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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904505/composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-aqueous-extracts-of-three-scleractinian-corals-from-the-mexican-caribbean-pseudodiploria-strigosa-porites-astreoides-and-siderastrea-siderea
#1
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#2
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867763/sexual-reproduction-in-the-caribbean-coral-genus-isophyllia-scleractinia-mussidae
#3
Derek Soto, Ernesto Weil
The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000-2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#4
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
November 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861643/correction-coral-reef-health-indices-versus-the-biological-ecological-and-functional-diversity-of-fish-and-coral-assemblages-in-the-caribbean-sea
#5
Leopoldo Díaz-Pérez, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Marco Ortiz, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña, Jose D Carriquiry, Eduardo Ríos-Jara, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, María Del Carmen García-Rivas
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161812.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859162/geographic-extent-and-variation-of-a-coral-reef-trophic-cascade
#6
T R McClanahan, N A Muthiga
Trophic cascades caused by a reduction in predators of sea urchins have been reported in Indian Ocean and Caribbean coral reefs. Previous studies have been constrained by their site-specific nature and limited spatial replication, which has produced site and species-specific understanding that can potentially preclude larger community-organization nuances and generalizations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent and variability of the cascade community in response to fishing across ~23° of latitude and longitude in coral reefs in the southwestern Indian Ocean...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822559/distinguishing-between-microbial-habitats-unravels-ecological-complexity-in-coral-microbiomes
#7
Amy Apprill, Laura G Weber, Alyson E Santoro
The diverse prokaryotic communities associated with reef-building corals may provide important ecological advantages to their threatened hosts. The consistency of relationships between corals and specific prokaryotes, however, is debated, and the locations where microbially mediated processes occur in the host are not resolved. Here, we examined how the prokaryotic associates of five common Caribbean corals with different evolutionary and ecological traits differ across mucus and tissue habitats. We used physical and chemical separation of coral mucus and tissue and sequencing of partial small-subunit rRNA genes of bacteria and archaea from these samples to demonstrate that coral tissue and mucus harbor unique reservoirs of prokaryotes, with 23 to 49% and 31 to 56% of sequences exclusive to the tissue and mucus habitats, respectively...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811809/a-new-species-of-caligus-m%C3%A3-ller-1785-copepoda-siphonostomatoida-caligidae-from-coral-reef-plankton-in-the-mexican-caribbean
#8
Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Rebeca Gasca
During a survey of the zooplankton community of a protected reef system on the southern coast of the Mexican Caribbean, many female and male specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller, 1785 were collected. The new species closely resembles C. wilsoni Delamare Deboutteville & Nunez-Ruivo, 1958 and C. belones (Krøyer, 1863) and has affinities with C. balistae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861 and C. longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898, all known from the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters of the north-western Atlantic Ocean...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811709/cliona-acephala-porifera-demospongiae-clionaida-a-new-encrusting-excavating-reef-sponge-from-the-colombian-caribbean-belonging-to-the-cliona-viridis-species-complex
#9
Sven Zea, Mateo López-Victoria
Several groups of sponges are able to excavate galleries and tunnels in calcareous substrata such as limestone rock, shells, calcareous algae and coral skeletons. Within the genus Cliona, some species share the common traits of being brown to olive-green in color, and harboring photosynthetic, unicellular dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). These Cliona spp. have been grouped as the Cliona viridis species complex. Several species of this complex completely encrust the excavated substratum with a thin veneer of tissue and, when colonizing dead exposed parts of live coral colonies, they are able to undermine or overgrow and thus kill live coral tissue as they advance predominantly laterally...
