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Fetal middle cerebral arteries

Xin Yang, Jin-Mei Yan, Jian Li, Xing-Mei Xie, Jian-Ying Zhou, Yan Li, Dong-Zhi Li
Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30...
September 30, 2016: Hemoglobin
Kevin S Nye, Matthew I Converse, Mar Janna Dahl, Kurt H Albertine, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Stephen L Lambert, Frank J Williams, Zhora Z Oganisyan, Lionel A Branch, Edward C Mader
Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA) is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA) or the anterior (ACA) cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories-right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Vijaya Subramanian, Janani Venkat, Mohana Dhanapal
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze which is superior, Doppler velocimetry or non-stress test or both by means of categorization into four groups and comparing the prediction of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISO KGH, Madras Medical College, Chennai, in the year 2014. Two hundred high-risk pregnancies like anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sifa Turan, Joshua I Rosenbloom, Mostafa Hussein, Christoph Berg, Ulrich Gembruch, Ahmet A Baschat, Ozhan M Turan
PURPOSE: Fetal head and somatic growth dynamics differs in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). We longitudinally characterized fetal head and somatic growth in relation to the type of CHD. METHODS: Four hundred eleven exams from isolated CHD were compared with 1,219 controls. Head and somatic growth was assessed using head circumference (HC), brain volume (BrV = 1/6 × π × (HC/π)3)/2), fetal cephalization index (FCI = BrV/[estimated fetal weight]), and growth percentile...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Fang Liu, Yong Liu, Ya-Ping Lai, Xiao-Ning Gu, Dong-Mei Liu, Min Yang
BACKGROUND: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. METHODS: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Hala A E Wahab Abdel Latif, Hassan Mostafa Gaafar, Ghada Abdel Fattah Abdel Moety, Doaa Salah Eldin Mahmoud, Nihal Mohamed El Rifai
Objectives This study aims to detect possible differences in fetal brain volumes between growth-restricted fetuses (FGR), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses (AGA). Study Design Three-dimensional measurements of fetal brain volume and umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) were made in 80 AGA fetuses, 68 SGA fetuses with normal Doppler indices, and 68 FGR with brain-sparing effect between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Lut Geerts, Elrike Van der Merwe, Anneke Theron, Kerry Rademan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of abnormal multi-vessel Doppler values among advanced pregnancies at risk of suboptimal placentation but with a normal umbilical artery resistance index (RI), and to assess whether clinical and ultrasonography findings can identify them. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional study at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, women with high-risk pregnancies but normal umbilical artery RI after 32weeks underwent ultrasonography (fetal biometry, liquor, and placenta maturation) and Doppler assessment (uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries) between February 11 and October 21, 2013...
October 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Franz Bahlmann, Ammar Al Naimi, Manfred Ossendorf, Monica Schmidt-Fittschen, Arne Willruth
BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin seems to play an important role in the regulation of fetal hypoxemia. The present prospective study was designed to determine if changes in erythropoietin levels can be found in fetuses with severe early-onset growth restriction and hemodynamic compromise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Erythropoietin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet counts, normoblasts, lacate, arterial and venous blood gasses in the umbilical cord were determined in 42 fetuses with fetal growth restriction (IUGR) with absent (zero-flow) and 26 IUGR fetuses with retrograde end-diastolic flow (reverse-flow) in the umbilical artery...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Alberto Borges Peixoto, Taciana Mara Rodrigues da Cunha Caldas, Tácito Augusto Godoy Silva, Mário Sérgio Silva Gomes Caetano, Wellington P Martins, Eduardo Felix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate ultrasound and Doppler parameters in the third trimester of pregnancy as possible predictors of adverse perinatal outcome in unselected pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study including unselected pregnant women be-tween 27 and 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The following ultrasound and Doppler parameters were assessed: estimated fetal weight (EFW) [g], EFW percentile, placental maturity grade (Grannum classification), single vertical deepest pocket (SVDP) of amniotic fluid [cm], amniotic fluid index (AFI) [cm], mean uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI), umbilical artery (UA) PI, middle cerebral artery (MCA) PI, MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) [cm/s], and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR)...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
U O Ulu, B E Udoh, K K Agwu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlat peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to establish regression prediction model of MCA-PSV for our population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 480 low risk pregnant women and cross validated by 120 high risk pregnant women between 12 and 41 weeks' gestation...
