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Oligomerization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910935/disentangling-the-roles-of-cholesterol-and-cd59-in-intermedilysin-pore-formation
#1
Courtney M Boyd, Edward S Parsons, Richard A G Smith, John M Seddon, Oscar Ces, Doryen Bubeck
The plasma membrane provides an essential barrier, shielding a cell from the pressures of its external environment. Pore-forming proteins, deployed by both hosts and pathogens alike, breach this barrier to lyse target cells. Intermedilysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that requires the human immune receptor CD59, in addition to cholesterol, to form giant β-barrel pores in host membranes. Here we integrate biochemical assays with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to distinguish the roles of these two receptors in mediating structural transitions of pore formation...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910159/staphylococcus-aureus-derived-membrane-vesicles-exacerbate-skin-inflammation-in-atopic-dermatitis
#2
S H Jun, J H Lee, S I Kim, C W Choi, T I Park, H R Jung, J W Cho, S H Kim, J C Lee
BACKGROUND: Skin colonization or infection with Staphylococcus aureus is known to trigger aggravation of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the exact mechanisms by which S. aureus can worsen AD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether and how S. aureus-derived membrane vesicles (MVs) contribute to worsening of AD. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses were performed to detect staphylococcal protein A (SPA) in the epidermis of AD lesions...
November 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909846/benzimidazole-inhibitors-of-protein-kinase-ck2-potently-inhibit-the-activity-of-atypical-protein-kinase-rio1
#3
Konrad Kubiński, Maciej Masłyk, Andrzej Orzeszko
Benzimidazole derivatives of 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB) comprise the important class of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. Depending on the structure, benzimidazoles inhibit CK2 with different selectivity and potency. Besides CK2, the compounds can inhibit, with similar activity, other classical eukaryotic protein kinases (e.g. PIM, DYRK, and PKD). The present results show that a majority of the most common CK2 inhibitors can affect the atypical kinase Rio1 in a nanomolar range. Kinetic data confirmed the mode of action of benzimidazoles as typical ATP-competitive inhibitors...
December 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908283/expression-of-a-fungal-manganese-peroxidase-in-escherichia-coli-a-comparison-between-the-soluble-and-refolded-enzymes
#4
Nan Wang, Kai Ren, Rong Jia, Wenting Chen, Ruirui Sun
BACKGROUND: Manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Irpex lacteus F17 has been shown to have a strong ability to degrade recalcitrant aromatic pollutants. In this study, a recombinant MnP from I. lacteus F17 was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) in the form of inclusion bodies, which were refolded to achieve an active enzyme. Further, we optimized the in vitro refolding conditions to increase the recovery yield of the recombinant protein production. Additionally, we attempted to express recombinant MnP in soluble form in E...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908246/inhibition-of-chaperonin-groel-by-a-monomer-of-ovine-prion-protein-and-its-oligomeric-forms
#5
S S Kudryavtseva, Y Y Stroylova, I A Zanyatkin, T Haertle, V I Muronetz
The possibility of inhibition of chaperonin functional activity by amyloid proteins was studied. It was found that the ovine prion protein PrP as well as its oligomeric and fibrillar forms are capable of binding with the chaperonin GroEL. Besides, GroEL was shown to promote amyloid aggregation of the monomeric and oligomeric PrP as well as PrP fibrils. The monomeric PrP was shown to inhibit the GroEL-assisted reactivation of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The oligomers of PrP decelerate the GroEL-assisted reactivation of GAPDH, and PrP fibrils did not affect this process...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906174/therapeutic-advantage-of-pro-electrophilic-drugs-to-activate-the-nrf2-are-pathway-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#6
Stuart A Lipton, Tayebeh Rezaie, Anthony Nutter, Kevin M Lopez, James Parker, Kunio Kosaka, Takumi Satoh, Scott R McKercher, Eliezer Masliah, Nobuki Nakanishi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by synaptic and neuronal loss, which occurs at least partially through oxidative stress induced by oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ)-peptide. Carnosic acid (CA), a chemical found in rosemary and sage, is a pro-electrophilic compound that is converted to its active form by oxidative stress. The active form stimulates the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway and thus production of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. We used both in vitro and in vivo models. For in vitro studies, we evaluated protective effects of CA on primary neurons exposed to oligomeric Aβ...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905166/50-and-more-years-of-propellane-chemistry-from-a-chemical-curiosity-to-explosive-applications-in-material-sciences-and-natural-product-chemistry
#7
Alicia Merve Dilmac, Eduard Spuling, Armin de Meijere, Stefan Bräse
