keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Criminology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492708/shadows-of-doubt-the-uneasy-incorporation-of-identification-science-into-legal-determination-of-paternity-in-brazil
#1
Sueann Caulfield, Alexandra Minna Stern
The arrival of DNA paternity testing in the 1980s was met with great enthusiasm in the Brazilian courts. Yet, over the past two decades, Brazilian legal doctrine and jurisprudence have increasingly rejected DNA proof as the sine qua non for paternity cases. Instead, DNA paternity testing has generated mountains of litigation, as biological proof has been challenged by the argument that paternity is primarily "socio-affective". Leading family law specialists describe this new conception of paternity as an outcome of the "revolutionary" provisions of the 1988 Constitution, which recognizes the "pluralism" of family forms in modern society and guarantees equal family rights for all children...
May 8, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435183/a-factor-analytic-model-of-drug-related-behavior-in-adolescence-and-its-impact-on-arrests-at-multiple-stages-of-the-life-course
#2
Matthew D Phillips
OBJECTIVES: Recognizing the inherent variability of drug-related behaviors, this study develops an empirically-driven and holistic model of drug-related behavior during adolescence using factor analysis to simultaneously model multiple drug behaviors. METHODS: The factor analytic model uncovers latent dimensions of drug-related behaviors, rather than patterns of individuals. These latent dimensions are treated as empirical typologies which are then used to predict an individual's number of arrests accrued at multiple phases of the life course...
March 2017: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406661/lifetime-history-of-suicidal-ideation-and-attempts-among-incarcerated-women-in-israel
#3
Gila Chen, Keren Gueta
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that rates of death by suicide are higher among female inmates compared with male inmates and the general population. Despite the high rate of lifetime suicidality, little is known about the predictors of suicidality for these women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to examine sociodemographic, criminological, and psychological variables associated with a history of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among incarcerated women. METHOD: This cross-sectional study investigated a history of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a sample of 46 Israeli incarcerated women...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327886/impact-on-the-psychotic-vulnerability-of-the-therapeutic-approachin-the-prison-psychiatric-hospital-in-seville-spain
#4
P Massé-García, F J Lamas-Bosque, A Massé-Palomo
OBJECTIVES: to analyze changes in psychotic vulnerability following the implementation of a program of prison psychiatric treatment, recidivism after the release and various descriptive variables of criminological interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: review of a sample consisting of 50 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia admitted to the Prison Psychiatric Hospital of Seville. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant reduction of psychotic vulnerability according to an assessment using the Frankfurt psychopathological inventory (FBF-3), after conducting a complete psychiatric, psychological, social and rehabilitation approach in the prison environment...
June 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160665/geospatial-analysis-of-suicidal-bridge-jumping-in-the-metro-vancouver-regional-district-from-2006-to-2014
#5
Vienna C Lam, J Bryan Kinney, Lynne S Bell
In the past decade, there have been many structural changes implemented to Vancouver's largest bridges as a means of deterring criminogenic and suicidal behaviors. Guided by an environmental criminology theoretical framework, this research examines the patterns and trends of 201 cases of successful suicide jumping in the Metro Vancouver Regional District (MVRD) of British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to 2014. To evaluate these trends and to bolster the existing literature on deterrence measures through environmental design, this research will examine the spatial relationship between preferential bridge jumping locations and the home addresses of the deceased...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104290/exploring-the-longitudinal-offending-pathways-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-preliminary-analysis-using-latent-variable-modeling
#6
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen
Very little research has been conducted to show the way in which criminal behavior unfolds over the life-course in children who have been sexually abused, and whether it differs from the 'age-crime' patterns consistently documented in the criminology literature. This study investigated the temporal pathways of criminal offending between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed cases of child sexual abuse (CSA), and considered whether abuse variables, offense variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in offending pathways among CSA survivors...
January 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066153/collectors-on-illicit-collecting-higher-loyalties-and-other-techniques-of-neutralization-in-the-unlawful-collecting-of-rare-and-precious-orchids-and-antiquities
#7
Simon Mackenzie, Donna Yates
Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be 'wildlife crime' while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on 'illicit art and antiquities'. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets...
