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Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Carlos H I Ramos
Chaperones belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are ubiquitous and exhibit elevated expression under stresses conditions to protect proteins against aggregation, thereby contributing to the stress tolerance of the organism. Tropical plants are constantly exposed to high temperatures, and the mechanisms by which these plants tolerate heat stress are of foremost importance to basic science as well as applied agrobiotechnology. Therefore, this study aims to characterize sHSPs from different organelles from sugarcane, an important crop that is associated with sugar and bioenergy production...
June 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hayley S McLoughlin, Lauren R Moore, Ravi Chopra, Robert Komlo, Megan McKenzie, Kate G Blumenstein, Hien Zhao, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Vikram G Shakkottai, Henry L Paulson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease, is the most common dominantly inherited ataxia. Despite advances in understanding this CAG repeat/polyglutamine expansion disease, there are still no therapies to alter its progressive fatal course. Here we investigate whether an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3, can prevent molecular, neuropathological, electrophysiological and behavioral features of the disease in a mouse model of SCA3...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Quanxin Li, Ziying Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiaqing Zhu, Liang Li, Xiaojie Wang, Xiaoyang Cui, Yu Sun, Wei Tang, Chengjiang Gao, Chunhong Ma, Fan Yi
There is significant progress in understanding the structure and function of NLRC5, a member of the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family. However, in the context of MHC class I gene expression, the functions of NLRC5 in innate and adaptive immune responses beyond the regulation of MHC class I genes remain controversial and unresolved. In particular, the role of NLRC5 in the kidney is unknown. NLRC5 was significantly upregulated in the kidney from mice with renal ischemia/reperfusion injury...
June 12, 2018: Kidney International
Růžena Píchalová, Tibor Füzik, Barbora Vokatá, Michaela Rumlová, Manuel Llano, Alžběta Dostálková, Ivana Křížová, Tomáš Ruml, Pavel Ulbrich
Retrovirus assembly is driven mostly by Gag polyprotein oligomerization, which is mediated by inter and intra protein-protein interactions among its capsid (CA) domains. Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) CA contains three cysteines (C82, C193 and C213), where the latter two are highly conserved among most retroviruses. To determine the importance of these cysteines, we introduced mutations of these residues in both bacterial and proviral vectors and studied their impact on the M-PMV life cycle. These studies revealed that the presence of both conserved cysteines of M-PMV CA is necessary for both proper assembly and virus infectivity...
June 12, 2018: Virology
Karam Kim, Hye Jeong Kim, Bert Binas, Jin Hyun Kang, Il Yup Chung
Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play a proinflammatory role in the pathogenesis of airway obstructive diseases such as severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein platform that activates the caspase-1 pathway in response to inflammatory stimuli such as DAMPs. ATP and S100 proteins are newly identified DAMPs that accumulate in inflamed airways. We previously demonstrated that S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 induce production and secretion of MUC5AC, a major mucin in the conducting airway mucosa...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eyleen Sabine Heidrich, Thomas Brüser
PspA is a key component of the bacterial Psp membrane-stress response system. The biochemical and functional characterization of PspA is impeded by its oligomerization and aggregation properties. It was recently possible to solve the coiled coil structure of a completely soluble PspA fragment, PspA(1-144), that associates with the σ54 enhancer binding protein PspF at its W56-loop and thereby down-regulates the Psp response. We now found that the C-terminal part of PspA, PspA(145-222), also interacts with PspF and inhibits its activity in the absence of full-length PspA...
