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"Brain hyperactivity"

Christian Plewnia, Bettina Brendel, Tobias Schwippel, Peter Martus, Joachim Cordes, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas J Fallgatter
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are core symptoms of schizophrenia. They are often severely distressing and refractory to therapy. Their perception is associated with increased activity in temporoparietal areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce focal brain hyperactivity and has been shown to ameliorate AH. However, controlled multicenter clinical trials are still missing, effect sizes are moderate, and the treatment with rTMS is time consuming. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a quicker and potentially more effective technique to reduce cortical hyperactivity...
December 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Jan C Beucke, Jorge Sepulcre, Ulrike Buhlmann, Norbert Kathmann, Teena Moody, Jamie D Feusner
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are categorized within the same major diagnostic group and both show regional brain hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the basal ganglia during symptom provocation. While recent studies revealed that degree connectivity of these areas is abnormally high in OCD and positively correlates with symptom severity, no study has investigated degree connectivity in BDD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the local and distant degree of functional connectivity in all brain areas between 28 unmedicated BDD participants and 28 demographically matched healthy controls during a face-processing task...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Paolo Bartolomeo, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
Jie-Yu Chuang, Kirstie J Whitaker, Graham K Murray, Rebecca Elliott, Cindy C Hagan, Julia Me Graham, Cinly Ooi, Roger Tait, Rosemary J Holt, Adrienne O van Nieuwenhuizen, Shirley Reynolds, Paul O Wilkinson, Edward T Bullmore, Belinda R Lennox, Barbara J Sahakian, Ian Goodyer, John Suckling
BACKGROUND: Depression in adolescence is debilitating with high recurrence in adulthood, yet its pathophysiological mechanism remains enigmatic. To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in depressed female adolescents, and healthy participants. METHODS: Eighty-two Depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 12-17 years, performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affective go/no-go task at baseline...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jolyn N A D'Andrea, Angela M Haffenden, Sarah Furtado, Oksana Suchowersky, Bradley G Goodyear
Parkinson's disease (PD) results from the depletion of dopamine and other neurotransmitters within the basal ganglia, and is typically characterized by motor impairment (e.g., bradykinesia) and difficulty initiating voluntary movements. Difficulty initiating a movement may result from a deficit in accessing or executing a stored representation of the movement, or having to create a new representation each time a movement is required. To date, it is unclear which may be responsible for movement initiation impairments observed in PD...
June 2013: Neuropsychologia
Marina M Yudina, Galina G Toropina, Andrey Lvov, Uwe Gieler
The aim of this study was to examine the findings of innovative neurophysiological methods of itch research. Short-latency and pain-related somatosensory-evoked potentials after electrical stimulation, as well as long-latency evoked potentials after thermal stimulation were studied in 38 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 26 healthy volunteers. Quantitative Sensory Testing of thermal perception was performed in 22 patients with AD from the main AD group and in 15 healthy volunteers. Brain hyperactivity to electrical stimuli, delayed thermal-evoked potentials and elevated thermal thresholds were revealed in patients with AD compared with healthy controls...
October 2011: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Yoshinori Takemura, Akira Yamashita, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Masaharu Furuya, Makoto Yanase, Keiichi Niikura, Satoshi Imai, Noboru Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Yoshi Tsukiyama, Emiko Senba, Motohiro Matoba, Naoko Kuzumaki, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Tsutomu Suzuki, Minoru Narita
Neuropathic pain is the most difficult pain to manage in the pain clinic, and sleep problems are common among patients with chronic pain including neuropathic pain. In the present study, we tried to visualize the intensity of pain by assessing neuronal activity and investigated sleep disturbance under a neuropathic pain-like state in mice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG), respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of gabapentin (GBP) on these phenomena...
July 2011: Synapse
Sankar Surendran, Gerald A Campbell, Stephen K Tyring, Kimberlee Matalon, J David McDonald, Reuben Matalon
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the brain. Hyperactivity is reportedly induced by a high level of orexin A, and therefore orexin A content was studied in the PKU mice. Hypothalamus and brain stem had higher levels of orexin A compared to cerebrum and cerebellum both in wild type and PKU mice brains as observed by radioimmunoassay method. Interestingly, all these regions of the brain in PKU mouse showed a higher level of orexin A compared to the wild type...
December 2003: Neurochemical Research
P Pauli, G Wiedemann, M Nickola
The right hemisphere is assumed to play a unique role for pain sensitivity and negative affect. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed daily in eight right-handed participants over a 6-week period in order to obtain reliable measures of pain sensitivity unaffected by situational influences. In an additional session, cerebral laterality was assessed with behavioral and an EEG measures. Psychometric measures were used to examine emotionality (depression, neuroticism). Pain thresholds were lower on the left compared with the right hand, and pain thresholds increased within the first 3-measurement weeks...
March 1999: Pain
A N Tsoĭ, B P Bogovskiĭ, T V Saprygina, R M Kniazev, E V Titova, V G Kukes
A single intravenous administration of 2.4%-10.0 euphylline to 35 patients with obstructive affections of the lungs entailed a broncholytic effect in large airways in patients with reversible obstruction under sub-therapeutical theophylline concentrations in the serum. In patients with mixed type of the obstruction and restrictive disturbances ineffective ventilation got worse, ventilation-perfusion relations disagreed, hemoglobin affinity to oxygen grew, pulmonary artery pressure dropped against the signs of pulmonary hypertension, EEG changed according to asynchronism pattern corresponding to brain hyperactivity...
1993: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
U Madsen, B Ebert, P Krogsgaard-Larsen
Abnormalities in the excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter system appear to be a prominent factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas hypoactivity of this system is observed in some areas of Alzheimer brains, hyperactivity may play a role in the degenerative processes in other brain areas. This apparently paradoxical situation makes therapeutic intervention in the glutamatergic system in AD difficult and demands the development of unique therapeutic approaches. The involvement of the (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors in AD brain dysfunctions seems to be important, and compounds showing different modulatory activity at AMPA receptors are discussed in relation to therapeutic possibilities...
1994: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
G N Kryzhanovskiĭ, A A Shandra, R F Makul'kin, B A Lokasiuk, L S Godlevskiĭ
The experiments on cats showed that intravenous administration of nicotinamide suppresses the epileptic activity in a solitary epileptic focus as well as in the complex of epileptic foci produced by strychnine application to various cortical zones under the influence of the most powerful focus that plays the role of a determinant. After the intravenous injection of nicotinamide (50-70 mg/kg) the complex was destabilized and broken down. The epileptic activity in the dependent foci of the complex disappeared first in the more remote from the determinant focus and then in the nearer one...
July 1980: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
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