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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908828/assessment-of-the-potential-for-host-targeted-iminosugars-uv-4-and-uv-5-activity-against-filovirus-infections-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Kelly L Warfield, Travis K Warren, Xiangguo Qiu, Jay Wells, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Van Tongeren, Amy C Shurtleff, Krystle N Agans, Gary Wong, Michael V Callahan, Thomas W Geisbert, Brennan Klose, Urban Ramstedt, Anthony M Treston
Iminosugars are host-directed antivirals with broad-spectrum activity. The iminosugar, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or Miglustat(®)), is used in humans for treatment of Gaucher's disease and has mild antiviral properties. More potent analogs of NB-DNJ have been generated and have demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses including flaviviruses, influenza, herpesviruses and filoviruses. In the current study, a panel of analogs based on NB-DNJ was analyzed for activity against Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV)...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903271/differential-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-induced-by-vaccination-using-plasmid-dna-and-protein-recombinant-expressing-the-ns3-protein-of-dengue-virus-type-3
#2
M L Hurtado-Melgoza, A Ramos-Ligonio, L M Álvarez-Rodríguez, T Meza-Menchaca, A López-Monteon
BACKGROUND: The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#3
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#4
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881649/the-many-faces-of-the-flavivirus-ns5-protein-in-antagonism-of-type-i-interferon-signaling
#5
Sonja M Best
The vector-borne flaviviruses cause severe disease in humans on every inhabited continent on earth. Their transmission by arthropods, particularly mosquitoes, facilitates large emergence events such as witnessed with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus in the Americas. Every vector-borne flavivirus examined thus far that causes disease in humans, from dengue virus to ZIKV, antagonizes the host type I interferon (IFN-I) response by preventing JAK-STAT signaling, suggesting that suppression of this pathway is an important determinant of infection...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879463/a-tale-of-two-flaviviruses-a-seroepidemiological-study-of-dengue-virus-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-the-ouest-and-sud-est-departments-of-haiti
#6
Thomas A Weppelmann, Alexandra Burne, Michael E von Fricken, Maha A Elbadry, Madsen Beau De Rochars, Jacques Boncy, Bernard A Okech
Though plans to eliminate malaria from the island of Hispaniola have recently received much attention, arbovirus surveillance continues to be largely neglected in Haiti. To support surveillance efforts and encourage vector-control strategies, a cross-sectional study of dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) transmission was conducted using standard seroepidemiological methods. Blood samples (N = 673) were collected from 278 males and 395 females from three locations in the Ouest and Sud-Est Departments of Haiti...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870689/zika-virus-and-diagnostics
#7
Claudia Raja Gabaglia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the Zika virus (ZIKV) at the time of writing this review. The viral structure and its phylogeny, as well as the limitations of current available techniques used for diagnosis, are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy of the whole ZIKV, or a few of its proteins, are confirming its overall antigenic relatedness to other flaviviruses. Sequencing has revealed its dynamic genetic variation and has placed the Western cluster of Zika isolates within the Asian phylogenic tree...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866982/structure-of-the-ns5-methyltransferase-from-zika-virus-and-implications-in-inhibitor-design
#8
Caiying Zhang, Tingting Feng, Jinbo Cheng, Yajuan Li, Xueying Yin, Weihong Zeng, Xiangyu Jin, Yuelong Li, Feng Guo, Tengchuan Jin
Recent outbreak of flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) in America has urged the basic as well as translational studies of this important human pathogen. The nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) of the flavivirus has an N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) domain that plays critical roles in viral RNA genome capping. The null mutant of NS5 MTase is lethal for virus. Therefore, NS5 is a potential drug target for the treatment of Zika virus infection. In this study, we determined crystal structures of the ZIKV MTase in complex with GTP and RNA cap analogue (7me)GpppA...
November 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866470/the-inevitable-colonisation-of-singapore-by-zika-virus
#9
EDITORIAL
Dale Fisher, Jeffery Cutter
Singapore is endemic for Dengue virus, with approximately 10,000 to 20,000 annual cases reported in recent years. In 2012, Chikungunya was introduced, although the numbers of cases reported is much fewer. The current Zika virus pandemic originating in Brazil represents a threat to all regions with Aedes mosquitoes, particularly those well connected by travellers. In this respect, it was felt inevitable that Singapore would eventually realise its third endemic flavivirus. In late August 2016, a primary care practitioner observed a cluster of geographically linked patients attending with fever and rash...
November 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843231/anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-following-dengue-fever
#10
Reshma Ramakrishnan, Saurabh Shrivastava, Shrikant Deshpande, Priyanka Patkar
Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834908/epitope-identification-and-application-for-diagnosis-of-duck-tembusu-virus-infections-in-ducks
#11
Chenxi Li, Junyan Liu, Wulin Shaozhou, Xiaofei Bai, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding...
