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Criminology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773923/brain-activity-low-self-control-and-delinquency-an-fmri-study-of-at-risk-adolescents
#1
Ryan Charles Meldrum, Elisa M Trucco, Lora M Cope, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
Purpose: A vast literature finds that low self-control is associated with a myriad of antisocial behaviors. Consequently, increasing attention has focused on the causes of low self-control. While criminologists have directed significant attention to studying its social causes, fewer studies have considered its neural bases. Methods: We add to this nascent body of research by using data collected on an at-risk sample of adolescents participating in the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study...
May 2018: Journal of Criminal Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763684/promoting-health-equity-to-prevent-crime
#2
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn
Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health...
May 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755185/recidivism-in-a-sample-of-serious-adolescent-offenders
#3
Robert Brame, Edward P Mulvey, Carol A Schubert, Alex R Piquero
Objectives: A broad research literature in criminology documents key aspects of how criminal offending develops and changes over the life span. We contribute to this literature by showcasing methods that are useful for studying medium-term patterns of subsequent criminal justice system involvement among a sample of serious adolescent offenders making the transition to early adulthood. Methods: Our approach relies on 7 years of post-enrollment follow-up from the Pathways to Desistance Study...
March 2018: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754116/criminality-in-greece-during-the-years-of-financial-crisis-2008-2014
#4
G Tsouvelas, G Konstantakopoulos, A Vakirtzis, O Giotakos, T Papaslanis, V Kontaxakis
The link between poverty, unemployment and economic downturns and increases in crime rates has long been the subject of social science study. However, the relationships between these phenomena has not been studied sufficiently and through time in most European countries that suffered, or, like Greece, are still suffering the recent financial crisis. We examined if the recent financial crisis in Greece has coincided with an increase in crime, analyzing crime rates since the start of the financial crisis and over an extensive time period (7 years)...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733373/substance-use-and-recidivism-outcomes-for-prison-based-drug-and-alcohol-interventions
#5
Dominique de Andrade, Jessica Ritchie, Michael Rowlands, Emily Mann, Leanne Hides
We conducted a systematic review to examine the substance use and recidivism outcomes of prison-based substance use interventions. We searched public health, criminology, and psychology databases, and conducted forward and backward snowballing methods to identify additional studies. Studies were included if they were published between January 1, 2000 and June 30, 2017; were published in English; and reported substance use and/or recidivism outcomes of prison-based substance use interventions. Studies were reviewed for methodological rigor using the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies...
May 4, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685299/the-introduction-of-forensic-advisors-in-belgium-and-their-role-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#6
Sonja Bitzer, Laetitia Heudt, Aurélie Barret, Lore George, Karolien Van Dijk, Fabrice Gason, Bertrand Renard
Forensic advisors (FA) at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC), generalists in forensic science, act as an advising body to the magistrate to improve communication between the various parties involved in the investigation: magistrate, police and crime scene investigators, and forensic experts. Their role is manifold, but their main objectives are to optimise trace processing by selecting the most pertinent traces in the context of the case and by advising magistrates on the feasibility of forensic analyses in particular circumstances in regards to the latest technical advances...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684945/-it-s-going-to-be-extra-fun-analysis-of-an-atypical-case-of-teen-homicide-as-leisure-behavior
#7
D J Williams, Jolene Vincent
Recently, scholars in literary criminology and leisure sciences have begun to explore the role of broader leisure culture in potentially shaping fantasy development, planning, preparation, and execution in specific cases of expressive homicide. This brief report focuses on an unusual case of expressive homicide, wherein two teen offenders in Idaho collaborated to murder a female classmate as an intentional leisure activity. Prior to the murder, the offenders created a videotape describing how they planned to commit this (and additional) murders...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667209/narratives-of-illness-and-offending-mentally-disordered-offenders-views-on-their-offending
#8
Jeremy Dixon
Narratives have been used in both the sociology of health and illness and in criminology to examine how groups of people present themselves in moral terms. This article focuses on the narratives of offenders with mental health problems in England subject to section 37/41 of the Mental Health Act 1983 to examine how they justified offending prior to admission. Participants presented illness in a variety of different ways indicating a range of moral positions towards offending. In line with previous research a first group used mental illness to excuse offending and saw themselves as achieving moral reform through treatment...
April 18, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660697/relapse-to-smoking-following-release-from-smoke-free-correctional-facilities-in-queensland-australia
#9
Cheneal Puljević, Dominique de Andrade, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658766/-why-do-victims-become-perpetrators-intergenerational-transmission-of-parental-violence-in-a-representative-german-sample
#10
Deborah F Hellmann, Anja Stiller, Christoffer Glaubitz, Sören Kliem
Child maltreatment can severely impair children's emotional and physical well-being as well as their individual development across the life span. In 2011, the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (Germany), conducted a nationally representative victim survey on diverse forms of victimizations (N = 11,428). Among other things, experienced and exerted parental violence as well as participants' knowledge regarding the abolition of the parental right of corporal punishment were assessed. Apart from providing current estimates of the prevalence of experienced and exerted parental violence in Germany, we identified specific risk markers for the intergenerational transmission of parental violence...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609742/strategic-action-or-self-control-adolescent-information-management-and-delinquency
#11
Maria S Grigoryeva
Recent scholarship has begun to challenge the prevailing view that children are passive recipients of parental socialization, including the common belief that parental disciplinary practices are central to explaining adolescent problem behaviors. This research shows that children exert a significant influence over parents via information management, or the degree to which children disclose information about their behavior to parents. Despite the incorporation of child information management into contemporary models of parenting, significant theoretical and empirical concerns cast doubt on its utility over classic parent-centered approaches...