October 2015: Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
José Morales-Roselló, Asma Khalil, Farida Akhoundova, Silvia Salvi, Maddalena Morlando, Janani Sivanathan, José Alberola-Rubio, David Hervas-Marín, Victoria Fornés-Ferrer, Alfredo Perales-Marín, Basky Thilaganathan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether changes in the cerebroplacental Doppler and birth weight (BW) suggestive of chronic fetal hypoxemia, precede the development of late-onset placental abruption (PA) after 32 weeks. METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective study, the Doppler examinations of the fetal umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) recorded after 32 weeks were collected in pregnancies subsequently developing PA. The BW centiles were calculated and the MCA pulsatility indices (PI), and UA PI were converted into multiples of the median (MoM)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
F C Brownfoot, C A Cluver, S P Walker
Fetal persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow is a rare and ominous finding. Previous cases have been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, growth restriction, anaemia, and hepatic anomaly. Intrauterine demise or early neonatal death is a common outcome. We report the case of persistent middle cerebral artery reversed end diastolic flow in a well-grown fetus at 32 weeks' gestation resulting from acute, severe anaemia due to a large feto-maternal hemorrhage. An emergency cesarean section was performed and the neonate required advanced resuscitation and immediate blood transfusion...
August 2015: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
Tomas Prior, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: Maternal hyper-oxygenation has been reported to increase fetal oxygen saturation, and is frequently employed during intra-partum episodes of fetal compromise as a component of in-utero resuscitation. However, there has been little investigation of its influence on fetal haemodynamics, particularly in appropriately grown fetuses. METHODS: This cohort study was undertaken between July 2013 and November 2013. All participants underwent an ultrasound scan prior to active labour (<4cm dilated), during which fetal biometry, umbilical and middle cerebral artery Dopplers were recorded...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Alberto Trapani, Luis Flavio Gonçalves, Thamyris Finger Trapani, Simone Vieira, Marilen Pires, Maria Marlene de Souza Pires
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether therapy with sildenafil citrate prolongs gestation in women with preeclampsia. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation were randomized to 50 mg oral sildenafil citrate every 8 hours or placebo. The primary outcome was prolongation of pregnancy from randomization to delivery. Secondary outcomes were changes in resistance indices of uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries by Doppler, fetal and maternal complications, and adverse neonatal outcomes...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rehana Najam, Sarika Gupta, Shalini
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value of cerebroplacental ratio (i.e., S/D ratio of middle cerebral artery to S/D ratio of Umbilical artery) in detection of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on 150 patients between 28 and 40 weeks of gestation (25 low risk and 125 high risk) who attended OPD and indoor wards of Teerthanker Mahaveer medical college and research center, Moradabad. All patients had serial color Doppler ultrasounds done after taking informed consent which was repeated at 2 weeks interval, and data were collected with regard to perinatal outcome...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Terri A Levine, Fiona A Alderdice, Ruth E Grunau, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
Maternal prenatal stress is associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and developmental delay. However, the impact of prenatal stress on hemodynamics during pregnancy remains unclear. This systematic review was conducted in order to assess the quality of the evidence available to date regarding the relationship between prenatal stress and maternal-fetal hemodynamics. The PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, Trip, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases were searched using the search terms pregnancy; stress; fetus; blood; Doppler; ultrasound...
October 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Christopher R Leon Guerrero, Sheel Pathak, Dorothy K Grange, Gautam K Singh, Colin G Nichols, Jin-Moo Lee, Katie D Vo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the neurologic and neuroimaging manifestations associated with Cantú syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 10 patients with genetically confirmed Cantú syndrome. All adult patients, and pediatric patients who were able to cooperate and complete the studies, underwent neuroimaging, including vascular imaging. A salient neurologic history and examination was obtained for all patients. RESULTS: We observed diffusely dilated and tortuous cerebral blood vessels in all patients who underwent vascular imaging...
July 19, 2016: Neurology
Max E Godfrey, Wayne Tworetzky, Donna Morash, Kevin G Friedman
OBJECTIVES: To assess cardiac sequelae of fetal cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs) and evaluate any association with outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed cardiac structure and function in fetuses with CAVMs who underwent fetal echocardiography (October 1999 to August 2015, n = 11), and compared them with normal controls. RESULTS: The median gestational age was 36 weeks (range 18-38). Common abnormal findings included dilated superior vena cava (100%) and right atrium (82%), reduced middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (86%), tricuspid regurgitation (82%), and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (64%)...
June 3, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
A Ruiz, M Cruz-Lemini, N Masoller, M Sanz-Cortés, Q Ferrer, I Ribera, J M Martínez, F Crispi, S Arévalo, O Gómez, S Pérez-Hoyos, E Carreras, E Gratacós, E Llurba
OBJECTIVES: To determine the longitudinal behaviour of fetal biometries and cerebroplacental haemodynamics thoughout gestation in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Fetal biometries and Doppler haemodynamics (uterine artery (UtA), umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA)) were serially measured in a cohort of consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD. Evaluations were made at various time points, from diagnosis (<25 weeks) to delivery, with at least 2 measurements per foetus and at least 2 weeks apart...
May 23, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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