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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129968/bleaching-response-of-coral-species-in-the-context-of-assemblage-response
#1
Timothy D Swain, Emily DuBois, Scott J Goldberg, Vadim Backman, Luisa A Marcelino
Caribbean coral reefs are declining due to a mosaic of local and global stresses, including climate change-induced thermal stress. Species and assemblage responses differ due to factors that are not easily identifiable or quantifiable. We calculated a novel species-specific metric of coral bleaching response, taxon-α and -β, which relates the response of a species to that of its assemblages for 16 species over 18 assemblages. By contextualizing species responses within the response of their assemblages, the effects of environmental factors are removed and intrinsic differences among taxa are revealed...
June 2017: Coral Reefs: Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124861/inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing-arrests-coral-disease-development-and-disease-associated-microbes
#2
Rebecca H Certner, Steven V Vollmer
Among the greatest threats to coral reefs are coral epizootics, which are increasing in frequency and severity across many reef ecosystems. In particular, white band disease (WBD) has devastated Caribbean acroporid populations since its initial outbreak in 1979. However, despite its widespread and damaging effects, the etiology of WBD remains largely unresolved. Here we examine the role of quorum sensing within bacterial communities associated with WBD-infected Acropora cervicornis. Microbial communities isolated from WBD-infected corals were exposed to quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) - a N-acyl homoserine lactone autoinducer antagonist - and then dosed onto healthy test corals...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098358/coral-symbiodinium-community-composition-across-the-belize-mesoamerican-barrier-reef-system-is-influenced-by-host-species-and-thermal-variability
#3
J H Baumann, S W Davies, H E Aichelman, K D Castillo
Reef-building corals maintain a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and this symbiosis is vital for the survival of the coral holobiont. Symbiodinium community composition within the coral host has been shown to influence a coral's ability to resist and recover from stress. A multitude of stressors including ocean warming, ocean acidification, and eutrophication have been linked to global scale decline in coral health and cover in recent decades. Three distinct thermal regimes (highTP, modTP, and lowTP) following an inshore-offshore gradient of declining average temperatures and thermal variation were identified on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093994/comparative-demography-of-two-common-scleractinian-corals-orbicella-annularis-and-porites-astreoides
#4
Francisco J Soto-Santiago, Alex Mercado-Molina, Koralis Reyes-Maldonado, Yaileen Vélez, Claudia P Ruiz-Díaz, Alberto Sabat
Background: Studies directed at understanding the demography and population dynamics of corals are relatively scarce. This limits our understanding of both the dynamics of coral populations and our capacity to develop management and conservation initiatives directed at conserving such ecosystems. Methods: From 2012 to 2014, we collected data on the growth, survival, and recruitment rates of two common Caribbean coral species, the stress-tolerant Orbicella annularis and the weedy Porites astreoides...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079623/abundance-and-multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-vibrio-associated-with-diseased-elkhorn-coral-acropora-palmata-of-the-florida-keys
#5
Keri M Kemp, Jason R Westrich, Magdy S Alabady, Martinique L Edwards, Erin K Lipp
The critically endangered elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, is affected by white pox disease (WPX) throughout the Florida Reef Tract and wider Caribbean. The bacterium Serratia marcescens was previously identified as one etiologic agent of WPX, but is no longer consistently detected in contemporary outbreaks. It is now believed that multiple etiologic agents cause WPX; however, to date, no other potential pathogens have been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the association of Vibrio bacteria with WPX occurrence from August 2012--2014 at Looe Key Reef in the Florida Keys, USA...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076634/bleaching-events-regulate-shifts-from-corals-to-excavating-sponges-in-algae-dominated-reefs
#6
Andia Chaves-Fonnegra, Bernhard Riegl, Sven Zea, Jose V Lopez, Tyler Smith, Marilyn Brandt, David S Gilliam
Changes in coral-sponge interactions can alter reef accretion/erosion balance and are important to predict trends on current algal-dominated Caribbean reefs. Although sponge abundance is increasing on some coral reefs, we lack information on how shifts from corals to bioeroding sponges occur, and how environmental factors such as anomalous seawater temperatures and consequent coral bleaching and mortality influence these shifts. A state transition model (Markov chain) was developed to evaluate the response of coral excavating sponges (Cliona delitrix Pang 1973) after coral bleaching events...
