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Hannah Bows
Despite half a century of research on both sexual violence and elder abuse, the intersection between the two remains largely unexplored. Using theoretical lenses of feminist criminology and critical feminist gerontology, this article explores the intersection between age and sexual violence drawing on interviews with 23 practitioners supporting older survivors (aged 60 and over). They reported physical and emotional effects of sexual violence leading to limited lifestyles, disengagement from social networks, and reliance on pathogenic coping strategies...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Riikka Kotanen
This article examines intimate partnership violence as a question of criminal justice policy in Finland, and contributes to criminological discussions regarding oft-stated connections between the politicization of the victim, the treatment of offenders, and repressive criminal justice policies. In this discussion, legislation aiming to regulate and prevent violence against women has often been utilized as an example of such punitive policies. Although criminal policies in Nordic countries differ significantly from more punitive Anglophone policies, punitive tendencies, it has been argued, have increased in the former, too...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Jake Phillips, Andrew Fowler, Chalen Westaby
Self-disclosure, the act of therapists revealing something about themselves in the context of a professional relationship, has been linked with higher levels of effectiveness when used by correctional workers. However, it is poorly defined in both criminal justice policy and criminological research which has resulted in a lack of understanding about the potential risks and benefits to practice and practitioners. This article uses literature from other fields (namely, social work, counselling, and psychotherapy) to lay out what forms self-disclosure might take in the field of criminal justice...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Egbert Zavala, Don L Kurtz
A review of the current body of literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that the most common theories used to explain this public health issue are social learning theory, a general theory of crime, general strain theory, or a combination of these perspectives. Other criminological theories have received less empirical attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to apply Differential Coercion and Social Support (DCSS) theory to test its capability to explain IPV. Data collected from two public universities ( N = 492) shows that three out of four measures of coercion (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Tamara Humphrey, Erin Gibbs Van Brunschot
Offender specialization-the tendency to repeat specific offenses-is the basis of practical orientations toward managing offending by the criminal justice system. Alternatively, dominant criminological paradigms postulate that offending versatility is the norm. We consider this incongruity by, first, considering "practice" in action, through the examination of the designations used by the Canadian criminal justice system to categorize offenders based on the assumption of specialization, and whether these determinations accurately reflect the offending behavior of offenders who have committed violent interpersonal crimes...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Dennis M Savard, Thomas M Kelley, David M Merolla
Gender is arguably the most prominent correlate of criminal victimization. Few studies, however, examine gender-specific dynamics that might help advance criminology's understanding of the persistent gender gap in criminal victimization. We attempt to help fill this research void by examining data from the 2012 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) through the lens of routine activity theory to investigate the relationship between "gendered spaces" and criminal victimization. We propose that gendered spaces constructed by people's routine activities may increase their exposure to motivated offenders, which in turn may increase their risk of victimization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lieven J R Pauwels, Ben Heylen
The present study aims at explaining individual differences in self-reported political violence. We integrate key concepts from the field of criminology that are conceptually related to social identity theory (Flemish identity, feelings of group superiority, and ethnocentrism) and the dual process model on prejudice (perceived injustice, perception of threat, and right-wing authoritarianism). In our model, social identity concepts are hypothesized to play a mediating role between mechanisms derived from the dual process model and political violence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Bora Lee, Youngoh Jo
Interest in the correlates of victimization has significantly increased in criminology, while focusing on a few criminological theories, risky lifestyles/routine activities, and self-control. This study is to explore the applicability of five criminological theories, including social control theory, collective efficacy, and strain theories as well as risky lifestyles/routine activities and self-control to explain the correlates of repeat victimization. The current study also explores sex differences/similarities of Korean youth in the correlates of repeat victimization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Shao-Chiu Juan, Heather M Washington, Megan C Kurlychek
The link between exposure to violence in the home and children's later exhibition of violent behaviors is well documented in the criminological literature. To date, most research on partner violence (PV) and children's welfare has focused on adolescent outcomes. As such, we know little about how PV affects the behavior of the youngest, and perhaps most vulnerable population of children who have been exposed to PV. Our understanding of the PV-child behavior association is also limited because extant research has focused less attention on identifying risk factors that explain and modify the link between exposure to PV and children's behavior...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
M R Kamaluddin, A Othman, K H Ismail, G A Mat Saat
The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Marc Alain, Julie Marcotte, Julie Desrosiers, Daniel Turcotte, Denis Lafortune
Relying on official data provided by the Québec City Youth Center, Canada, we explore the nature and intensity of officially known criminality for all youth (N = 5399) found guilty under the provisions of the Youth Criminal Justice Act between 2003 and 2012 and assess the relationship between criminality and previous episodes of child maltreatment. This article proposes to further verify the general hypothesis stating that there are empirical links between these two phenomena. The results suggest that those youth victims of specific types of child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse) seem to be found guilty of criminal acts that are significantly in line with these earlier episodes of maltreatment...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Lukáš Marek, Vít Pászto
Inspired by local outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in the Czech Republic in 2010 linked to the debate about alleged health risks of the raw milk consumption, a detailed study was carried out. Firstly, scanning was utilised to identify spatio-temporal clusters of the disease from 2008 to 2012. Then a spatial method (geographical profiling originally developed for criminology) served as assessment in selecting fresh-milk vending machines that could have contributed to some of the local campylobacteriosis outbreaks...
