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Frontotemporal schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817844/brain-structure-biomarkers-in-the-psychosis-biotypes-findings-from-the-bipolar-schizophrenia-network-for-intermediate-phenotypes
#1
Elena I Ivleva, Brett A Clementz, Anthony M Dutcher, Sara J M Arnold, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Sina Aslan, Bradley Witte, Gaurav Poudyal, Hanzhang Lu, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Matcheri S Keshavan, Carol A Tamminga
BACKGROUND: The current definitions of psychotic illness lack biological validity, motivating alternative biomarker-driven disease entities. Building on experimental constructs-Biotypes-that were previously developed from cognitive and neurophysiologic measures, we contrast brain anatomy characteristics across Biotypes alongside conventional diagnoses, examining gray matter density (GMD) as an independent validator for the Biotypes. METHODS: Whole brain GMD measures were examined in probands, their relatives, and healthy subjects organized by Biotype and then by DSM-IV-TR diagnosis (n = 1409) using voxel-based morphometry with subsequent subject-level regional characterization and distribution analyses...
August 31, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772665/-reconciliating-neurology-and-psychiatry-the-prototypical-case-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#2
J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761925/psychiatric-disorders-prior-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Martin R Turner, Raph Goldacre, Kevin Talbot, Michael J Goldacre
It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with frontotemporal dementia...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714552/mapping-temporo-parietal-and-temporo-occipital-cortico-cortical-connections-of-the-human-middle-longitudinal-fascicle-in-subject-specific-probabilistic-and-stereotaxic-talairach-spaces
#4
Nikos Makris, A Zhu, G M Papadimitriou, P Mouradian, I Ng, E Scaccianoce, G Baselli, F Baglio, M E Shenton, Y Rathi, B Dickerson, E Yeterian, M Kubicki
Originally, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) was defined as a long association fiber tract connecting the superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole with the angular gyrus. More recently its description has been expanded to include all long postrolandic cortico-cortical association connections of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal temporal pole with the parietal and occipital lobes. Despite its location and size, which makes MdLF one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, its discovery in humans is recent...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462511/effects-of-modified-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-the-electroencephalogram-of-schizophrenia-patients
#5
Ling Zhao, Yansheng Jiang, Hongxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) on the electroencephalogram (EEG) of schizophrenia patients. A total of 26 schizophrenia patients who received MECT were recruited. EEG recording was initiated at 30 min before 1st and 6th MECT and terminated on the 2nd day. Images without artifacts were selected for the analysis of δ, θ, α1, α2 and β bands. The wave energy at each frequency, index of waves at different bands from the same lead, index of waves at the same band from different leads, time of epileptic discharge, time of resting state, and time to the stable EEG were determined and compared...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223596/schizophrenia-as-a-mimic-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Cora J Kerssens, Welmoed A Krudop, Niels D Prins, Bart N M van Berckel, Annemieke Rozemuller, William W Seeley, Philip Scheltens, Max L Stek, Yolande A L Pijnenburg
Recently, the diagnostic criteria for the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia were revised. Although these criteria offer a relatively high sensitivity, their specificity is yet unknown. We describe a 54-year-old woman fulfilling criteria for both late-onset schizophrenia and probable behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Following an initial presentation with psychosis, she developed progressive apathy, compulsiveness, and executive dysfunction. Moreover, bilateral frontotemporal hypometabolism was seen on [(18)F]fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography...
June 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181747/a-case-of-variant-biochemical-phenotype-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-accompanying-savant-syndrome
#7
Mio Hamatani, Naoto Jingami, Kengo Uemura, Naoe Nakasone, Hisanori Kinoshita, Hodaka Yamakado, Haruaki Ninomiya, Ryosuke Takahashi
A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC)...
June 22, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148089/understanding-neuropsychiatric-diseases-analyzing-the-peptide-sharing-between-infectious-agents-and-the-language-associated-nmda-2a-protein
#8
REVIEW
Guglielmo Lucchese
Language disorders and infections may occur together and often concur, to a different extent and via different modalities, in characterizing brain pathologies, such as schizophrenia, autism, epilepsies, bipolar disorders, frontotemporal neurodegeneration, and encephalitis, inter alia. The biological mechanism(s) that might channel language dysfunctions and infections into etiological pathways connected to neuropathologic sequelae are unclear. Searching for molecular link(s) between language disorders and infections, the present study explores the language-associated NMDA 2A subunit for peptide sharing with pathogens that have been described in concomitance with neuropsychiatric diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136748/preparation-of-human-formalin-fixed-brain-slices-for-electron-microscopic-investigations
#9
Martin Krause, Martin Brüne, Carsten Theiss
Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals...
July 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119257/emotion-processing-deficits-in-the-different-dimensions-of-psychometric-schizotypy
#10
Stella G Giakoumaki
Schizotypy refers to a personality structure indicating "proneness" to schizophrenia. Around 10% of the general population has increased schizotypal traits, they also share other core features with schizophrenia and are thus at heightened risk for developing schizophrenia and spectrum disorders. A key aspect in schizophrenia-spectrum pathology is the impairment observed in emotion-related processes. This review summarizes findings on impairments related to central aspects of emotional processes, such as emotional disposition, alexithymia, facial affect recognition and speech prosody, in high schizotypal individuals in the general population...
June 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042910/psychiatric-aspects-of-dementia
#11
Chiadi U Onyike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia...