2018: PloS One
Hanan Abdelmawgoud, Asmaa Saleh
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of increased importance because of their capacity to counteract inflammation and suppress host immune responses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paw swelling was assessed by measuring the thickness of the hind paws using a caliper. Cytokines - interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and IL-10 - and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Tingting Li, Jin'e Liu, Hao Cai, Baomei Wang, Yunfeng Feng, Jun Liu
Cell-matrix interactions play critical roles in cell adhesion, tissue remodeling and cancer metastasis. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen receptor belonging to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. It is a powerful regulator of collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the oligomerization of DDR extracellular domain (ECD) proteins can affect matrix remodeling by inhibiting fibrillogenesis, it is still unknown how cellular DDR2 is incorporated into collagen matrix. Using 3-dimentional (3D) imaging for migrating cells, we identified a novel mechanism that explains how DDR2 incorporating into collagen matrix, which we named as posterior remnant tethering...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Son Tung Ngo, Huynh Minh Hung, Nam Dao Hong, Nguyen Thanh Tung
The residue E22 plays a critical role in the aggregation process of Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. The effect of E22Q mutant on the shapes of the solvated Aβ11-40 trimer is clarified using a replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulation employing ∼20.6 μs of MD simulations with 48 disparate replicas. The increase of intramolecular polar contacts and salt bridge between the residue D23 to residues (24-29) was observed. The residual secondary structure of the mutated trimer is shifted in a similar way to the picture observed in previous investigations of F19W mutant...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Shuyi Wang, Juan Xue, Ping Lu, Chunshan Ni, Hao Cheng, Rui Han, Stijn van der Veen
OBJECTIVES: The rise in multidrug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae poses a threat to healthcare, while the development of an effective vaccine has remained elusive due to antigenic and phase variability of surface-expressed proteins. In the current study, we identified a fully conserved surface expressed protein and characterized its suitability as a vaccine antigen. METHODS: An in silico approach was used to predict surface-expressed proteins and analyze sequence conservation and phase variability...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Infection
Xiaohui Xu, Congmin Ma, Chao Liu, Zhihui Duan, Li Zhang
Atherosclerosis remains to be one of the most common vascular disorders resulting in morbidity and mortality in the world. Recent studies suggested that endothelial cells (ECs) injury caused by oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an early marker for atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of ox-LDL-induced ECs injury are complicated and largely unknown. Here, we found lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) was upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by ox-LDL...
June 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ales Holoubek, Petr Heřman, Jan Sýkora, Barbora Brodská, Jana Humpolíčková, Markéta Kráčmarová, Dana Gášková, Martin Hof, Kateřina Kuželová
Oligomerization plays a crucial role in the function of nucleophosmin (NPM), an abundant nucleolar phosphoprotein. Two dual-color methods based on modern fluorescence confocal microscopy are applied for tracking NPM aggregates in live cells: cross-correlation Number and Brightness analysis (ccN&B) combined with pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) utilizing resonance energy transfer (FRET). HEK-293T cells were transfected with mixture of plasmids designed for tagging with fluorescent proteins so that the cells express mixed population of NPM labeled either with eGFP or mRFP1...
June 14, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
ArunSundar MohanaSundaram, Thukani Sathanantham Shanmugarajan, Velayutham Ravichandiran
Cognitive impulsivity, a form of suboptimal cost-benefit decision making is an illustrious attribute of an array of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In this study, delay discounting paradigm was used to assess the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) on cognitive impulsivity-in an oA42i (oligomeric amyloid β1-42 plus ibotenic acid) induced AD mouse model-using a non-spatial T-maze task. The results depicted that oA42i administration elevated cognitive impulsivity, whereas DOPET treatment attenuated the impulsive behavior and matched the choice of the sham-operated controls...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ruben Daniel Arellano, Lizette Sarai Aguilar, Rafael Argüello, Fernando Hernadez, Faviel Francisco Gonzalez, Javier Moran
Objectives: This study aims (i) to compare synovial fluid and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis and healthy controls, (ii) compare variations of synovial fluid and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels according to sex, Kellgren-Lawrence grades, and daytime sampling, and (iii) correlate the synovial fluid and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels with age, severity of disease, and daytime sampling. Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty-four individuals (44 males, 80 females; median age 66 years; range 42 to 87 years) were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology guidelines...