November 10, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834337/a-novel-indirect-elisa-for-diagnosis-of-dengue-fever
#12
Rohan Narayan, Senthil Raja, Senthil Kumar, Mohana Sambasivam, Raja Jagadeesan, Kavita Arunagiri, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Gunasekaran Palani
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dengue fever (DF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) non-structural protein- 5 (NS5) based indirect ELISA. METHODS: DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824100/identification-of-a-new-broadly-cross-reactive-epitope-within-domain-iii-of-the-duck-tembusu-virus-e-protein
#13
Chenxi Li, Xiaofei Bai, Runze Meng, Wulin Shaozhou, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
In 2010, a pathogenic flavivirus termed duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) caused widespread outbreak of egg-drop syndrome in domesticated ducks in China. Although the glycoprotein E of DTMUV is an important structural component of the virus, the B-cell epitopes of this protein remains uncharacterized. Using phage display and mutagenesis, we identified a minimal B-cell epitope, (374)EXE/DPPFG(380), that mediates binding to a nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody. DTMUV-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope, and amino acid substitutions revealed the specific amino acids that are essential for antibody binding...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821697/dengue-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-children-and-adults-in-coastal-kenya
#14
David M Vu, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Chelsea Heimbaugh, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Julie Brichard, Ginny Gildengorin, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree LaBeaud
Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814732/detection-of-dengue-virus-serotypes-1-2-and-3-in-selected-regions-of-kenya-2011-2014
#15
Limbaso Konongoi, Victor Ofula, Albert Nyunja, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Albina Makio, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, Randal J Schoepp, Cynthia Ann Rossi, Ian Njeru, Rodney Coldren, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne disease, is associated with illness of varying severity in countries in the tropics and sub tropics. Dengue cases continue to be detected more frequently and its geographic range continues to expand. We report the largest documented laboratory confirmed circulation of dengue virus in parts of Kenya since 1982. METHODS: From September 2011 to December 2014, 868 samples from febrile patients were received from hospitals in Nairobi, northern and coastal Kenya...
November 4, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812357/emergence-and-spreading-potential-of-zika-virus
#16
REVIEW
Álvaro Fajardo, Juan Cristina, Pilar Moreno
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) closely related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. ZIKV remained neglected, confined to enzootic transmission cycles in Africa and Asia, until the first significant outbreak was reported in Micronesia in 2007. Subsequent epidemics of growing incidence occurred in French Polynesia and other South Pacific Islands, and recently, in the Americas. The latter and currently ongoing outbreak of unprecedented incidence revealed the association of ZIKV infection with the occurrence of severe congenital malformations and neurological diseases, leading to a widespread concern about its potential to pose a global public health threat...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800692/waiting-in-the-wings-the-potential-of-mosquito-transmitted-flaviviruses-to-emerge
#17
Duncan R Smith
The sudden dramatic emergence of the mosquito transmitted flavivirus Zika virus has bought to the world's attention a relatively obscure virus that was previously only known to specialist researchers. The genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae contains a number of well-known mosquito transmitted human pathogenic viruses including the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. However, the genus also contains a number of lesser known human pathogenic viruses transmitted by mosquitoes including Wesselsbron virus, Ilheus virus, St...
November 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799312/a-role-for-human-skin-mast-cells-in-dengue-virus-infection-and-systemic-spread
#18
Andrea Troupin, Devon Shirley, Berlin Londono-Renteria, Alan M Watson, Cody McHale, Alex Hall, Adam Hartstone-Rose, William B Klimstra, Gregorio Gomez, Tonya M Colpitts
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes serious global human disease and mortality. Skin immune cells are an important component of initial DENV infection and systemic spread. Here, we show that mast cells are a target of DENV in human skin and that DENV infection of skin mast cells induces degranulation and alters cytokine and growth factor expression profiles. Importantly, to our knowledge, we also demonstrate for the first time that DENV localizes within secretory granules in infected skin mast cells...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798151/secreted-ns1-protects-dengue-virus-from-mannose-binding-lectin-mediated-neutralization
#19
Somchai Thiemmeca, Chamaiporn Tamdet, Nuntaya Punyadee, Tanapan Prommool, Adisak Songjaeng, Sansanee Noisakran, Chunya Puttikhunt, John P Atkinson, Michael S Diamond, Alongkot Ponlawat, Panisadee Avirutnan
Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a unique secreted nonstructural glycoprotein. Although it is absent from the flavivirus virion, intracellular and extracellular forms of NS1 have essential roles in viral replication and the pathogenesis of infection. The fate of NS1 in insect cells has been more controversial, with some reports suggesting it is exclusively cell associated. In this study, we confirm NS1 secretion from cells of insect origin and characterize its physical, biochemical, and functional properties in the context of dengue virus (DENV) infection...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792906/innate-immune-escape-by-dengue-and-west-nile-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Michaela U Gack, Michael S Diamond
Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses are mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Disease severity and pathogenesis of DENV and WNV infections in humans depend on many factors, including pre-existing immunity, strain virulence, host genetics and virus-host interactions. Among the flavivirus-host interactions, viral evasion of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity has a critical role in modulating pathogenesis. DENV and WNV have evolved effective strategies to evade immune surveillance pathways that lead to IFN induction and to block signaling downstream of the IFN-α/β receptor...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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