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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229481/cross-reactivity-of-commercial-anti-dengue-immunoassays-in-patients-with-acute-zika-virus-infection
#1
Alvina Clara Felix, Nathalia C Santiago Souza, Walter M Figueiredo, Angela A Costa, Marta Inenami, Rosangela Mg da Silva, José Eduardo Levi, Claudio Sergio Pannuti, Camila Malta Romano
Several countries have local transmission of multiple arboviruses, in particular, dengue and Zika viruses, which have recently spread through many American countries. Cross reactivity among Flaviviruses is high and present a challenge for accurate identification of the infecting agent. Thus, we evaluated the level of cross reactivity of anti-dengue IgM/G Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) from three manufacturers against 122 serum samples obtained at two time-points from 61 patients with non-dengue confirmed Zika virus infection...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228395/antibody-responses-to-zika-virus-infections-in-flavivirus-endemic-environments
#2
Sarah L Keasey, Christine L Pugh, Stig M R Jensen, Jessica L Smith, Robert D Hontz, Anna P Durbin, Dawn M Dudley, David H O'Connor, Robert G Ulrich
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus co-circulate. The envelope protein (E) of these closely related flaviviruses induces specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV and YFV infections of humans and non-human primates (NHP)...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218572/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-flaviviridae
#3
Peter Simmonds, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Tom Monath, Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Donald B Smith, Jack T Stapleton, Ictv Report Consortium
The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207910/a-single-mutation-in-the-envelope-protein-modulates-flavivirus-antigenicity-stability-and-pathogenesis
#4
Leslie Goo, Laura A VanBlargan, Kimberly A Dowd, Michael S Diamond, Theodore C Pierson
The structural flexibility or 'breathing' of the envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses allows virions to sample an ensemble of conformations at equilibrium. The molecular basis and functional consequences of virus conformational dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we identified a single mutation at residue 198 (T198F) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein domain I-II hinge that regulates virus breathing. The T198F mutation resulted in a ~70-fold increase in sensitivity to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody targeting a cryptic epitope in the fusion loop...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198548/phylogenetic-characterization-of-circulating-dengue-and-alkhumra-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-in-western-saudi-arabia-and-lack-of-evidence-of-zika-virus-in-the-region-a-retrospective-study-2010-2015
#5
Moneerah S Al-Saeed, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Suha A Farraj, Tagreed L Al-Subhi, Norah A Othman, Arwa Alsultan, Huda G Ben Helaby, Mustafa M Alshawdari, Ahmed M Hassan, Remi N Charrel, Esam I Azhar, Anwar M Hashem
Flaviviruses represent a global public health concern. They consist of ∼70 viruses with almost half of them causing human diseases with unspecified febrile illnesses. Cities in western Saudi Arabia are endemic for viruses (DENV) with sporadic infections due to Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV). They also represent a major destination for travelers coming for annual religious pilgrimages (Hajj and Umrah) from all over the world. However, whether other flaviviruses are circulating is not known because of the limited number of surveillance studies...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187130/detection-of-the-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses-west-nile-dengue-saint-louis-encephalitis-ilheus-bussuquara-and-yellow-fever-in-free-ranging-black-howlers-alouatta-caraya-of-northeastern-argentina
#6
María A Morales, Cintia M Fabbri, Gabriel E Zunino, Martín M Kowalewski, Victoria C Luppo, Delia A Enría, Silvana C Levis, Gladys E Calderón
Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179396/the-antigenic-structure-of-zika-virus-and-its-relation-to-other-flaviviruses-implications-for-infection-and-immunoprophylaxis
#7
REVIEW
Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Zika virus was discovered ∼70 years ago in Uganda and maintained a low profile as a human disease agent in Africa and Asia. Only recently has it caused explosive outbreaks in previously unaffected regions, first in Oceania and then in the Americas since 2015. Of special concern is the newly identified link between congenital malformations (especially microcephaly) and Zika virus infections during pregnancy. At present, it is unclear whether Zika virus changed its pathogenicity or whether the huge number of infections allowed the recognition of a previously cryptic pathogenic property...
