child survival. However, our knowledge of what is killing nearly 6 million children annually in low- and middle-income countries remains poor, partly because of the inadequacy and reduced precision of the methods currently utilized in these settings to investigate causes of death (CoDs). The study objective was to validate the use of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) approach as an adequate and more acceptable substitute for the complete diagnostic autopsy (CDA) for pediatric CoD investigation in a poor setting...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#8
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618728/epidemiology-of-under-five-mortality-in-%C3%A4-stanbul-changes-from-1988-to-2011
#9
Aysun Fahriye Buzcu, Aylin Yetim Şahin, Esra Karapinar, Özge Erol, Emine Gülbin Gökçay
BACKGROUND/AIM: Understanding the causes of under-five deaths is key to realizing sustainable developmental goals. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the causes of under-five mortality in İstanbul during 2011 and compare the findings to those of 1988 and 2000. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All burial records of İstanbul were evaluated, and cemetery records of 1494 children, who died at under five years of age and were buried in İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality Cemeteries between 1 January and 31 December 2011, were analyzed...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571223/neonatal-hyperthyroidism-with-fulminant-liver-failure-a-case-report
#10
Mohammed Hasosah, Khalid Alsaleem, Mansour Qurashi, Abdullah Alzaben
Neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare disease that is seen in infants born to mothers with Graves' disease. Hepatic manifestation of neonatal hyperthyroidism is extremely rare. We describe a neonate with fulminant liver failure secondary to neonatal hyperthyroidism caused by maternal Graves's disease. The baby was admitted with low birth weight and hepatosplenomegaly. At day 2 of life, the baby was irritable and he developed respiratory distress and fulminant hepatic failure which required mechanical ventilation...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557994/the-societal-cost-of-heroin-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#11
Ruixuan Jiang, Inyoung Lee, Todd A Lee, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: Heroin use in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. The objective of this paper is to estimate the annual societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States in 2015 US dollars. METHODS: An analytic model was created that included incarceration and crime; treatment for heroin use disorder; chronic infectious diseases (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Tuberculosis) and their treatments; treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome; lost productivity; and death by heroin overdose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552588/vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy-effect-on-the-neonatal-immune-system-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Eve Hornsby, Paul E Pfeffer, Nancy Laranjo, William Cruikshank, Marina Tuzova, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss, Vincent J Carey, George O'Connor, Catherine Hawrylowicz
BACKGROUND: Programming of the immune system during fetal development can influence asthma-related risk factors and outcomes in later life. Vitamin D is a well-recognized immune modulator, and deficiency of this nutrient during pregnancy is hypothesized to influence disease development in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect on neonatal immunity of maternal supplementation with 4400 IU/d vitamin D3 during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy by using a subset of cord blood samples from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551379/review-of-1-000-consecutive-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-runs-as-a-quality-initiative
#13
Harold N Lovvorn, Daphne C Hardison, Heidi Chen, Ashly C Westrick, Melissa E Danko, Brian C Bridges, William F Walsh, John B Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a resource-intensive mode of life-support potentially applicable when conventional therapies fail. Given the initial success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support neonates and infants in the 1980s, indications have expanded to include adolescents, adults, and selected moribund patients during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This single-institution analysis was conducted to evaluate programmatic growth, outcomes, and risk for death despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation across all ages and diseases...
May 24, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#14
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520859/the-role-of-patient-care-items-as-a-fomite-in-healthcare-associated-outbreaks-and-infection-prevention
#15
Hajime Kanamori, William A Rutala, David J Weber
Patient-care items can serve as a source or reservoir for healthcare associated pathogens in hospitals. We reviewed healthcare-associated outbreaks from medical equipment and provided infection prevention recommendations. Multiple healthcare-associated outbreaks via a contaminated patient-care item were identified, including infections with multidrug-resistant organisms. The type of patient-care items implicated as a fomite causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI) has changed over time. Patient populations at risk were most commonly critically ill patients in adult and neonatal ICUs...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516331/burden-of-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-in-the-united-states
#16
S Modi, Abhimanyu Mahajan, D Dharaiya, P Varelas, P Mitsias
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a disease of public health concern, but its burden on the healthcare of United States has not been adequately assessed recently. We aimed to define the incidence, complications and outcomes of HSVE in the recent decade by analyzing data from a nationally representative database. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were utilized to identify patients with primary discharge diagnosis of HSVE. Annual hospitalization rate was estimated and several preselected inpatient complications were identified...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480292/sex-disparity-in-cord-blood-foxp3-cd4-t-regulatory-cells-in-infants-exposed-to-malaria-in-utero
#17
Mary Prahl, Prasanna Jagannathan, Tara I McIntyre, Ann Auma, Samuel Wamala, Mayimuna Nalubega, Kenneth Musinguzi, Kate Naluwu, Esther Sikyoma, Rachel Budker, Pamela Odorizzi, Abel Kakuru, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Margaret E Feeney
Sex differences in the immune response and in infectious disease susceptibility have been well described, although the mechanisms underlying these differences remain incompletely understood. We evaluated the frequency of cord blood CD4 T cell subsets in a highly malaria-exposed birth cohort of mother-infant pairs in Uganda by sex. We found that frequencies of cord blood regulatory T cell ([Treg] CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)CD127(lo/-)) differed by infant sex, with significantly lower frequencies of Tregs in female than in male neonates (P = ...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471985/the-clinical-significance-of-scd14-st-for-blood-biomarker-in-neonatal-hematosepsis-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#18
Ting Xiao, Li-Ping Chen, Li-Hua Zhang, Fu-Huang Lai, Li Zhang, Qun-Feng Qiu, Rong-Liang Que, SiSi Xie, Ding-Chang Wu
Hematosepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with suspected or confirmed infection, which is the most common infectious disease in clinical neonatal intensive care unit. As the rapid development of neonatal hematosepsis caused by various basic diseases, the mortality rate is high, and there are some sequelae.We report the lasted study to date with 96 cases from Fujian Longyan First Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The aim of our study is to explore the value of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 subtype (sCD14-ST) in whole blood for differential diagnosis of neonatal hematosepsis at an early stage, and used in evaluation of the severity about sepsis combined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte (WBC)...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466045/first-report-of-detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-porcine-parvovirus-in-domestic-and-wild-pigs-in-kerala-india
#19
J Aishwarya, Chintu Ravishankar, R Rajasekhar, K Sumod, Nimisha Bhaskar, Shiju Shaji, Koshy John, M Mini
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a DNA virus of the genus Parvovirus of family Parvoviridae. It is the causative agent of many disease problems in pigs such as maternal reproductive failure, stillbirth, mummification, embryonic or fetal death, infertility, abortion and neonatal death. A study was conducted to assess the incidence of the virus in pigs in Kerala State in South India. A total of 38 samples were collected from domestic and wild pigs from different districts of the State. Polymerase chain reaction targeting a 265 bp fragment of the NS1 gene of the virus was carried out...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451778/central-nervous-system-melioidosis-in-the-pediatric-age-group-review
#20
REVIEW
G Lakshmi Prasad, Pushpa Kini, Divya S
PURPOSE: Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Neurologic involvement in pediatric age group is very rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported in literature. We sought to provide a systematic review of pediatric neurologic melioidosis. METHODS: Literature review was performed to analyze reported cases of pediatric neurologic melioidosis (≤16 years) by searching online database (PubMed/MEDLINE). RESULTS: Twenty-seven cases were analyzed...
April 27, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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