September 2017: Archives of Rheumatology
Duane P Grandgenett, Hideki Aihara
Integration of the reverse-transcribed viral cDNA into the host's genome is a critical step in the lifecycle of all retroviruses. Retrovirus integration is carried out by integrase (IN), a virus-encoded enzyme that forms an oligomeric 'intasome' complex with both ends of the linear viral DNA to catalyze their concerted insertions into the backbones of the host's DNA. IN also forms a complex with host proteins, which guides the intasome to the host's chromosome. Recent structural studies have revealed remarkable diversity as well as conserved features among the architectures of the intasome assembly from different genera of retroviruses...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Yosuke Ichihashi, Masaki Takagi, Tomohiro Ishii, Kenji Watanabe, Gen Nishimura, Tomonobu Hasegawa
Mutations in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein ( COMP ) gene cause both pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Most mutations in COMP are located in the region encoding type 3 thrombospondin like domain (TSP3D). We report two Japanese boys with PSACH who had different novel in-frame deletions in TSP3D. The result recapitulates previous reports in that the in-frame deletions in TSP3D preferentially caused PSACH rather than MED.
2018: Human Genome Variation
Syota Seino, Takeru Kimoto, Hidemi Yoshida, Kunikazu Tanji, Tomoh Matsumiya, Ryo Hayakari, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Kazushi Tsuruga, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tadaatsu Imaizumi
Accumulation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides have been known to be a potent cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). To expand the possibilities of preventing AD, we investigated the effects of resveratrol dimers, gnetin C and ε-viniferin, on Aβ 1-42 (Aβ42) production and the reduced cell viability observed after Aβ42 treatment (monomers, 10 μM) in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Among them, addition of gnetin C (20 μM) into the media reduced Aβ42 production most efficiently...
2018: Biomedical Research
Midori Ishii, Vladimir V Lupashin, Akihiko Nakano
The Golgi apparatus is a central station for protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells. A widely accepted model of protein transport within the Golgi apparatus is cisternal maturation. Each cisterna has specific resident proteins, which are thought to be maintained by COPI-mediated transport. However, the mechanisms underlying specific sorting of these Golgi-resident proteins remain elusive. To obtain a clue to understand the selective sorting of vesicles between the Golgi cisterenae, we investigated the molecular arrangements of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) subunits in yeast cells...
June 14, 2018: Cell Structure and Function
Shee Chee Ong, Alessia Belgi, Bianca van Lierop, Carlie Delaine, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Christopher A MacRaild, Raymond S Norton, Naomi L Haworth, Andrea J Robinson, Briony E Forbes
The development of fast-acting and highly stable insulin analogues is challenging. Insulin undergoes structural transitions essential for binding and activation of the insulin receptor (IR), but these conformational changes can also affect insulin stability. Previously, we substituted the insulin A6-A11 cystine with a rigid, non-reducible C=C linkage ("dicarba" linkage). A cis alkene permitted the conformational flexibility of the A-chain N -terminal helix necessary for high affinity IR binding resulting in surprisingly rapid activity in vivo Here, we show that, unlike the rapidly acting LysB28ProB29 insulin analogue (KP insulin), cis dicarba insulin is not inherently monomeric...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qinya Xie, Shengwen Chen, Renyun Tian, Xiang Huang, Rilin Deng, Binbin Xue, Yuwen Qin, Yan Xu, Jingjing Wang, Mengmeng Guo, Jinwen Chen, Songqing Tang, Guangdi Li, Haizhen Zhu
Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various biological processes, especially innate and adaptive immunity. However, the relationship between lncRNAs and interferon (IFN) pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we report that lncRNA ITPRIP-1 (lncITPRIP-1) is involved in viral infection and plays a crucial role in virus-triggered IFN signaling pathway through targeting MDA5. LncITPRIP-1 can be induced by viral infection, which is not entirely dependent on IFN signal. Besides, there is no coding potential found in lncITPRIP-1 transcript...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
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