October 26, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807263/symbiodinium-biogeography-tracks-environmental-patterns-rather-than-host-genetics-in-a-key-caribbean-reef-builder-orbicella-annularis
#10
Emma V Kennedy, Linda Tonk, Nicola L Foster, Iliana Chollett, Juan-Carlos Ortiz, Sophie Dove, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Peter J Mumby, Jamie R Stevens
The physiological performance of a reef-building coral is a combined outcome of both the coral host and its algal endosymbionts, Symbiodinium While Orbicella annularis-a dominant reef-building coral in the Wider Caribbean-is known to be a flexible host in terms of the diversity of Symbiodinium types it can associate with, it is uncertain how this diversity varies across the Caribbean, and whether spatial variability in the symbiont community is related to either O. annularis genotype or environment. Here, we target the Symbiodinium-ITS2 gene to characterize and map dominant Symbiodinium hosted by O...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781260/environmental-drivers-of-diurnal-visits-by-transient-predatory-fishes-to-caribbean-patch-reefs
#11
A R Harborne, J D Selwyn, J M Lawson, M Gallo
Video cameras recorded the diurnal visitation rates of transient (large home range) piscivorous fishes to coral patch reefs in The Bahamas and identified 11 species. Visits by bar jack Caranx ruber, mutton snapper Lutjanus analis, yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus, barracuda Sphyraena barracuda and cero Scomberomorus regalis were sufficiently frequent to correlate with a range of biophysical factors. Patch-reef visitation rates and fish abundances varied with distance from shore and all species except S...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781176/ecological-solutions-to-reef-degradation-optimizing-coral-reef-restoration-in-the-caribbean-and-western-atlantic
#12
Diego Lirman, Stephanie Schopmeyer
Reef restoration activities have proliferated in response to the need to mitigate coral declines and recover lost reef structure, function, and ecosystem services. Here, we describe the recent shift from costly and complex engineering solutions to recover degraded reef structure to more economical and efficient ecological approaches that focus on recovering the living components of reef communities. We review the adoption and expansion of the coral gardening framework in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic where practitioners now grow and outplant 10,000's of corals onto degraded reefs each year...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761342/variation-in-habitat-soundscape-characteristics-influences-settlement-of-a-reef-building-coral
#13
Ashlee Lillis, DelWayne Bohnenstiehl, Jason W Peters, David Eggleston
Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671533/how-old-are-you-genet-age-estimates-in-a-clonal-animal
#14
M K Devlin-Durante, M W Miller, W F Precht, I B Baums
Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591516/assessing-the-herbivore-role-of-the-sea-urchin-echinometra-viridis-keys-to-determine-the-structure-of-communities-in-disturbed-coral-reefs
#15
Carlos Sangil, Hector M Guzman
Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E...
September 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579575/coral-reef-health-indices-versus-the-biological-ecological-and-functional-diversity-of-fish-and-coral-assemblages-in-the-caribbean-sea
#16
Leopoldo Díaz-Pérez, Fabián Alejandro Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Marco Ortiz, Amílcar Leví Cupul-Magaña, Jose D Carriquiry, Eduardo Ríos-Jara, Alma Paola Rodríguez-Troncoso, María Del Carmen García-Rivas
This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561209/species-specific-responses-to-climate-change-and-community-composition-determine-future-calcification-rates-of-florida-keys-reefs
#17
Remy R Okazaki, Erica K Towle, Ruben van Hooidonk, Carolina Mor, Rivah N Winter, Alan M Piggot, Ross Cunning, Andrew C Baker, James S Klaus, Peter K Swart, Chris Langdon
Anthropogenic climate change compromises reef growth as a result of increasing temperatures and ocean acidification. Scleractinian corals vary in their sensitivity to these variables, suggesting species composition will influence how reef communities respond to future climate change. Because data are lacking for many species, most studies that model future reef growth rely on uniform scleractinian calcification sensitivities to temperature and ocean acidification. In order to address this knowledge gap, calcification of twelve common and understudied Caribbean coral species was measured for two months under crossed temperatures (27°C, 30...
August 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547525/tissue-mortality-by-caribbean-ciliate-infection-and-white-band-disease-in-three-reef-building-coral-species
#18
Alejandra Verde, Carolina Bastidas, Aldo Croquer
Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547316/can-you-hear-me-now-range-testing-a-submerged-passive-acoustic-receiver-array-in-a-caribbean-coral-reef-habitat
#19
Thomas H Selby, Kristen M Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J Smith, Clayton J Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Ian Lundgren, Madan K Oli
Submerged passive acoustic technology allows researchers to investigate spatial and temporal movement patterns of many marine and freshwater species. The technology uses receivers to detect and record acoustic transmissions emitted from tags attached to an individual. Acoustic signal strength naturally attenuates over distance, but numerous environmental variables also affect the probability a tag is detected. Knowledge of receiver range is crucial for designing acoustic arrays and analyzing telemetry data...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529748/fishing-down-nutrients-on-coral-reefs
#20
Jacob E Allgeier, