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cell fate determination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089755/biodistribution-and-retention-of-locally-administered-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-of-human-dna-in-murine-organs
#1
Michael Creane, Linda Howard, Timothy O'Brien, Cynthia M Coleman
BACKGROUND: Determining the distributive fate and retention of a cell therapy product after administration is an essential part of characterizing it's biosafety profile. Therefore, regulatory guidelines stipulate that biodistribution assays are a requirement prior to advancing a cell therapy to the clinic. Here the development of a highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based method of tracking the biodistribution and retention of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in mice, rats or rabbits is described...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087739/tnf-signaling-through-rip1-kinase-enhances-sn38-induced-death-in-colon-adenocarcinoma
#2
Lucia Cabal-Hierro, Peter J O'Dwyer
: Elucidation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-directed mechanisms for cell death induction and maintenance of tumor growth has revealed a role for receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1/RIP1 and RIPK3/RIP3), components of the necrosome complex, as determinants of cell fate. Here the participation of TNF signaling was analyzed with regard to the cytotoxic action of different DNA damaging agents in a panel of colon cancer cells. While most of these cell lines were insensitive to TNF, combination with these drugs increased sensitivity by inducing cell death and DNA damage, especially in the case of the topoisomerase inhibitor SN38...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087638/intrinsic-properties-of-limb-bud-cells-can-be-differentially-reset
#3
Patricia Saiz-Lopez, Kavitha Chinnaiya, Matthew Towers, Maria A Ros
An intrinsic timing mechanism specifies the positional values of the zeugopod (i.e. radius/ulna) and then autopod (i.e. wrist/digits) segments during limb development. Here we have addressed if this timing mechanism ensures that patterning events occur only once by grafting GFP-expressing autopod progenitor cells to the earlier host signaling environment of zeugopod progenitor cells. We show that early and late autopod progenitors fated for the wrist and phalanges, respectively, both contribute to the entire host autopod indicating that the autopod positional value is irreversibly determined as revealed by Hoxa13 expression...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087627/inhibition-of-cell-polarity-establishment-in-stomatal-asymmetric-cell-division-using-the-chemical-compound-bubblin
#4
Yumiko Sakai, Shigeo S Sugano, Takashi Kawase, Makoto Shirakawa, Yu Imai, Yusuke Kawamoto, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Tomoo Shimada
Stem-cell polarization is a crucial step in asymmetric cell division, which is a universal system for generating cellular diversity in multicellular organisms. Several conventional genetics studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell polarization in plants, but it remains largely unknown. In plants, stomata, which are valves for gas exchange, are generated through several rounds of asymmetric divisions. In this study, we identified and characterized a chemical compound that affects stomatal stem-cell polarity...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086811/study-of-the-microrna-expression-profile-of-foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-following-inflammation-priming
#5
Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Bassam Badran, Dominique Bron, Laurence Lagneaux, Mehdi Najar
BACKGROUND: Due to their self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive tool for different therapeutic strategies. Foreskin (FSK), considered as a biological waste material, has already been shown to be a valuable source of MSCs. Besides their typical fibroblast like morphology and International Society for cellular Therapy compliant phenotype, foreskin-MSCs (FSK-MSCs) are clonogenic, and highly proliferative cells with multi-lineage and strong immunomodulatory capacities...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079893/mitochondrial-respiratory-dysfunction-disturbs-neuronal-and-cardiac-lineage-commitment-of-human-ipscs
#6
Mutsumi Yokota, Hideyuki Hatakeyama, Yasuha Ono, Miyuki Kanazawa, Yu-Ichi Goto
Mitochondrial diseases are genetically heterogeneous and present a broad clinical spectrum among patients; in most cases, genetic determinants of mitochondrial diseases are heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. However, it is uncertain whether and how heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations affect particular cellular fate-determination processes, which are closely associated with the cell-type-specific pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we established two isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines each carrying different proportions of a heteroplasmic m...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078584/cd95-mediated-calcium-signaling
#7
Mehdi Hammadi, Vanessa Delcroix, Anne-Marie Vacher, Thomas Ducret, Pierre Vacher
Intracellular calcium signals regulate cell function and cell survival by controlling many processes. CD95 engagement results in distinct intracellular calcium signals that control the cell fate, apoptosis, or survival, depending on the ligand (membrane or soluble). Intracellular calcium determination is an exquisite readout to explore the molecular mechanisms elicited by CD95 engagement. The most widely applied methods for studying calcium signaling pathways use fluorescent indicators and imaging methods with fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076852/mir-874-3p-is-down-regulated-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-negatively-regulates-pin1-expression
#8
Ka-Wai Leong, Chi-Wai Cheng, Chun-Ming Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Yok-Lam Kwong, Eric Tse
PIN1 is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that regulates multiple signaling pathways to control cell fate and is found to be over-expressed in cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulation of PIN1 in HCC remains poorly defined. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in oncogenesis by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs encoded by oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, thereby suppressing the levels of both oncoproteins and tumour suppressors...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073595/genetically-encoded-calcium-indicators-for-studying-long-term-calcium-dynamics-during-apoptosis
#9
M Iveth Garcia, Jessica J Chen, Darren Boehning
Intracellular calcium release is essential for regulating almost all cellular functions. Specific spatio-temporal patterns of cytosolic calcium elevations are critical determinants of cell fate in response to pro-apoptotic cellular stressors. As the apoptotic program can take hours or days, measurement of long-term calcium dynamics are essential for understanding the mechanistic role of calcium in apoptotic cell death. Due to the technical limitations of using calcium-sensitive dyes to measure cytosolic calcium little is known about long-term calcium dynamics in living cells after treatment with apoptosis-inducing drugs...
