keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

cell fate determination

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535373/a-molecular-switch-regulating-cell-fate-choice-between-muscle-progenitor-cells-and-brown-adipocytes
#1
Yitai An, Gang Wang, Yarui Diao, Yanyang Long, Xinrong Fu, Mingxi Weng, Liang Zhou, Kun Sun, Tom H Cheung, Nancy Y Ip, Hao Sun, Huating Wang, Zhenguo Wu
During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531914/lineage-specific-expression-of-mir-200-family-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-during-in-vitro-differentiation
#2
Yeji Kim, Nury Kim, Sang-Wook Park, Hyemin Kim, Han-Jin Park, Yong-Mahn Han
Although microRNAs have emerged as key regulators in diverse cellular processes, the roles of microRNAs are poorly understood in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during differentiation into specialized cell types. In this study, we used a microRNA array with 799 human microRNA probes to examine the expression profiles of microRNAs in hESCs during differentiation into endodermal and mesodermal lineages in vitro. Among the microRNAs analyzed, 7 and 20 microRNAs were enriched in the developmental process of hESCs into mesodermal and endodermal lineages, respectively...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527754/hippo-signalling-in-intestinal-regeneration-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Alex Gregorieff, Jeffrey L Wrana
The Hippo pathway is a unique signalling module that regulates cell-specific transcriptional responses and responds to a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Besides its classical role in restricting tissue size during development, Hippo signalling is now recognized to control numerous processes including cell proliferation, survival, cell fate determination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration. Because of its highly dynamic nature, the intestinal epithelium has served as an exceptional model to study the complex roles of Hippo signalling...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527574/nuclear-receptor-tlx-in-development-and-diseases
#4
Guoqiang Sun, Qi Cui, Yanhong Shi
The nuclear receptor TLX (NR2E1) is a transcription factor that is critical for neural development and adult neurogenesis through its actions in regulating neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and fate determination. These roles are primarily executed by regulating TLX downstream target genes involved in myriad pathways such as cell cycle progression, RNA processing, angiogenesis, and senescence. Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of TLX pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human neurological disorders and brain tumors...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526819/systematic-comparison-of-2a-peptides-for-cloning-multi-genes-in-a-polycistronic-vector
#5
Ziqing Liu, Olivia Chen, J Blake Joseph Wall, Michael Zheng, Yang Zhou, Li Wang, Haley Ruth Vaseghi, Li Qian, Jiandong Liu
Cloning of multiple genes in a single vector has greatly facilitated both basic and translational studies that require co-expression of multiple factors or multi-units of complex protein. Many strategies have been adopted, among which 2A "self-cleaving" peptides have garnered increased interest for their polycistronic nature, small size and high "cleavage" efficiency. However, broad application of 2 A peptides is limited by the lack of systematic comparison of different 2As alone or in combination. Here we characterized the effect of varying gene position and 2As on the expression of proteins encoded in bi-, tri-, or quad-cistronic constructs...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526136/emerging-mechanisms-and-roles-for-asymmetric-cytokinesis
#6
C Thieleke-Matos, D S Osório, A X Carvalho, E Morais-de-Sá
Cytokinesis completes cell division by physically separating the contents of the mother cell between the two daughter cells. This event requires the highly coordinated reorganization of the cytoskeleton within a precise window of time to ensure faithful genomic segregation. In addition, recent progress in the field highlighted the importance of cytokinesis in providing particularly important cues in the context of multicellular tissues. The organization of the cytokinetic machinery and the asymmetric localization or inheritance of the midbody remnants is critical to define the spatial distribution of mechanical and biochemical signals...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520507/gold-nanoparticles-enhance-the-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-dopaminergic-neurons-via-mtor-p70s6k-pathway
#7
Min Wei, Song Li, Zhaofei Yang, Wei Zheng, Weidong Le
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into dopaminergic (DA) neurons and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS & METHODS: The efficiency of AuNPs on DA neuron differentiation was evaluated by observing fluorescence in TH promoter-engineered GFP-reporter ESCs, western blot and real-time PCR. The possible signal pathway was determined by western blot...