April 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017316/-diogenes-syndrome-and-hoarding-disorder-same-or-different
#12
B Lavigne, M Hamdan, B Faure, H Merveille, M Pareaud, E Tallon, A Bouthier, J-P Clément, B Calvet
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the DSM-5. In this new version, new diagnoses were proposed including the Hoarding disorder. In the French semeiology, the Diogenes syndrome is described, among other symptoms, by a pathological tendency to accumulate objects called syllogomania which is very close to hoarding. This paper explores the similarities and differences between the two syndromes. DESCRIPTION: The Diogenes syndrome was first described in 1966 but was officially named for the ancient Greek philosopher in 1975 by Clark...
March 23, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948188/brain-imaging-studies-of-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Elias Mouchlianitis, Robert McCutcheon, Oliver D Howes
Around 30% of patients with schizophrenia show an inadequate response to antipsychotics-ie, treatment resistance. Neuroimaging studies can help to uncover the underlying neurobiological reasons for such resistance and identify these patients earlier. Additionally, studies examining the effect of clozapine on the brain can help to identify aspects of clozapine that make it uniquely effective in patients with treatment resistance. We did a systematic search of PubMed between Jan 1, 1980, and April 13, 2015, to identify all neuroimaging studies that examined treatment-resistant patients or longitudinally assessed the effects of clozapine treatment...
May 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869919/molecular-pathways-bridging-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-psychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Roberta Zanardini, Miriam Ciani, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni
The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia (SCZ), can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review, we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26862832/the-c9orf72-expansion-sizes-in-patients-with-psychosis-a-population-based-study-on-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966
#15
Eino Solje, Jouko Miettunen, Riikka Marttila, Seppo Helisalmi, Marjo Laitinen, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Matti Isohanni, Mikko Hiltunen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes
Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27...
April 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735706/photosensitivity-in-a-patient-with-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#16
Paula Janssen, Mark Houben, Erik Hoff
The phenotype of C9ORF72 repeat expansions is rapidly expanding. Originally found to be the major genetic cause of familial frontotemporal dementia with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, several other clinical characteristics have been described more recently. Here, we report on a family diagnosed with 'degenerative schizophrenia' and harbouring a C9ORF72 repeat expansion, in which at least the index patient and an uncle showed a photoparoxysmal response during electroencephalography. Whereas epilepsy has been described in several repeat expansion disorders, photosensitivity has thus far only been reported in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy...
2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712857/limited-evidence-for-association-of-genome-wide-schizophrenia-risk-variants-on-cortical-neuroimaging-phenotypes
#17
Aristotle N Voineskos, Daniel Felsky, Anne L Wheeler, David J Rotenberg, Melissa Levesque, Sejal Patel, Philip R Szeszko, James L Kennedy, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra
BACKGROUND: There are now over 100 established genetic risk variants for schizophrenia; however, their influence on brain structure and circuitry across the human lifespan are not known. METHODS: We examined healthy individuals 8-86 years of age, from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, the Zucker Hillside Hospital, and the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Following thorough quality control procedures, we investigated associations of established genetic risk variants with heritable neuroimaging phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia, namely thickness of frontal and temporal cortical regions (n = 565) and frontotemporal and interhemispheric white matter tract fractional anisotropy (FA) (n = 530)...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708327/neuroanatomical-markers-of-neurological-soft-signs-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia-and-asperger-syndrome
#18
Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf, Isa Paternoga, Katharina M Kubera, Anne K Thomann, Bram Stieltjes, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are frequently found in psychiatric disorders of significant neurodevelopmental origin. Previous MRI studies in schizophrenia have shown that NSS are associated with abnormal cortical, thalamic and cerebellar structure and function. So far, however, no neuroimaging studies investigated brain correlates of NSS in individuals with Asperger-Syndrome (AS) and the question whether the two disorders exhibit common or disease-specific cortical correlates of NSS remains unresolved. High-resolution MRI data at 3 T were obtained from 48 demographically matched individuals (16 schizophrenia patients, 16 subjects with AS and 16 healthy individuals)...
May 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691640/hexanucleotide-repeat-expansion-in-c9orf72-is-not-detected-in-the-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-patients-of-chinese-han
#19
Xijia Xu, Shiping Xie, Xiaomeng Shi, Jie Lv, Xiaowei Tang, Xiaolan Wang, Shuiping Lu, Mingzhong Wang, Xiaobing Zhang, Jing Sun, Hui Yao
Hexanucleotide (GGGGCC) repeat expansion in C9ORF72 (HRE) causes frontotemporal lobar degeneration, frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. HRE was also seen in the genomes of patients suffering from several other degenerative diseases. However, whether it is present in the treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients remains unknown. Genotyping 386 patients suffering from treatment-resistant schizophrenia using the method of Repeat-Primed PCR, we reported here that no HRE was detected in the patients of Chinese Han...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656662/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-brain-function-during-verbal-fluency-testing-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#20
Po-Han Chou, Wei-Hao Lin, Chih-Chien Lin, Po-Hsun Hou, Wan-Rung Li, Chia-Chun Hung, Ching-Po Lin, Tsuo-Hung Lan, Chin-Hong Chan
A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia (SZ); however, it remains unclear whether this is due to neurotoxic effects of psychosis. The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain function using two verbal fluency tests (VFTs) in patients with first-episode SZ (FES). A total of 28 FES patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent NIRS during VFTs. Group comparisons of cortical activity were made using two-tailed t-tests and the false discovery rate method...
December 10, 2015: Scientific Reports
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