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Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Derek A Kreager, Candace Kruttschnitt
Inmate social organization was once a central area within criminology that stalled just as incarceration rates dramatically climbed. In this review, we return to seminal works on this topic before summarizing the changes that mass incarceration wrought in correctional contexts and the potential impacts of these changes for inmate society. We then review the few recent studies that document contemporary inmate social life and call for increased researcher-practitioner partnerships that embed criminologists within carceral settings...
2018: Annu Rev Criminol
Burak M Gönültaş, Bahadir Sahin
A great deal of attention has been devoted to sexual molestation cases, both in theory and in practice. Child molesters are versatile and are not easily identified. Various theories and tactics, the most contemporary of which is environmental criminology, have been developed to find those criminals. Locations of victims, crime scenes, and distances among them as well as other situational variables are used to predict possible future offences in environmental criminology. This study applies the theory to sexual molestation crimes in Istanbul...
April 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Peter Fromberger, Kirsten Jordan, Jürgen L Müller
Despite the successful application of virtual reality (VR) in a wide variety of mental disorders and the obvious potentials that VR provides, the use of VR in the context of criminology and forensic psychology is sparse. For forensic mental health professionals, VR provides some advantages that outrun general advantages of VR, e.g., ecological validity and controllability of social situations. Most important seems to be the unique possibility to expose offenders and to train coping skills in virtual situations, which are able to elicit disorder-relevant behavior-without endangering others...
March 9, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Sonja Bitzer
Forensic Advisors at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology in Brussels act as advising body to the magistrate regarding analytical possibilities and the usefulness of trace analysis in a case. Initially, their function was devised to assist in complex murder cases with unknown offender. However, in a previous study, the increasing diversity of the cases they are requested for has been observed (Bitzer et al., in press). In order to deepen our understanding of the decision steps in the criminal investigation process, the decision to involve a Forensic Advisor and the factors leading to their involvement were evaluated...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard, Wim Bernasco
Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on camera. Methods: We address the importance of direct observation of behavior and review criminological studies that used observational methods, with and without cameras, including the ones published in this issue...
February 2018: Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency
Warren Stewart
The number of aging and chronically ill prisoners continues to rise within the United Kingdom prison demography; consequentially, many institutions face health and social care crises of immense proportions. The needs of this group are both complex and costly, and in the United Kingdom, this is set to a backdrop of overcrowding, increasing violence, and public spending cuts in line with government austerity targets. In this context, the development of prisoner peer caregiving is proposed as an approach to mitigating the effects of aging, disability, and illness...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Ole Rogeberg, Daniel Bergsvik, Lawrence D Phillips, Jan van Amsterdam, Niamh Eastwood, Graeme Henderson, Micheal Lynskey, Fiona Measham, Rhys Ponton, Steve Rolles, Anne Katrin Schlag, Polly Taylor, David Nutt
BACKGROUND: Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across multiple research disciplines making integrated judgements difficult. METHODS: Experts on drug harms, addiction, criminology and drug policy were invited to a decision conference to develop a multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA) model for appraising alternative regulatory regimes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Piers Larcombe, Peter Ridd
Research science used to inform public policy decisions, herein defined as "Policy-Science", is rarely subjected to rigorous checking, testing and replication. Studies of biomedical and other sciences indicate that a considerable fraction of published peer-reviewed scientific literature, perhaps half, has significant flaws. To demonstrate the potential failings of the present approaches to scientific Quality Control (QC), we describe examples of science associated with perceived threats to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
David Brewster
The two reclassifications of cannabis in England & Wales in 2004 and 2009 have been subjected to a series of academic analyses which have largely been centred on either the relationship to evidence, or in terms of the implications and realities of policing and health under the changes. However, despite the wealth of attention on this area, there have been relatively few attempts to understand these policy movements through broader criminological theoretical frameworks. One recent exception is Shiner's (2015) utilisation of Garland's (2001) concept of 'structured ambivalence'...