August 2016: Theoretical Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042903/trajectories-of-violent-behavior-among-females-and-males
#8
Elizabeth Cauffman, Adam Fine, April G Thomas, Kathryn C Monahan
Both the psychological and criminological fields have long hypothesized the mechanisms that influence desistance from violent offending, but few studies have focused on violent females. This study identifies patterns of violent behavior across 7 years among 172 females and 172 matched males ages 15-24, testing if heterogeneity in violent offending is linked to (a) developmental change in impulse control and (b) attainment of adult milestones. Fewer females persist in violence (25%) than males (46%); 19% of males increase in violent behavior...
January 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918861/to-study-to-party-or-both-assessing-risk-factors-for-non-prescribed-stimulant-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students
#9
Kenneth S León, Daniel E Martínez
This study examines the risk factors predicting non-prescribed stimulant use (NPSU) among adolescents, with an emphasis on whether such factors are reflective of instrumental (e.g., studying) and/or recreational (e.g., partying) drug consumption settings. Using data from Monitoring the Future (2011), we employed a series of logistic regression models to establish predictors of 12-month self-reported Adderall or Ritalin use without a doctor's note among eighth and tenth graders. Whereas studies of college students have found NPSU to correlate with instrumental motives and productivity-related demands, we find no association between NPSU and indicators of academic strain for this younger sample...
January 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913712/money-now-money-later
#10
Alex R Piquero, David P Farrington, Wesley G Jennings
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878413/does-the-general-strain-theory-explain-gambling-and-substance-use
#11
Romy Greco, Antonietta Curci
General Strain Theory (GST: Agnew Criminology 30:47-87, 1992) posits that deviant behaviour results from adaptation to strain and the consequent negative emotions. Empirical research on GST has mainly focused on aggressive behaviours, while only few research studies have considered alternative manifestations of deviance, like substance use and gambling. The aim of the present study is to test the ability of GST to explain gambling behaviours and substance use. Also, the role of family in promoting the adoption of gambling and substance use as coping strategies was verified...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799417/predicting-re-incarceration-status-of-prisoners-in-contemporary-china-applying-western-criminological-theories
#12
Steven F Messner, Jianhong Liu, Yunhan Zhao
Studies have revealed that self-control theory, social learning theory, and strain theory are useful in explaining criminal activity in China. Previous research with Chinese data, however, has focused almost exclusively on samples of adolescents and the minor types of offending that are typically captured in such samples. The present study builds upon prior work by considering the extent to which these three major etiological theories of crime can help differentiate between profiles of Chinese prisoners categorized with respect to re-incarceration status...
October 30, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761017/violence-health-and-the-2030-agenda-merging-evidence-and-implementation
#13
EDITORIAL
Bandy X Lee, Peter D Donnelly, Larry Cohen, Shikha Garg
The Guest Editors introduce the Special Issue for the Journal of Public Health Policy on violence, health, and the 2030 Agenda. Emphasizing the importance of collaboration between scholars and practitioners, they outline the process of jointly imagining and designing the next generation of violence prevention strategies. They include representative works of members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA), including the World Bank, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Institute, the Danish Institute Against Torture, the University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Gender Violence and Health Centre, and the Yale University Law and Psychiatry Division, among others...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663574/individual-in-context-the-role-of-impulse-control-on-the-association-between-the-home-school-and-neighborhood-developmental-contexts-and-adolescent-delinquency
#14
Adam Fine, Alissa Mahler, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J Frick, Elizabeth Cauffman
Social ecological theories and decades of supporting research suggest that contexts exert a powerful influence on adolescent delinquency. Individual traits, such as impulse control, also pose a developmental disadvantage to adolescents through increasing risk of delinquency. However, such individual differences may also predispose some youth to struggle more in adverse environments, but also to excel in enriched environments. Despite the prominence of impulse control in both developmental and criminological literatures, researchers are only beginning to consider impulse control as an individual characteristic that may affect developmental outcomes in response to environmental input...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658988/-homicide-suicide-clinical-review-and-psychological-assumptions
#15
J Vandevoorde, N Estano, G Painset
OBJECTIVES: Suicide-homicide could be defined as a "suicidal" behaviour, which also includes the death of at least one other individual and sometimes up to hundreds. This literature review intends to highlight some characteristic features that might be found amongst the various types of suicide-homicide. It is a complex phenomenon which can occur in different situations, from a familial and somehow intimate setting (filicide, uxoricide, marital homicide…) to a public one (workplace shooting, school shooting), including a wide range of victims, from a single victim in marital cases of suicide-homicide to hundreds of victims in certain types, such as suicide by aircraft or warrior-like multi-homicids in terrorist acts...