October 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062597/ongoing-removals-of-invasive-lionfish-in-honduras-and-their-effect-on-native-caribbean-prey-fishes
#7
Friederike Peiffer, Sonia Bejarano, Giacomo Palavicini de Witte, Christian Wild
The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras) a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park) trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046575/oil-exposure-disrupts-early-life-history-stages-of-coral-reef-fishes-via-behavioural-impairments
#8
Jacob L Johansen, Bridie J M Allan, Jodie L Rummer, Andrew J Esbaugh
Global demand for energy and oil-based products is progressively introducing petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into sensitive marine environments, primarily from fossil-fuel exploration, transport, and urban and industrial runoff. These toxic pollutants are found worldwide, yet the long-term ecological effects on coral reef ecosystems are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that oil exposure spanning PAH concentrations that are environmentally relevant for many coastal marine ecosystems (≤5.7 μg l(-1)), including parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Red Sea, Asia and the Caribbean, causes elevated mortality and stunted growth rates in six species of pre-settlement coral reef fishes, spanning two evolutionarily distinct families (Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016624/unusually-high-coral-recruitment-during-the-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-in-mo-orea-french-polynesia
#9
Peter J Edmunds
The negative implications of the thermal sensitivity of reef corals became clear with coral bleaching throughout the Caribbean in the 1980's, and later globally, with the severe El Niño of 1998 and extensive seawater warming in 2005. These events have substantially contributed to declines in coral cover, and therefore the El Niño of 2016 raised concerns over the implications for coral reefs; on the Great Barrier Reef these concerns have been realized. A different outcome developed in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, where in situ seawater temperature from 15 March 2016 to 15 April 2016 was an average of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#10
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875073/the-microbial-biosphere-of-the-coral-acropora-cervicornis-in-northeastern-puerto-rico
#11
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Claudia P Ruiz-Diaz, Abigail Rivera-Seda, Juan S Ramírez-Lugo, Carlos Toledo-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Coral reefs are the most biodiverse ecosystems in the marine realm, and they not only contribute a plethora of ecosystem services to other marine organisms, but they also are beneficial to humankind via, for instance, their role as nurseries for commercially important fish species. Corals are considered holobionts (host + symbionts) since they are composed not only of coral polyps, but also algae, other microbial eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In recent years, Caribbean reef corals, including the once-common scleractinian coral Acropora cervicornis, have suffered unprecedented mortality due to climate change-related stressors...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861224/genomic-patterns-in-acropora-cervicornis-show-extensive-population-structure-and-variable-genetic-diversity
#12
Crawford Drury, Stephanie Schopmeyer, Elizabeth Goergen, Erich Bartels, Ken Nedimyer, Meaghan Johnson, Kerry Maxwell, Victor Galvan, Carrie Manfrino, Diego Lirman
Threatened Caribbean coral communities can benefit from high-resolution genetic data used to inform management and conservation action. We use Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) to investigate genetic patterns in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis, across the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and the western Caribbean. Results show extensive population structure at regional scales and resolve previously unknown structure within the FRT. Different regions also exhibit up to threefold differences in genetic diversity (He), suggesting targeted management based on the goals and resources of each population is needed...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839161/metagenomic-analysis-reveals-a-green-sulfur-bacterium-as-a-potential-coral-symbiont
#13
Lin Cai, Guowei Zhou, Ren-Mao Tian, Haoya Tong, Weipeng Zhang, Jin Sun, Wei Ding, Yue Him Wong, James Y Xie, Jian-Wen Qiu, Sheng Liu, Hui Huang, Pei-Yuan Qian
Coral reefs are ecologically significant habitats. Coral-algal symbiosis confers ecological success on coral reefs and coral-microbial symbiosis is also vital to coral reefs. However, current understanding of coral-microbial symbiosis on a genomic scale is largely unknown. Here we report a potential microbial symbiont in corals revealed by metagenomics-based genomic study. Microbial cells in coral were enriched for metagenomic analysis and a high-quality draft genome of "Candidatus Prosthecochloris korallensis" was recovered by metagenome assembly and genome binning...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809933/using-light-dependent-scleractinia-to-define-the-upper-boundary-of-mesophotic-coral-ecosystems-on-the-reefs-of-utila-honduras