January 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071739/sox10-adult-stem-cells-contribute-to-biomaterial-encapsulation-and-microvascularization
#10
Dong Wang, Aijun Wang, Fan Wu, Xuefeng Qiu, Ye Li, Julia Chu, Wen-Chin Huang, Kang Xu, Xiaohua Gong, Song Li
Implanted biomaterials and biomedical devices generally induce foreign body reaction and end up with encapsulation by a dense avascular fibrous layer enriched in extracellular matrix. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts are thought to be the major cell type involved in encapsulation, but it is unclear whether and how stem cells contribute to this process. Here we show, for the first time, that Sox10(+) adult stem cells contribute to both encapsulation and microvessel formation. Sox10(+) adult stem cells were found sparsely in the stroma of subcutaneous loose connective tissues...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068307/transitional-b-cells-commit-to-marginal-zone-b-cell-fate-by-taok3-mediated-surface-expression-of-adam10
#11
Hamida Hammad, Matthias Vanderkerken, Philippe Pouliot, Kim Deswarte, Wendy Toussaint, Karl Vergote, Lana Vandersarren, Sophie Janssens, Ioanna Ramou, Savvas N Savvides, Jody J Haigh, Rudi Hendriks, Manfred Kopf, Katleen Craessaerts, Bart de Strooper, John F Kearney, Daniel H Conrad, Bart N Lambrecht
Notch2 and B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling determine whether transitional B cells become marginal zone B (MZB) or follicular B (FoB) cells in the spleen, but it is unknown how these pathways are related. We generated Taok3(-/-) mice, lacking the serine/threonine kinase Taok3, and found cell-intrinsic defects in the development of MZB but not FoB cells. Type 1 transitional (T1) B cells required Taok3 to rapidly respond to ligation by the Notch ligand Delta-like 1. BCR ligation by endogenous or exogenous ligands induced the surface expression of the metalloproteinase ADAM10 on T1 B cells in a Taok3-dependent manner...
January 9, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065308/studying-cytokinesis-and-midbody-remnants-using-correlative-light-scanning-em
#12
S Frémont, A Echard
Cytokinesis is an essential step of cell proliferation leading to the physical separation of the dividing cells. Cytokinesis relies on both large scale and local scale cell shape changes, and terminates with the final abscission cut that requires close apposition of the plasma membrane. While furrow ingression is a prominent feature of the early phase of cytokinesis and is easy to visualize in all models, from dividing eggs to culture cells, the later steps of cytokinesis until abscission can be much more difficult to visualize...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059449/irx3-and-bmp2-regulate-mouse-mesenchymal-cell-chondrogenic-differentiation-in-both-a-sox9-dependent-and-independent-manner
#13
Yoshihiro Tamamura, Kenichi Katsube, Hisashi Mera, Maki Itokazu, Shigeyuki Wakitani
Sox9, a master regulator of cartilage development, controls the cell fate decision to differentiate from mesenchymal to chondrogenic cells. In addition, Sox9 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, as well as the production of cartilage-specific proteoglycans. The existence of Sox9-independent mechanisms in cartilage development remains to be determined. Here, we attempted to identify genes involved in such putative mechanisms via microarray analysis using a mouse chondrogenic cell line, N1511...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057267/the-remarkably-diverse-family-of-t-box-factors-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
P G Okkema
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan animal that is widely used as a model to understand the genetic control of development. The completely sequenced C. elegans genome contains 22 T-box genes, and they encode factors that show remarkable diversity in sequence, DNA-binding specificity, and function. Only three of the C. elegans T-box factors can be grouped into the conserved subfamilies found in other organisms, while the remaining factors are significantly diverged and unlike those in most other animals...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054512/the-effect-of-reactions-on-the-formation-and-readout-of-the-gradient-of-bicoid
#15
Emiliano Perez Ipiña, Silvina Ponce Dawson
During early development, the establishment of gradients of transcriptional factors determines the patterning of cell fates. The case of Bicoid (Bcd) in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> embryos is well documented and studied. There are still controversies as to whether <i> SDD</i> models in which Bcd is <i>Synthesized</i> at one end, then <i>Diffuses</i> and is <i>Degraded</i> can explain the gradient formation within the timescale observed experimentally...
