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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228681/discovery-of-a-new-species-of-hermit-crab-of-the-genus-pylopaguropsis-alcock-1905-from-the-caribbean-den-commensal-or-cleaner-crustacea-anomura-paguridae
#1
Rafael Lemaitre
A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymulleraesp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of "flaming reef lobsters" Enoplometopus antillensis, or a "broad banded moray" Channomuraena vittata...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225766/marine-actinobacteria-as-a-source-of-compounds-for-phytopathogen-control-an-integrative-metabolic-profiling-bioactivity-and-taxonomical-approach
#2
Luz A Betancur, Sandra J Naranjo-Gaybor, Diana M Vinchira-Villarraga, Nubia C Moreno-Sarmiento, Luis A Maldonado, Zulma R Suarez-Moreno, Alejandro Acosta-González, Gillermo F Padilla-Gonzalez, Mónica Puyana, Leonardo Castellanos, Freddy A Ramos
Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea) with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168098/identifying-zooplankton-community-changes-between-shallow-and-upper-mesophotic-reefs-on-the-mesoamerican-barrier-reef-caribbean
#3
Dominic A Andradi-Brown, Catherine E I Head, Dan A Exton, Christina L Hunt, Alicia Hendrix, Erika Gress, Alex D Rogers
Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs, reefs 30-150 m) are understudied, yet the limited research conducted has been biased towards large sessile taxa, such as scleractinian corals and sponges, or mobile taxa such as fishes. Here we investigate zooplankton communities on shallow reefs and MCEs around Utila on the southern Mesoamerican Barrier Reef using planktonic light traps. Zooplankton samples were sorted into broad taxonomic groups. Our results indicate similar taxonomic zooplankton richness and overall biomass between shallow reefs and MCEs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152002/the-effects-of-elevated-seawater-temperatures-on-caribbean-gorgonian-corals-and-their-algal-symbionts-symbiodinium-spp
#4
Tamar L Goulet, Kartick P Shirur, Blake D Ramsby, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto
Global climate change not only leads to elevated seawater temperatures but also to episodic anomalously high or low temperatures lasting for several hours to days. Scleractinian corals are detrimentally affected by thermal fluctuations, which often lead to an uncoupling of their mutualism with Symbiodinium spp. (coral bleaching) and potentially coral death. Consequently, on many Caribbean reefs scleractinian coral cover has plummeted. Conversely, gorgonian corals persist, with their abundance even increasing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130801/bottom-up-and-top-down-controls-on-coral-reef-sponges-disentangling-within-habitat-and-between-habitat-processes
#5
Janie Wulff
Polarized debates about top-down vs. bottom-up control have given way to more nuanced understanding of control by both resources and consumers in many systems, but coral reef sponges have recently been asserted to differ from other groups in being controlled exclusively top-down. This assertion has been countered by reports of exclusively bottom-up control, with both conclusions based on studies of the same species. Accelerating deterioration of coral reefs motivates knowing the contexts in which either consumers or nutrients or both control key ecosystem role players like sponges...
January 28, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112169/prehistorical-and-historical-declines-in-caribbean-coral-reef-accretion-rates-driven-by-loss-of-parrotfish
#6
Katie L Cramer, Aaron O'Dea, Tara R Clark, Jian-Xin Zhao, Richard D Norris
Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period...
January 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097070/sponge-exhalent-seawater-contains-a-unique-chemical-profile-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#7
Cara L Fiore, Christopher J Freeman, Elizabeth B Kujawinski
Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072444/predator-effects-on-reef-fish-settlement-depend-on-predator-origin-and-recruit-density
#8
Cassandra E Benkwitt
During major life-history transitions animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native versus non-native) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054550/the-emergent-role-of-small-bodied-herbivores-in-pre-empting-phase-shifts-on-degraded-coral-reefs
#9
Caitlin D Kuempel, Andrew H Altieri
Natural and anthropogenic stressors can cause phase shifts from coral-dominated to algal-dominated states. In the Caribbean, over-fishing of large herbivorous fish and disease among the long-spined urchin, Diadema, have facilitated algal growth on degraded reefs. We found that diminutive species of urchin and parrotfish, which escaped die-offs and fishing pressure, can achieve abundances comparable to total herbivore biomass on healthier, protected reefs, and exert sufficient grazing function to pre-empt macroalgal dominance following mass coral mortality...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027580/effects-of-predation-and-nutrient-enrichment-on-the-success-and-microbiome-of-a-foundational-coral
#10
Elizabeth C Shaver, Andrew A Shantz, Ryan McMinds, Deron E Burkepile, Rebecca L Vega Thurber, Brian R Silliman
By inflicting damage to prey tissues, consumer species may increase stress in prey hosts and reduce overall fitness (i.e., primary effects, such as growth or reproduction) or cause secondary effects by affecting prey interactions with other species such as microbes. However, little is known about how abiotic conditions affect the outcomes of these biotic interactions. In coral reef communities, both nutrient enrichment and predation have been linked to reduced fitness and disease facilitation in corals, yet no study to date has tested their combined effects on corals or their associated microbial communities (i...