#14
Jack H Laverick, Dominic A Andradi-Brown, Alex D Rogers
Shallow water zooxanthellate coral reefs grade into ecologically distinct mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) deeper in the euphotic zone. MCEs are widely considered to start at an absolute depth limit of 30m deep, possibly failing to recognise that these are distinct ecological communities that may shift shallower or deeper depending on local environmental conditions. This study aimed to explore whether MCEs represent distinct biological communities, the upper boundary of which can be defined and whether the depth at which they occur may vary above or below 30m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769616/molecular-assessment-of-three-species-of-anilocra-isopoda-cymothoidae-ectoparasites-from-caribbean-coral-reef-fishes-with-the-description-of-anilocra-brillae-sp-n
#15
Rachel L Welicky, Kerry A Hadfield, Paul C Sikkel, Nico J Smit
A morphological review and molecular characterization of Anilocra haemuli Bunkley Williams & Williams, 1981, were completed using specimens collected from Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest, 1823 (French grunt) and Epinephelus guttatus Linnaeus, 1758 (red hind). Molecular and morphological data suggest that the isopods parasitizing H. flavolineatum and E. guttatus are different species. The specimens collected from E. guttatus are recognized as a new species, Anilocra brillaesp. n. Differences between Anilocra brillaesp...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753237/genetic-and-epigenetic-insight-into-morphospecies-in-a-reef-coral
#16
James L Dimond, Sanoosh K Gamblewood, Steven B Roberts
Incongruence between conventional and molecular systematics has left the delineation of many species unresolved. Reef-building corals are no exception, with phenotypic plasticity among the most plausible explanations for alternative morphospecies. As potential molecular signatures of phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic processes may contribute to our understanding of morphospecies. We compared genetic and epigenetic variation in Caribbean branching Porites spp., testing the hypothesis that epigenetics-specifically, differential patterns of DNA methylation-play a role in alternative morphotypes of a group whose taxonomic status has been questioned...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750077/understanding-spearfishing-in-a-coral-reef-fishery-fishers-opportunities-constraints-and-decision-making
#17
Tyler Pavlowich, Anne R Kapuscinski
Social and ecological systems come together during the act of fishing. However, we often lack a deep understanding of the fishing process, despite its importance for understanding and managing fisheries. A quantitative, mechanistic understanding of the opportunities fishers encounter, the constraints they face, and how they make decisions within the context of opportunities and constraints will enhance the design of fisheries management strategies to meet linked ecological and social objectives and will improve scientific capacity to predict impacts of different strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724688/dopamine-d1-receptor-activation-leads-to-object-recognition-memory-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#18
Trevor J Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres, David I Kline
Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720811/some-coral-diseases-track-climate-oscillations-in-the-caribbean
#19
C J Randall, R van Woesik
Disease outbreaks continue to reduce coral populations worldwide. Understanding coral diseases and their relationships with environmental drivers is necessary to forecast disease outbreaks, and to predict future changes in coral populations. Yet, the temporal dynamics of coral diseases are rarely reported. Here we evaluate trends and periodicities in the records of three common coral diseases (white-band disease, yellow-band disease, and dark-spot syndrome) that were surveyed between 1997 and 2014 at 2082 sites throughout the Caribbean...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694432/seasonal-variation-modulates-coral-sensibility-to-heat-stress-and-explains-annual-changes-in-coral-productivity
#20
Tim Scheufen, Wiebke E Krämer, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Susana Enríquez
The potential effects of seasonal acclimatization on coral sensitivity to heat-stress, has received limited attention despite differing bleaching thresholds for summer and winter. In this study, we examined the response of two contrasting phenotypes, termed winter and summer, of four Caribbean reef corals to similar light and heat-stress levels. The four species investigated were categorized into two groups: species with the ability to harbour large number of symbionts, Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata, and species with reduced symbiont density (Montastraea cavernosa and Pseudodiploria strigosa)...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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