Propellanes are a unique class of compounds with well over 10000 members with an inverted tetrahedral configuration featuring a weak single bond between two carbon atoms linked by three additional bridge. Not only structurally interesting, these propella-type compounds exhibit unusual reactivities. In this review, we highlight their synthesis and applications in material sciences, natural product chemistry and medicinal chemistry. We feature the chemistry of [1.1.1]propellane like the synthesis of oligomeric and polymeric structures derived from it such as bicyclo[1...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904671/melatonin-promotes-diabetic-wound-healing-in-vitro-by-regulating-keratinocyte-activity
#8
Ruipeng Song, Lijun Ren, Haoli Ma, Ruijing Hu, Honghong Gao, Li Wang, Xuehui Chen, Zhigang Zhao, Jialin Liu
Diabetic patients are at high risk of developing delayed cutaneous wound healing. Proper keratinocyte proliferation and migration are crucial steps during re-epithelialization. Melatonin (Mel) accelerates wound repair in full-thickness incisional wounds; however, its role in diabetic wound healing is unknown. This study explored the role of Mel in diabetic wound healing in vitro by using high glucose (HG)-cultured keratinocytes. Mel reduced the HG-induced mRNA expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, in keratinocytes...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903760/interactions-between-intersubunit-transmembrane-domains-regulate-the-chaperone-dependent-degradation-of-an-oligomeric-membrane-protein
#9
Teresa M Buck, Alexa S Jordahl, Megan E Yates, Mike Preston, Emily Cook, Thomas R Kleyman, Jeffrey L Brodsky
The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) in kidney regulates blood pressure through control of sodium and volume homeostasis, and in lung ENaC regulates the volume of airway and alveolar fluids.  ENaC is a heterotrimer of homologous α-, β-, and γ-subunits, and assembles in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) before it traffics and functions at the plasma membrane. Improperly folded or orphaned ENaC subunits are subject to ER quality control and targeted for ER associated degradation (ERAD). We previously established that a conserved, ER lumenal, molecular chaperone, Lhs1/GRP170, selects αENaC, but not β- or γENaC, for degradation when the ENaC subunits were individually expressed...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902861/thioaldehydes-from-aldehyde-hydrogen-sulfide-interaction-under-organocatalysis
#10
Joseph S Francisco, Manoj Kumar
Thioaldehydes are an important class of sulfur compounds involved in atmospheric, synthetic organic and biological chemistry. Traditionally, they are believed to be formed by the nucleophilic attack of bisulfide anion on the carbonyl compounds. Herein we suggest a novel mechanism that does not require the formation of bisulfide anion, but rather involves an interaction between hydrogen sulfide and an aldehyde. Though the uncatalyzed or the water-catalyzed reactions involve high barriers, the formic acid-catalyzed reactions involve moderate barriers that should be accessible in planetary atmospheres...
November 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901087/polymorphism-of-fibrillar-structures-depending-on-the-size-of-assembled-a%C3%AE-17-42-peptides
#11
Mookyung Cheon, Mooseok Kang, Iksoo Chang
The size of assembled Aβ17-42 peptides can determine polymorphism during oligomerization and fibrillization, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Starting from separate random monomers, various fibrillar oligomers with distinct structural characteristics were identified using discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations based on a coarse-grained protein model. From the structures observed in the simulations, two characteristic oligomer sizes emerged, trimer and paranuclei, which generated distinct structural patterns during fibrillization...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#12
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899525/reactive-oxygen-species-induce-virus-independent-mavs-oligomerization-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Iwona A Buskiewicz, Theresa Montgomery, Elizabeth C Yasewicz, Sally A Huber, Michael P Murphy, Richard C Hartley, Ryan Kelly, Mary K Crow, Andras Perl, Ralph C Budd, Andreas Koenig
The increased expression of genes induced by type I interferon (IFN) is characteristic of viral infections and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We showed that mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which normally forms a complex with retinoic acid gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases during viral infection, was activated by oxidative stress independently of RIG-I helicases. We found that chemically generated oxidative stress stimulated the formation of MAVS oligomers, which led to mitochondrial hyperpolarization and decreased adenosine triphosphate production and spare respiratory capacity, responses that were not observed in similarly treated cells lacking MAVS...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897394/highly-performing-imidazolium-functionalized-carbon-nanohorns-for-the-conversion-of-carbon-dioxide-unprecedented-increase-of-catalytic-activity-after-recycling
#14
Carla Calabrese, Leonarda Liotta, Esther Carbonell, Francesco Giacalone, Michelangelo Gruttadauria, Carmela Aprile
Six new hybrid materials, constituted by carbon nanohorns and highly cross-linked imidazolium salts, were easily synthesized via a one-step procedure based on radical oligomerization of bis-vinylimidazolium salts (bVImiX) in the presence of pristine carbon nanohorns (CNHs). Such hybrid materials were characterized and employed as the sole catalysts for the conversion of carbon dioxide into cyclic carbonate by reaction with epoxides. The solids displayed excellent TON and productivity. Moreover, four catalysts were investigated in recycling experiments...