November 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
Stephanie Langevin, Jean Proulx, Eric Lacourse
This study investigated the day-to-day deviant and nondeviant sexuality of a sample of Canadian sexual aggressors against women ( N = 160). Using latent class analysis, three latent classes were identified: internalized deviant (ID), low sexual problem (LSP), and hypersexual deviant (HD). Following the latent class analysis, the developmental, physiological, cognitive, and criminological correlates of these lifestyles were analyzed. ID ( n = 31) aggressors were characterized by sexual dissatisfaction, sexual deviance, and a bland sexual life...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Shlomit Guy, Ofer Muchtar, Natti Ronel
This article will survey the dramatic change English football had undergone since the end of the last century. The authors will closely explore the implementation of the Taylor Report recommendations, to convince that which power and management techniques were used to decrease violence in public areas that were previously considered dangerous and crime-oriented. It will be argued that disciplinarian techniques were practiced, much like those described in Foucault's Discipline and Punish, while this very power has proven to be positive and revitalizing...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Natti Ronel, Y Ben Yair
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Jason Davies, Aisling O'Meara
BACKGROUND: In England and Wales, 'approved premises' offer 24-hour staffed accommodation for high-risk offenders, most of whom are returning to the community from prison. With a move towards a standardised operating model, it is essential to be able to measure outcomes. AIMS: Our aim is to collate and evaluate 'benchmarks' for approved premises. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to establish the impact of existing practice in all four approved premises in Wales...
November 29, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
P Bensussan
Psychiatric experts find it is easier to deal with more horrible crimes than highly conflictual divorces. In the former, projections are impossible and "files" raise very interesting issues with regard to criminology; in contrast, in the latter the expert is confronted not just with a family but also and lest one forget, a couple that at one point in time had loved each other. However, the separation resembles a bloodbath. We will not detail the various psychiatric pathologies, which may further complicate a separation: they are well-known and, on a procedural level, do not raise any specific concerns...
November 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
Monica G T C Souza, Bruno C Souza, Antonio Roazzi, Edson S da Silva
Introduction: Theory of the Culture of Honor is one of the few models in criminology specifically geared toward homicide. It proposes that, in certain societies, men must never show weakness and are required to react violently to any perceived threats to their reputation, thereby increasing their probability of committing a homicide. This has been suggested as the main explanation for the high rates of this type of crime in Brazil, particularly in the Northeast. Underlying this explanation there are complex mechanisms and processes that have yet to be clarified...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Xiacan Chen, Xueli Zhang, Stephen C P Wong, Min Yang, Di Kong, Junmei Hu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the characteristics of people with and without schizophrenia who have been charged with homicide in China. AIMS AND RESEARCH QUESTION: Our research question was what differences are there between alleged homicide offenders with and without psychosis? METHOD: All archival records of alleged homicide cases referred for assessment to the West China Forensic Central Medical Service during 1998-2006 were retrieved...
October 19, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Paul B Jantz, Richard H Morley
Sykes and Matza introduced neutralization theory in 1957 to explain how juvenile delinquents retain a positive self-image when engaging in delinquent acts. Since then, aspects of neutralization theory have been incorporated into sociological and criminological theories to explain socially deviant behavior. Functional brain mapping research utilizing advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques has identified complex, intrinsically organized, large-scale brain networks. Higher order operations commonly attributed to three brain networks (default mode network [DMN], central executive network [CEN], salience network [SN]) align closely with neutralization theory...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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