March 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174309/understanding-zika-virus-stability-and-developing-a-chimeric-vaccine-through-functional-analysis
#8
Xuping Xie, Yujiao Yang, Antonio E Muruato, Jing Zou, Chao Shan, Bruno T D Nunes, Daniele B A Medeiros, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Scott C Weaver, Shannan L Rossi, Pei-Yong Shi
: Compared with other flaviviruses, Zika virus (ZIKV) is uniquely associated with congenital diseases in pregnant women. One recent study reported that (i) ZIKV has higher thermostability than dengue virus (DENV [a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV]), which might contribute to the disease outcome; (ii) the higher thermostability of ZIKV could arise from an extended loop structure in domain III of the viral envelope (E) protein and an extra hydrogen-bond interaction between E molecules (V...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167751/axl-dependent-infection-of-human-fetal-endothelial-cells-distinguishes-zika-virus-from-other-pathogenic-flaviviruses
#9
Audrey Stéphanie Richard, Byoung-Shik Shim, Young-Chan Kwon, Rong Zhang, Yuka Otsuka, Kimberly Schmitt, Fatma Berri, Michael S Diamond, Hyeryun Choe
Although a causal relationship between Zika virus (ZIKV) and microcephaly has been established, it remains unclear why ZIKV, but not other pathogenic flaviviruses, causes congenital defects. Here we show that when viruses are produced in mammalian cells, ZIKV, but not the closely related dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV), can efficiently infect key placental barrier cells that directly contact the fetal bloodstream. We show that AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is the primary ZIKV entry cofactor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and that ZIKV uses AXL with much greater efficiency than does DENV or WNV...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152048/zika-virus-antagonizes-type-i-interferon-responses-during-infection-of-human-dendritic-cells
#10
James R Bowen, Kendra M Quicke, Mohan S Maddur, Justin T O'Neal, Circe E McDonald, Nadia B Fedorova, Vinita Puri, Reed S Shabman, Bali Pulendran, Mehul S Suthar
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that is causally linked to severe neonatal birth defects, including microcephaly, and is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) are an important cell type during infection by multiple mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and yellow fever virus. Despite this, the interplay between ZIKV and DCs remains poorly defined. Here, we found human DCs supported productive infection by a contemporary Puerto Rican isolate with considerable variability in viral replication, but not viral binding, between DCs from different donors...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151637/interaction-of-zika-virus-envelope-protein-with-glycosaminoglycans
#11
So Young Kim, Jing Zhao, Xinyue Liu, Keith Fraser, Lei Lin, Xing Zhang, Fuming Zhang, Jonathan S Dordick, Robert J Linhardt
In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on Zika Virus (ZIKV), due to its association with severe fetal anomalies of congenitally infected humans. This has led to urgent efforts by academic, federal, and industry research groups to better understand pathogenesis of ZIKV and to developing detection methods, therapeutic strategies and vaccines. Although we still do not have the entire picture of the pathogenesis of ZIKV, extensive research has been conducted on related pathogenic flaviviruses (i...
February 2, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148804/a-microrna-screen-identifies-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-as-a-regulator-of-the-interferon-response-during-flavivirus-infection
#12
Jessica L Smith, Sophia Jeng, Shannon K McWeeney, Alec J Hirsch
: The impact of mosquito-borne flavivirus infections worldwide is significant, and many critical aspects of these viruses' biology, including virus-host interactions, host cell requirements for replication, and how virus-host interactions impact pathology, remain to be fully understood. The recent re-emergence and spread of flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV), highlights the importance of performing basic research on this important group of pathogens...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137230/proteases-in-mosquito-borne-diseases-new-avenues-in-drug-development
#13
A Pant, R Pasupureddy, V Pande, S Seshadri, R Dixit, K C Pandey
Mosquito borne diseases continue to propagate and cause millions of deaths annually. They are caused either by protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma or by flaviviruses including Dengue and Zika. Among the proteome of such parasitic organisms, proteases play essential roles in events such as host invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, replication and immune evasion. Plasmepsin V (PMV), an endoplasmic reticulum resident aspartic protease of Plasmodium spp., is involved in the export of ~400 proteins containing the conserved Plasmodium Export Element motif (PEXEL)...