December 27, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904505/composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-aqueous-extracts-of-three-scleractinian-corals-from-the-mexican-caribbean-pseudodiploria-strigosa-porites-astreoides-and-siderastrea-siderea
#11
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#12
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867763/sexual-reproduction-in-the-caribbean-coral-genus-isophyllia-scleractinia-mussidae
#13
Derek Soto, Ernesto Weil
The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000-2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#14
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861643/correction-coral-reef-health-indices-versus-the-biological-ecological-and-functional-diversity-of-fish-and-coral-assemblages-in-the-caribbean-sea
#15
Leopoldo Díaz-Pérez, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Marco Ortiz, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña, Jose D Carriquiry, Eduardo Ríos-Jara, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, María Del Carmen García-Rivas
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161812.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859162/geographic-extent-and-variation-of-a-coral-reef-trophic-cascade
#16
T R McClanahan, N A Muthiga
Trophic cascades caused by a reduction in predators of sea urchins have been reported in Indian Ocean and Caribbean coral reefs. Previous studies have been constrained by their site-specific nature and limited spatial replication, which has produced site and species-specific understanding that can potentially preclude larger community-organization nuances and generalizations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent and variability of the cascade community in response to fishing across ~23° of latitude and longitude in coral reefs in the southwestern Indian Ocean...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822559/distinguishing-between-microbial-habitats-unravels-ecological-complexity-in-coral-microbiomes
#17
Amy Apprill, Laura G Weber, Alyson E Santoro
The diverse prokaryotic communities associated with reef-building corals may provide important ecological advantages to their threatened hosts. The consistency of relationships between corals and specific prokaryotes, however, is debated, and the locations where microbially mediated processes occur in the host are not resolved. Here, we examined how the prokaryotic associates of five common Caribbean corals with different evolutionary and ecological traits differ across mucus and tissue habitats. We used physical and chemical separation of coral mucus and tissue and sequencing of partial small-subunit rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea from these samples to demonstrate that coral tissue and mucus harbor unique reservoirs of prokaryotes, with 23 to 49% and 31 to 56% of sequences exclusive to the tissue and mucus habitats, respectively...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811809/a-new-species-of-caligus-m%C3%A3-ller-1785-copepoda-siphonostomatoida-caligidae-from-coral-reef-plankton-in-the-mexican-caribbean
#18
Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Rebeca Gasca
During a survey of the zooplankton community of a protected reef system on the southern coast of the Mexican Caribbean, many female and male specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller, 1785 were collected. The new species closely resembles C. wilsoni Delamare Deboutteville & Nunez-Ruivo, 1958 and C. belones (Krøyer, 1863) and has affinities with C. balistae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861 and C. longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898, all known from the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters of the north-western Atlantic Ocean...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811709/cliona-acephala-porifera-demospongiae-clionaida-a-new-encrusting-excavating-reef-sponge-from-the-colombian-caribbean-belonging-to-the-cliona-viridis-species-complex
#19
Sven Zea, Mateo López-Victoria
Several groups of sponges are able to excavate galleries and tunnels in calcareous substrata such as limestone rock, shells, calcareous algae and coral skeletons. Within the genus Cliona, some species share the common traits of being brown to olive-green in color, and harboring photosynthetic, unicellular dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). These Cliona spp. have been grouped as the Cliona viridis species complex. Several species of this complex completely encrust the excavated substratum with a thin veneer of tissue and, when colonizing dead exposed parts of live coral colonies, they are able to undermine or overgrow and thus kill live coral tissue as they advance predominantly laterally...
October 26, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807263/symbiodinium-biogeography-tracks-environmental-patterns-rather-than-host-genetics-in-a-key-caribbean-reef-builder-orbicella-annularis
#20
Emma V Kennedy, Linda Tonk, Nicola L Foster, Iliana Chollett, Juan-Carlos Ortiz, Sophie Dove, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Peter J Mumby, Jamie R Stevens
The physiological performance of a reef-building coral is a combined outcome of both the coral host and its algal endosymbionts, Symbiodinium While Orbicella annularis-a dominant reef-building coral in the Wider Caribbean-is known to be a flexible host in terms of the diversity of Symbiodinium types it can associate with, it is uncertain how this diversity varies across the Caribbean, and whether spatial variability in the symbiont community is related to either O. annularis genotype or environment. Here, we target the Symbiodinium-ITS2 gene to characterize and map dominant Symbiodinium hosted by O...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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