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520221/rap1b-is-an-effector-of-axin2-regulating-crosstalk-of-signaling-pathways-during-skeletal-development
#8
Takamitsu Maruyama, Ming Jiang, Alycia Abbott, H-M Ivy Yu, Qirong Huang, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Emily I Chen, Wei Hsu
Recent identification and isolation of suture stem cells capable of long term self-renewal, clonal expanding and differentiating demonstrate their essential role in calvarial bone development, homeostasis and injury repair. These bona fide stem cells express high level of Axin2 and are able to mediate bone regeneration and repair in a cell autonomous fashion. The importance of Axin2 is further demonstrated by its genetic inactivation in mice causing skeletal deformities resembling craniosynostosis in humans...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516002/transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-cells-into-the-subretinal-space-of-a-non-human-primate
#9
Jennifer R Chao, Deepak A Lamba, Todd R Klesert, Anna La Torre, Akina Hoshino, Russell J Taylor, Anu Jayabalu, Abbi L Engel, Thomas H Khuu, Ruikang K Wang, Maureen Neitz, Jay Neitz, Thomas A Reh
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to survive, integrate into the host retina, and mediate light responses in murine mouse models. Our aim is to determine whether these cells can also survive and integrate into the retina of a nonhuman primate, Saimiri sciureus, following transplantation into the subretinal space. METHODS: hESCs were differentiated toward retinal neuronal fates using our previously published technique and cultured for 60 to 70 days...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515225/energy-metabolic-pathways-control-the-fate-and-function-of-myeloid-immune-cells
#10
REVIEW
Amir A Al-Khami, Paulo C Rodriguez, Augusto C Ochoa
The past decade has seen a significant interest in investigating the intracellular metabolism of cells of the immune system. This has increased the realization that immune cells endure metabolic reprogramming upon responding to pathogen-derived or inflammatory signals. More importantly, not only does this metabolic switch provide for the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands but also it, in a highly specific manner, determines the cellular fate and function. In this review, we discuss the metabolic aspects that regulate the differentiation and function of myeloid cells, pivotal for both innate and adaptive immunity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513600/temporal-dynamics-of-gene-expression-and-histone-marks-at-the-arabidopsis-shoot-meristem-during-flowering
#11
Yuan You, Aneta Sawikowska, Manuela Neumann, David Posé, Giovanna Capovilla, Tobias Langenecker, Richard A Neher, Paweł Krajewski, Markus Schmid
Plants can produce organs throughout their entire life from pluripotent stem cells located at their growing tip, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). At the time of flowering, the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana switches fate and starts producing flowers instead of leaves. Correct timing of flowering in part determines reproductive success, and is therefore under environmental and endogenous control. How epigenetic regulation contributes to the floral transition has eluded analysis so far, mostly because of the poor accessibility of the SAM...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512624/the-close-interconnection-between-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-mitophagy-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Matteo Bordi, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Recent decades have revealed the shape changes of mitochondria and their regulators to be main players in a plethora of physiological cell processes. Mitochondria are extremely dynamic organelles whose highly controlled morphological changes respond to specific and diverse pathophysiological needs. Thus, their qualitative control is crucial for the determination of cell function and fate. Moreover, ever-new metabolic changes, mainly attributable to mitochondrial (dys)functions, are strongly connected to cancer and its microenvironment...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512473/vitamin-c-in-stem-cell-biology-impact-on-extracellular-matrix-homeostasis-and-epigenetics
#13
REVIEW
Cristina D'Aniello, Federica Cermola, Eduardo Jorge Patriarca, Gabriella Minchiotti
Transcription factors and signaling molecules are well-known regulators of stem cell identity and behavior; however, increasing evidence indicates that environmental cues contribute to this complex network of stimuli, acting as crucial determinants of stem cell fate. l-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C (VitC)) has gained growing interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the main functions of VitC and its effects on stem cells, focusing on its activity as cofactor of Fe(+2)/αKG dioxygenases, which regulate the epigenetic signatures, the redox status, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, depending on the enzymes' subcellular localization...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512245/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-initiates-merkel-cell-carcinoma-like-tumor-development-in-mice
#14
Monique E Verhaegen, Doris Mangelberger, Paul W Harms, Markus Eberl, Dawn M Wilbert, Julia Meireles, Christopher K Bichakjian, Thomas L Saunders, Sunny Y Wong, Andrzej A Dlugosz
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor cells express several markers detected in normal Merkel cells, a non-proliferative population of neuroendocrine cells which arise from epidermis. MCCs frequently contain Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA and express viral transforming antigens, sT and tLT, but the role of these putative oncogenes in MCC development, and this tumor's cell of origin, are unknown. Using a panel of pre-term transgenic mice, we show that epidermis-targeted co-expression of sT and the cell fate determinant atonal bHLH transcription factor 1 (Atoh1) leads to development of widespread cellular aggregates with histology and marker expression mimicking that of human intraepidermal MCC...
May 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512199/dominant-negative-sox18-function-inhibits-dermal-papilla-maturation-and-differentiation-in-all-murine-hair-types
#15
Rehan Villani, Samantha Hodgson, Julien Legrand, Jessica Greaney, Ho Yi Wong, Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Christelle Adolphe, Brandon Wainwight, Mathias Francois, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
SOX family proteins SOX2 and SOX18 have been reported as being essential in determining hair follicle type; however, the role they play during development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Sox18 regulates the normal differentiation of the dermal papilla of all hair types. In guard (primary) hair dermal condensate (DC) cells, we identified transient Sox18 in addition to SOX2 expression at E14.5, which allowed fate tracing of primary DC cells until birth. Similarly, expression of Sox18 was detected in the DC cells of secondary hairs at E16...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511071/effects-of-%C3%AE-radiation-on-cell-growth-cell-cycle-and-promoter-methylation-of-22-cell-cycle-genes-in-the-1321ni-astrocytoma-cell-line
#16
Yaman Alghamian, Ghalia Abou Alchamat, Hossam Murad, Ammar Madania
PURPOSE: DNA damage caused by radiation initiates biological responses affecting cell fate. DNA methylation regulates gene expression and modulates DNA damage pathways. Alterations in the methylation profiles of cell cycle regulating genes may control cell response to radiation. In this study we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on the methylation levels of 22 cell cycle regulating genes in correlation with gene expression in 1321NI astrocytoma cell line. METHODS: 1321NI cells were irradiated with 2, 5 or 10Gy doses then analyzed after 24, 48 and 72h for cell viability using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide) assay...
May 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#17
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508149/parkinson-s-disease-associated-mutant-lrrk2-mediated-inhibition-of-mirna-activity-is-antagonized-by-trim32
#18
Laura Gonzalez-Cano, Ingeborg Menzl, Johan Tisserand, Sarah Nicklas, Jens C Schwamborn
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating evidences suggest that PD might have a strong neurodevelopmental component. Among the genetic cases, mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are well known to be disease causing. Although the molecular mechanism of the pathogenic LRRK2 function is not fully clear, inhibition of microRNA (miRNA) activity has been suggested to be among the pathogenic LRRK2 targets. Here, we demonstrate that the miRNA activity inhibition function of pathogenic LRRK2 is directly antagonized by the neuronal cell fate determinant TRIM32...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507062/interleukin-4-promotes-the-development-of-ex-foxp3-th2-cells-during-immunity-to-intestinal-helminths
#19
Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Manolis Gialitakis, Lewis J Entwistle, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Isobel S Okoye, Dominik Rückerl, Judith E Allen, Frank Brombacher, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex-T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504877/illuminating-superoxide-anion-and-ph-enhancements-in-apoptosis-of-breast-cancer-cells-induced-by-mitochondrial-hyperfusion-using-a-new-two-photon-fluorescence-probe
#20
Wen Zhang, Xin Wang, Ping Li, Haibin Xiao, Wei Zhang, Hui Wang, Bo Tang
Mitochondrial morphology regulated by fusion and fission processes determines mitochondrial function and cell fate. Some studies showed hyperfused mitochondria could induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but the relevant molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Superoxide (O2•-) and pH play vital roles in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore if there is an intimate relationship between mitochondrial hyperfusion and simultaneous changes in O2•- and pH levels, which will be helpful to uncover relevant detailed mechanism...
May 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
keyword
keyword
49532
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"