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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#1
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875073/the-microbial-biosphere-of-the-coral-acropora-cervicornis-in-northeastern-puerto-rico
#2
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Claudia P Ruiz-Diaz, Abigail Rivera-Seda, Juan S Ramírez-Lugo, Carlos Toledo-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Coral reefs are the most biodiverse ecosystems in the marine realm, and they not only contribute a plethora of ecosystem services to other marine organisms, but they also are beneficial to humankind via, for instance, their role as nurseries for commercially important fish species. Corals are considered holobionts (host + symbionts) since they are composed not only of coral polyps, but also algae, other microbial eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In recent years, Caribbean reef corals, including the once-common scleractinian coral Acropora cervicornis, have suffered unprecedented mortality due to climate change-related stressors...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861224/genomic-patterns-in-acropora-cervicornis-show-extensive-population-structure-and-variable-genetic-diversity
#3
Crawford Drury, Stephanie Schopmeyer, Elizabeth Goergen, Erich Bartels, Ken Nedimyer, Meaghan Johnson, Kerry Maxwell, Victor Galvan, Carrie Manfrino, Diego Lirman
Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis, across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839161/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-a-green-sulfur-bacterium-as-a-potential-coral-symbiont
#4
Lin Cai, Guowei Zhou, Ren-Mao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Jin Sun, Wei Ding, Yue Him Wong, James Y Xie, Jian-Wen Qiu, Sheng Liu, Hui Huang, Pei-Yuan Qian
Coral reefs are ecologically significant habitats. Coral-algal symbiosis confers ecological success on coral reefs and coral-microbial symbiosis is also vital to coral reefs. However, current understanding of coral-microbial symbiosis on a genomic scale is largely unknown. Here we report a potential microbial symbiont in corals revealed by metagenomics-based genomic study. Microbial cells in coral were enriched for metagenomic analysis and a high-quality draft genome of "Candidatus Prosthecochloris korallensis" was recovered by metagenome assembly and genome binning...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809933/using-light-dependent-scleractinia-to-define-the-upper-boundary-of-mesophotic-coral-ecosystems-on-the-reefs-of-utila-honduras
#5
Jack H Laverick, Dominic A Andradi-Brown, Alex D Rogers
Shallow water zooxanthellate coral reefs grade into ecologically distinct mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) deeper in the euphotic zone. MCEs are widely considered to start at an absolute depth limit of 30m deep, possibly failing to recognise that these are distinct ecological communities that may shift shallower or deeper depending on local environmental conditions. This study aimed to explore whether MCEs represent distinct biological communities, the upper boundary of which can be defined and whether the depth at which they occur may vary above or below 30m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769616/molecular-assessment-of-three-species-of-anilocra-isopoda-cymothoidae-ectoparasites-from-caribbean-coral-reef-fishes-with-the-description-of-anilocra-brillae-sp-n
#6
Rachel L Welicky, Kerry A Hadfield, Paul C Sikkel, Nico J Smit
A morphological review and molecular characterization of Anilocra haemuli Bunkley Williams & Williams, 1981, were completed using specimens collected from Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest, 1823 (French grunt) and Epinephelus guttatus Linnaeus, 1758 (red hind). Molecular and morphological data suggest that the isopods parasitizing H. flavolineatum and E. guttatus are different species. The specimens collected from E. guttatus are recognized as a new species, Anilocra brillaesp. n. Differences between Anilocra brillaesp...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753237/genetic-and-epigenetic-insight-into-morphospecies-in-a-reef-coral
#7
James L Dimond, Sanoosh K Gamblewood, Steven B Roberts