May 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566697/-broken-hospital-windows-debating-the-theory-of-spreading-disorder-and-its-application-to-healthcare-organizations
#12
Kate Churruca, Louise A Ellis, Jeffrey Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Research in criminology and social-psychology supports the idea that visible signs of disorder, both physical and social, may perpetuate further disorder, leading to neighborhood incivilities, petty violations, and potentially criminal behavior. This theory of 'broken windows' has now also been applied to more enclosed environments, such as organizations. MAIN TEXT: This paper debates whether the premise of broken windows theory, and the concept of 'disorder', might also have utility in the context of health services...
March 22, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543067/violent-offending-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-preceding-and-following-diagnosis
#13
Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542738/inmate-society-in-the-era-of-mass-incarceration
#14
Derek A Kreager, Candace Kruttschnitt
Inmate social organization was once a central area within criminology that stalled just as incarceration rates dramatically climbed. In this review, we return to seminal works on this topic before summarizing the changes that mass incarceration wrought in correctional contexts and the potential impacts of these changes for inmate society. We then review the few recent studies that document contemporary inmate social life and call for increased researcher-practitioner partnerships that embed criminologists within carceral settings...
2018: Annual review of criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536756/event-locations-in-extra-familial-child-sexual-molestation-cases-the-istanbul-example
#15
Burak M Gönültaş, Bahadir Sahin
A great deal of attention has been devoted to sexual molestation cases, both in theory and in practice. Child molesters are versatile and are not easily identified. Various theories and tactics, the most contemporary of which is environmental criminology, have been developed to find those criminals. Locations of victims, crime scenes, and distances among them as well as other situational variables are used to predict possible future offences in environmental criminology. This study applies the theory to sexual molestation crimes in Istanbul...
April 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520819/virtual-reality-applications-for-diagnosis-risk-assessment-and-therapy-of-child-abusers
#16
Peter Fromberger, Kirsten Jordan, Jürgen L Müller
Despite the successful application of virtual reality (VR) in a wide variety of mental disorders and the obvious potentials that VR provides, the use of VR in the context of criminology and forensic psychology is sparse. For forensic mental health professionals, VR provides some advantages that outrun general advantages of VR, e.g., ecological validity and controllability of social situations. Most important seems to be the unique possibility to expose offenders and to train coping skills in virtual situations, which are able to elicit disorder-relevant behavior-without endangering others...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510362/factors-leading-to-the-involvement-of-forensic-advisors-in-the-belgian-criminal-justice-system
#17
Sonja Bitzer
Forensic Advisors at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology in Brussels act as advising body to the magistrate regarding analytical possibilities and the usefulness of trace analysis in a case. Initially, their function was devised to assist in complex murder cases with unknown offender. However, in a previous study, the increasing diversity of the cases they are requested for has been observed (Bitzer et al., in press). In order to deepen our understanding of the decision steps in the criminal investigation process, the decision to involve a Forensic Advisor and the factors leading to their involvement were evaluated...
April 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472728/lessons-learned-from-crime-caught-on-camera
#18
Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, Wim Bernasco
Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera. Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue...
February 2018: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461380/what-does-the-implementation-of-peer-care-training-in-a-u-k-prison-reveal-about-prisoner-engagement-in-peer-caregiving
#19
Warren Stewart
The number of aging and chronically ill prisoners continues to rise within the United Kingdom prison demography; consequentially, many institutions face health and social care crises of immense proportions. The needs of this group are both complex and costly, and in the United Kingdom, this is set to a backdrop of overcrowding, increasing violence, and public spending cuts in line with government austerity targets. In this context, the development of prisoner peer caregiving is proposed as an approach to mitigating the effects of aging, disability, and illness...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459211/a-new-approach-to-formulating-and-appraising-drug-policy-a-multi-criterion-decision-analysis-applied-to-alcohol-and-cannabis-regulation
#20
Ole Rogeberg, Daniel Bergsvik, Lawrence D Phillips, Jan van Amsterdam, Niamh Eastwood, Graeme Henderson, Micheal Lynskey, Fiona Measham, Rhys Ponton, Steve Rolles, Anne Katrin Schlag, Polly Taylor, David Nutt
BACKGROUND: Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across multiple research disciplines making integrated judgements difficult. METHODS: Experts on drug harms, addiction, criminology and drug policy were invited to a decision conference to develop a multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA) model for appraising alternative regulatory regimes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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