February 1, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Hannah Bows
Despite half a century of research on both sexual violence and elder abuse, the intersection between the two remains largely unexplored. Using theoretical lenses of feminist criminology and critical feminist gerontology, this article explores the intersection between age and sexual violence drawing on interviews with 23 practitioners supporting older survivors (aged 60 and over). They reported physical and emotional effects of sexual violence leading to limited lifestyles, disengagement from social networks, and reliance on pathogenic coping strategies...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Riikka Kotanen
This article examines intimate partnership violence as a question of criminal justice policy in Finland, and contributes to criminological discussions regarding oft-stated connections between the politicization of the victim, the treatment of offenders, and repressive criminal justice policies. In this discussion, legislation aiming to regulate and prevent violence against women has often been utilized as an example of such punitive policies. Although criminal policies in Nordic countries differ significantly from more punitive Anglophone policies, punitive tendencies, it has been argued, have increased in the former, too...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Jake Phillips, Andrew Fowler, Chalen Westaby
Self-disclosure, the act of therapists revealing something about themselves in the context of a professional relationship, has been linked with higher levels of effectiveness when used by correctional workers. However, it is poorly defined in both criminal justice policy and criminological research which has resulted in a lack of understanding about the potential risks and benefits to practice and practitioners. This article uses literature from other fields (namely, social work, counselling, and psychotherapy) to lay out what forms self-disclosure might take in the field of criminal justice...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Egbert Zavala, Don L Kurtz
A review of the current body of literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that the most common theories used to explain this public health issue are social learning theory, a general theory of crime, general strain theory, or a combination of these perspectives. Other criminological theories have received less empirical attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to apply Differential Coercion and Social Support (DCSS) theory to test its capability to explain IPV. Data collected from two public universities ( N = 492) shows that three out of four measures of coercion (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Tamara Humphrey, Erin Gibbs Van Brunschot
Offender specialization-the tendency to repeat specific offenses-is the basis of practical orientations toward managing offending by the criminal justice system. Alternatively, dominant criminological paradigms postulate that offending versatility is the norm. We consider this incongruity by, first, considering "practice" in action, through the examination of the designations used by the Canadian criminal justice system to categorize offenders based on the assumption of specialization, and whether these determinations accurately reflect the offending behavior of offenders who have committed violent interpersonal crimes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Dennis M Savard, Thomas M Kelley, David M Merolla
Gender is arguably the most prominent correlate of criminal victimization. Few studies, however, examine gender-specific dynamics that might help advance criminology's understanding of the persistent gender gap in criminal victimization. We attempt to help fill this research void by examining data from the 2012 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) through the lens of routine activity theory to investigate the relationship between "gendered spaces" and criminal victimization. We propose that gendered spaces constructed by people's routine activities may increase their exposure to motivated offenders, which in turn may increase their risk of victimization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lieven J R Pauwels, Ben Heylen
The present study aims at explaining individual differences in self-reported political violence. We integrate key concepts from the field of criminology that are conceptually related to social identity theory (Flemish identity, feelings of group superiority, and ethnocentrism) and the dual process model on prejudice (perceived injustice, perception of threat, and right-wing authoritarianism). In our model, social identity concepts are hypothesized to play a mediating role between mechanisms derived from the dual process model and political violence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Bora Lee, Youngoh Jo
Interest in the correlates of victimization has significantly increased in criminology, while focusing on a few criminological theories, risky lifestyles/routine activities, and self-control. This study is to explore the applicability of five criminological theories, including social control theory, collective efficacy, and strain theories as well as risky lifestyles/routine activities and self-control to explain the correlates of repeat victimization. The current study also explores sex differences/similarities of Korean youth in the correlates of repeat victimization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Shao-Chiu Juan, Heather M Washington, Megan C Kurlychek
The link between exposure to violence in the home and children's later exhibition of violent behaviors is well documented in the criminological literature. To date, most research on partner violence (PV) and children's welfare has focused on adolescent outcomes. As such, we know little about how PV affects the behavior of the youngest, and perhaps most vulnerable population of children who have been exposed to PV. Our understanding of the PV-child behavior association is also limited because extant research has focused less attention on identifying risk factors that explain and modify the link between exposure to PV and children's behavior...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
M R Kamaluddin, A Othman, K H Ismail, G A Mat Saat
The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
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