Incongruence between conventional and molecular systematics has left the delineation of many species unresolved. Reef-building corals are no exception, with phenotypic plasticity among the most plausible explanations for alternative morphospecies. As potential molecular signatures of phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic processes may contribute to our understanding of morphospecies. We compared genetic and epigenetic variation in Caribbean branching Porites spp., testing the hypothesis that epigenetics-specifically, differential patterns of DNA methylation-play a role in alternative morphotypes of a group whose taxonomic status has been questioned...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750077/understanding-spearfishing-in-a-coral-reef-fishery-fishers-opportunities-constraints-and-decision-making
#8
Tyler Pavlowich, Anne R Kapuscinski
Social and ecological systems come together during the act of fishing. However, we often lack a deep understanding of the fishing process, despite its importance for understanding and managing fisheries. A quantitative, mechanistic understanding of the opportunities fishers encounter, the constraints they face, and how they make decisions within the context of opportunities and constraints will enhance the design of fisheries management strategies to meet linked ecological and social objectives and will improve scientific capacity to predict impacts of different strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724688/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-leads-to-object-recognition-memory-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#9
Trevor J Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres, David I Kline
Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720811/some-coral-diseases-track-climate-oscillations-in-the-caribbean
#10
C J Randall, R van Woesik
Disease outbreaks continue to reduce coral populations worldwide. Understanding coral diseases and their relationships with environmental drivers is necessary to forecast disease outbreaks, and to predict future changes in coral populations. Yet, the temporal dynamics of coral diseases are rarely reported. Here we evaluate trends and periodicities in the records of three common coral diseases (white-band disease, yellow-band disease, and dark-spot syndrome) that were surveyed between 1997 and 2014 at 2082 sites throughout the Caribbean...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694432/seasonal-variation-modulates-coral-sensibility-to-heat-stress-and-explains-annual-changes-in-coral-productivity
#11
Tim Scheufen, Wiebke E Krämer, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Susana Enríquez
The potential effects of seasonal acclimatization on coral sensitivity to heat-stress, has received limited attention despite differing bleaching thresholds for summer and winter. In this study, we examined the response of two contrasting phenotypes, termed winter and summer, of four Caribbean reef corals to similar light and heat-stress levels. The four species investigated were categorized into two groups: species with the ability to harbour large number of symbionts, Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, and species with reduced symbiont density (Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria strigosa)...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651864/another-possible-risk-for-the-mediterranean-sea-aspergillus-sydowii-discovered-in-the-port-of-genoa-ligurian-sea-italy
#12
G Greco, M Capello, G Cecchi, L Cutroneo, S Di Piazza, M Zotti
Aspergillus sydowii is a cosmopolitan fungus that has been responsible for the mass destruction of coral in the Caribbean Sea over the last 15years. To our knowledge, this study has found the first case of A. sydowii in the Mediterranean Sea, in marine-bottom sediments, water and calcareous shells of bivalve molluscs sampled during a campaign to characterise the mycobiota in the Port of Genoa (Italy). The area is characterised by adverse environmental conditions (high turbidity, organic pollution and high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds)...
June 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651862/severe-impacts-of-brown-tides-caused-by-sargassum-spp-on-near-shore-caribbean-seagrass-communities
#13
Brigitta I van Tussenbroek, Héctor A Hernández Arana, Rosa E Rodríguez-Martínez, Julio Espinoza-Avalos, Hazel M Canizales-Flores, Carlos E González-Godoy, M Guadalupe Barba-Santos, Alejandro Vega-Zepeda, Ligia Collado-Vides
From mid-2014 until the end of 2015, the Mexican Caribbean coast experienced a massive influx of drifting Sargassum spp. that accumulated on the shores, resulting in build-up of decaying beach-cast material and near-shore murky brown waters (Sargassum-brown-tides, Sbt). The effects of Sbt on four near-shore waters included reduction in light, oxygen (hypoxia or anoxia) and pH. The monthly influx of nitrogen, and phosphorus by drifting Sargassum spp. was estimated at 6150 and 61kgkm(-1) respectively, resulting in eutrophication...