September 19, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645261/an-exploration-of-mate-similarity-for-criminal-offending-behaviors-results-from-a-multi-generation-sample-of-dutch-spouses
#16
Steve G A van de Weijer, Kevin M Beaver
There has been a growing body of research examining mate and spousal similarity on antisocial behaviors. The results of these studies have shown varying degrees of similarity between mates and spouses, but the precise mechanisms accounting for such similarity have remained somewhat elusive. The current study builds off this line of research and examines spousal similarity on criminal offending behaviors. Moreover, we also examine the potential factors that might account for spousal similarity. This study analyzed data drawn from two generations of Dutch spouses...
September 19, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638239/violence-health-and-the-2030-agenda-merging-evidence-and-implementation
#17
EDITORIAL
Bandy X Lee, Peter D Donnelly, Larry Cohen, Shikha Garg
The Guest Editors introduce the Special Issue for the Journal of Public Health Policy on violence, health, and the 2030 Agenda. Emphasizing the importance of collaboration between scholars and practitioners, they outline the process of jointly imagining and designing the next generation of violence prevention strategies. They include representative works of members of the World Health Organization (WHO) Violence Prevention Alliance (VPA), including the World Bank, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Institute, the Danish Institute Against Torture, the University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Gender Violence and Health Centre, and the Yale University Law and Psychiatry Division, among others...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634817/desistance-from-crime-without-reintegration-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-social-context-and-life-course-path-to-desistance-in-a-sample-of-adults-convicted-of-a-sex-crime
#18
Patrick Lussier, Evan McCuish
Criminological theories suggest that desistance from crime cannot be considered outside its social context. Few studies, however, have examined the social context and its importance for individuals convicted of a sex offense. Their unique experience during community reentry warrants specific attention to this group. Using prospective longitudinal data, the current study examined desistance from general offending in a sample of 500 adult males convicted of at least one sex offense. Cox proportional hazards models showed that, although desistance is associated with the presence of prosocial social influences, these differences disappeared after controlling for prior involvement in crime and delinquency...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634815/revisiting-parole-decision-making-testing-for-the-punitive-hypothesis-in-a-large-u-s-jurisdiction
#19
E Rely Vîlcică
The decision to grant conditional release from prison (aka the parole decision) has been largely neglected in the contemporary criminological literature, despite its critical implications. The current study, conducted in Pennsylvania, United States, tests for punitive themes in parole decision making by examining the impact of several measures reflective of punishment satisfaction on the decision to grant release to eligible parole candidates. The results indicate that the amount of time served in relation to the original punishment does not predict parole decisions but the nature of the original offense does...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621271/a-descriptive-model-of-desistance-from-sexual-offending-examining-the-narratives-of-men-released-from-custody
#20
Danielle Arlanda Harris
Despite an increasing interest in desistance from sexual offending, a comprehensive theoretical account of the process has yet to be provided. This study examines the narratives of 60 men interviewed in the community, who were incarcerated for sexual offenses and released. Recent findings from this research conclude that men desist from sexual offending, but they seldom follow the processes described by traditional criminology. In many cases, in fact, they desist in spite of their inability to pursue Sampson and Laub's "informal social controls" or Giordano et al...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
keyword
keyword
49524
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"