November 29, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897371/structural-rearrangement-from-oligomer-to-fibril-detected-with-fret-in-a-designed-amphiphilic-peptide
#15
Heng Chi, Timothy A Keiderling
ß-sheet conformation is promoted in peptides with amphiphilic design, and stable ß-turn formation is favored with the unnatural amino acid DPro followed by a flexible residue, such as Gly. A 19-residue peptide (B3) was synthesized with alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues connected by symmetrical DPro-Gly and Gly-DPro turns. B3 forms an oligomeric aggregate, rich in ß-sheet conformation, which reversibly transforms into unordered structure on heating as evidenced by its temperature dependent IR spectra...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897200/lipid-ii-independent-antimicrobial-mechanism-of-nisin-depends-on-its-crowding-and-degree-of-oligomerization
#16
Ashutosh Prince, Padmani Sandhu, Pankaj Kumar, Eva Dash, Shingarika Sharma, Manoranjan Arakha, Suman Jha, Yusuf Akhter, Mohammed Saleem
Nisin inhibits bacterial growth by generating pores in cell membrane and interrupting cell-wall biosynthesis through specific lipid II interaction. However, the role of the hinge region and C-terminus residues of the peptide in antibacterial action of nisin is largely unknown. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and experimental approach, we report that at high concentration regimes of nisin, interaction with phospholipids may equally deform the bacterial cell membranes even under significantly varying amounts of lipid-II...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893720/a-functional-atg16l1-t300a-variant-is-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants
#17
Venkatesh Sampath, Vineet Bhandari, Jessica Berger, Daniel Merchant, Liyun Zhang, Mihoko Ladd, Heather Menden, Jeffery Garland, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Neil Mulrooney, Michael Quasney, John Dagle, Pascal M Lavoie, Pippa Simpson, Mary Dahmer
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of dysfunctional immune responses in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains unknown. We hypothesized that variants in Nucleotide binding and Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-Like Receptors (NLRs) and Autophagy (ATG) genes modulate vulnerability to NEC. METHODS: We genotyped a multi-center cohort of premature infants with and without NEC for NOD1, NOD2, ATG16L1, CARD8 and NLRP3 variants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893183/toxic-effects-of-human-and-rodent-variants-of-alpha-synuclein-in-vivo
#18
Natalie Landeck, Kerstin Buck, Deniz Kirik
In Parkinson's disease, abnormal alpha-synuclein (asyn) accumulation leads to the formation of soluble oligomeric species thought to be toxic to cells as well as intraneuronal inclusions. To date, the precise mechanisms leading to aggregation of asyn in the brain is not well understood. Previous studies in yeast, drosophila and transgenic mice suggested that a non-A beta component depleted version of human asyn [h-asyn(D70-83)] or human beta-synuclein (h-bsyn), naturally lacking this centrally located hydrophobic region, are less prone to form aggregates in vitro and are expected to be less toxic compared to h-asyn in vivo, although not all experimental studies unequivocally support the latter view...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892477/nanomolar-oligomerization-and-selective-co-aggregation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathogenic-mutants-revealed-by-single-molecule-fluorescence
#19
Emma Sierecki, Nichole Giles, Quill Bowden, Mark E Polinkovsky, Janina Steinbeck, Nicholas Arrioti, Diya Rahman, Akshay Bhumkar, Philip R Nicovich, Ian Ross, Robert G Parton, Till Böcking, Yann Gambin
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies, abnormal aggregates mainly composed of α-synuclein. Moreover, cases of familial Parkinson's disease have been linked to mutations in α-synuclein. In this study, we compared the behavior of wild-type (WT) α-synuclein and five of its pathological mutants (A30P, E46K, H50Q, G51D and A53T). To this end, single-molecule fluorescence detection was coupled to cell-free protein expression to measure precisely the oligomerization of proteins without purification, denaturation or labelling steps...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889899/a1-adenosine-receptor-activation-modulates-central-nervous-system-development-and-repair
#20
REVIEW
Shirin Kashfi, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Javan
Adenosine is an endogenous, autacoid purine nucleoside which performs many important biological roles, particularly during stressful events. Adenosine can signal through four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Of these, adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) has a broad, wide distribution throughout different vertebrate cell types and the highest affinity to adenosine. The A1AR-dependent action of adenosine is well documented in reports from numerous studies that have used different selective A1AR agonists and antagonists as well as in animals that have a genetically manipulated A1AR gene...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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