June 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630800/taxonomic-richness-and-abundance-of-cryptic-peracarid-crustaceans-in-the-puerto-morelos-reef-national-park-mexico
#14
Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez, Rosa Elisa Rodríguez-Martínez, Fernando Alvarez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP), and their relationship with depth. METHODS: Three reef sites were selected: (1) Bonanza, (2) Bocana, and (3) Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef), 6-8 m (fore-reef), and 10-12 m (fore-reef)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626617/doc-concentrations-across-a-depth-dependent-light-gradient-on-a-caribbean-coral-reef
#15
Benjamin Mueller, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591685/identification-of-a-consistent-polyene-component-of-purple-pigment-in-diseased-sclerites-of-caribbean-corals-across-region-species-and-insult-agent
#16
Monty L Fetterolf, Chad L Leverette, Christopher Perez, Garriet W Smith
Gorgonians respond to insult (damage and disease) by producing sclerites containing a purple pigment as opposed to the normal white sclerites. Raman microscopy is used to study the purple areas of three species of diseased coral, Gorgonia ventalina, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Eunicea laciniata obtained from Puerto Rico. These spectra were compared to Gorgonia ventalina samples previously reported that were obtained from San Salvador, Bahamas. Spectra from two samples of G. ventalina that had been infected by different agents, Aspergillus sydowii and a slime mold, were also obtained...
May 29, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579915/microbiome-variation-in-corals-with-distinct-depth-distribution-ranges-across-a-shallow-mesophotic-gradient-15-85%C3%A2-m
#17
Bettina Glasl, Pim Bongaerts, Nathalie H Elisabeth, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Gerhard J Herndl, Pedro R Frade
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are generally poorly studied, and our knowledge of lower MCEs (below 60 m depth) is largely limited to visual surveys. Here, we provide a first detailed assessment of the prokaryotic community associated with scleractinian corals over a depth gradient to the lower mesophotic realm (15-85 m). Specimens of three Caribbean coral species exhibiting differences in their depth distribution ranges (Agaricia grahamae, Madracis pharensis and Stephanocoenia intersepta) were collected with a manned submersible on the island of Curaçao, and their prokaryotic communities assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...
2017: Coral Reefs: Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560093/invasive-lionfish-had-no-measurable-effect-on-prey-fish-community-structure-across-the-belizean-barrier-reef
#18
Serena Hackerott, Abel Valdivia, Courtney E Cox, Nyssa J Silbiger, John F Bruno
Invasive lionfish are assumed to significantly affect Caribbean reef fish communities. However, evidence of lionfish effects on native reef fishes is based on uncontrolled observational studies or small-scale, unrepresentative experiments, with findings ranging from no effect to large effects on prey density and richness. Moreover, whether lionfish affect populations and communities of native reef fishes at larger, management-relevant scales is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of lionfish on coral reef prey fish communities in a natural complex reef system...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558306/user-fees-across-ecosystem-boundaries-are-scuba-divers-willing-to-pay-for-terrestrial-biodiversity-conservation
#19
Michaela Roberts, Nick Hanley, Will Cresswell
While ecological links between ecosystems have been long recognised, management rarely crosses ecosystem boundaries. Coral reefs are susceptible to damage through terrestrial run-off, and failing to account for this within management threatens reef protection. In order to quantify the extent to that coral reef users are willing to support management actions to improve ecosystem quality, we conducted a choice experiment with SCUBA divers on the island of Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Specifically, we estimated their willingness to pay to reduce terrestrial overgrazing as a means to improve reef health...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555884/intraspecific-variation-in-growth-rate-is-a-poor-predictor-of-fitness-for-reef-corals
#20
Peter J Edmunds
Genetic variation underlying differences in organism performance is subject to natural selection, and organisms with high values of genetically determined phenotypic measures of fitness should perform better than those that do not. Using small scleractinian corals (i.e., ≤40-mm diameter), this principle was tested with 20 yr of census data from St. John, US Virgin Islands. Using growth rate (change in diameter) as a measure of fitness, growth in one year was tested for association with growth and survivorship in the following two years, and this process was repeated over 20 yr using a 3-yr sliding window...
August 2017: Ecology
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