30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135273/cellular-immune-responses-to-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-je-vaccine-sa14-14-2-in-adults-in-a-je-dengue-co-endemic-area
#14
Lance Turtle, Filippo Tatullo, Tanushka Bali, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Mohammed Soni, Sajesh Chan, Savita Chib, Manjunatha M Venkataswamy, Prachi Fadnis, Mansour Yaïch, Stefan Fernandez, Paul Klenerman, Vijaya Satchidanandam, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) causes severe epidemic encephalitis across Asia, for which the live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 is being used increasingly. JEV is a flavivirus, and is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), which is co-endemic in many parts of Asia, with clinically relevant interactions. There is no information on the human T cell response to SA14-14-2, or whether responses to SA14-14-2 cross-react with DENV. We used live attenuated JE vaccine SA14-14-2 as a model for studying T cell responses to JEV infection in adults, and to determine whether these T cell responses are cross-reactive with DENV, and other flaviviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131854/a-structural-view-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-the-flavivirus-genus
#15
REVIEW
Guoliang Lu, Peng Gong
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) from the Flavivirus genus is naturally fused to a methyltransferase (MTase), and the full-length protein is named nonstructural protein 5 (NS5). Similar to polymerases from other RNA viruses, the flavivirus RdRP has an encircled human right hand architecture with palm, fingers, and thumb domains surrounding its polymerase active site. In contrast to primer-dependent RdRPs that have a spacious front channel to accommodate the template-product RNA duplex, the flavivirus RdRP has a priming element as a thumb domain insertion, partially occupying the front channel to facilitate the de novo initiation process...
January 25, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126366/testing-for-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-key-concepts-to-deal-with-an-emerging-epidemic
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Eppes, Martha Rac, James Dunn, James Versalovic, Kristy O Murray, Melissa A Suter, Magda Sanz Cortes, Jimmy Espinoza, Maxim D Seferovic, Wesley Lee, Peter Hotez, Joan Mastrobattista, Steven L Clark, Michael A Belfort, Kjersti M Aagaard
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015...
January 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124222/recent-advances-in-the-identification-of-the-host-factors-involved-in-dengue-virus-replication
#17
REVIEW
Yi Wang, Ping Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae and it is primarily transmitted via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The life cycle of DENV includes attachment, endocytosis, protein translation, RNA synthesis, assembly, egress, and maturation. Recent researches have indicated that a variety of host factors, including cellular proteins and microRNAs, positively or negatively regulate the DENV replication process. This review summarizes the latest findings (from 2014 to 2016) in the identification of the host factors involved in the DENV life cycle and Dengue infection...
January 24, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120186/dengue-and-zika-viruses-lessons-learned-from-the-similarities-between-these-aedes-mosquito-vectored-arboviruses
#18
REVIEW
San Suwanmanee, Natthanej Luplertlop
The currently spreading arbovirus epidemic is having a severe impact on human health worldwide. The two most common flaviviruses, dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are transmitted through the same viral vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since the discovery of DENV in 1943, this virus has been reported to cause around 390 million human infections per year, approximately 500,000 of which require hospitalization and over 20,000 of which are lethal. The present DENV epidemic is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116673/preventive-and-therapeutic-challenges-in-combating-zika-virus-infection-are-we-getting-any-closer
#19
REVIEW
Meera V Singh, Emily A Weber, Vir B Singh, Nicole E Stirpe, Sanjay B Maggirwar
The neuroteratogenic nature of Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection has converted what would have been a tropical disease into a global threat. Zika is transmitted vertically via infected placental cells especially in the first and second trimesters. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), ZIKV can infect and induce apoptosis of neural progenitor cells subsequently causing microcephaly as well as other neuronal complications in infants. Its ability to infect multiple cell types (placental, dermal, and neural) and increased environmental stability as compared to other flaviviruses (FVs) has broadened the transmission routes for ZIKV infection from vector-mediated to transmitted via body fluids...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107858/serodiagnosis-of-asymptomatic-dengue-infection
#20
REVIEW
Supawat Chatchen, Arunee Sabchareon, Chukiat Sirivichayakul
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that is expanding across the world. The incidence of dengue infection, especially severe disease, has been increasing. DENV consist of 4 serotypes of single stranded RNA viruses (D1-D4) in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Majority of dengue infections are asymptomatic cases, which cause difficulty in disease control and are important in dengue surveillance. There is still no gold standard to diagnose asymptomatic dengue infection. Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) has been developed for many purposes such as immunological study, clinical study, vaccine trial and is currently the most sensitive and specific method for serological surveillance...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
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