January 5, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051179/the-hypoparathyroidism-associated-mutation-in-drosophila-gcm-compromises-protein-stability-and-glial-cell-formation
#16
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049488/intracellular-trafficking-and-cellular-uptake-mechanism-of-phbv-nanoparticles-for-targeted-delivery-in-epithelial-cell-lines
#17
Juan P Peñaloza, Valeria Márquez-Miranda, Mauricio Cabaña-Brunod, Rodrigo Reyes-Ramírez, Felipe M Llancalahuen, Cristian Vilos, Fernanda Maldonado-Biermann, Luis A Velásquez, Juan A Fuentes, Fernando D González-Nilo, Maité Rodríguez-Díaz, Carolina Otero
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is a science that involves imaging, measurement, modeling and a manipulation of matter at the nanometric scale. One application of this technology is drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles obtained from natural or synthetic sources. An example of these systems is synthetized from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), which is a biodegradable, biocompatible and a low production cost polymer. The aim of this work was to investigate the uptake mechanism of PHBV nanoparticles in two different epithelial cell lines (HeLa and SKOV-3)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042827/bag2-interferes-with-chip-mediated-ubiquitination-of-hsp72
#18
Bianca Schönbühler, Verena Schmitt, Heike Huesmann, Andreas Kern, Martin Gamerdinger, Christian Behl
The maintenance of cellular proteostasis is dependent on molecular chaperones and protein degradation pathways. Chaperones facilitate protein folding, maturation, and degradation, and the particular fate of a misfolded protein is determined by the interaction of chaperones with co-chaperones. The co-factor CHIP (C-terminus of HSP70-inteacting protein, STUB1) ubiquitinates chaperone substrates and directs proteins to the cellular degradation systems. The activity of CHIP is regulated by two co-chaperones, BAG2 and HSPBP1, which are potent inhibitors of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041905/the-apc-c-coordinates-retinal-differentiation-with-g1-arrest-through-the-nek2-dependent-modulation-of-wingless-signaling
#19
Torcato Martins, Francesco Meghini, Francesca Florio, Yuu Kimata
The cell cycle is coordinated with differentiation during animal development. Here we report a cell-cycle-independent developmental role for a master cell-cycle regulator, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in the regulation of cell fate through modulation of Wingless (Wg) signaling. The APC/C controls both cell-cycle progression and postmitotic processes through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Through an RNAi screen in the developing Drosophila eye, we found that partial APC/C inactivation severely inhibits retinal differentiation independently of cell-cycle defects...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040739/the-lipocalin-lpr-1-cooperates-with-lin-3-egf-signaling-to-maintain-narrow-tube-integrity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Pu Pu, Craig E Stone, Joshua T Burdick, John I Murray, Meera V Sundaram
Lipocalins are secreted cup-shaped glycoproteins that bind sterols, fatty acids, and other lipophilic molecules. Lipocalins have been implicated in a wide array of processes related to lipophilic cargo transport, sequestration and signaling, and several are used as biomarkers for human disease, but the functions of most lipocalins remain poorly understood. Here we show that the C. elegans lipocalin LPR-1 is required to maintain apical membrane integrity and a continuous lumen in two narrow, unicellular tubes, the excretory duct and pore, during a period of rapid lumen elongation...
December 30, 2016: Genetics
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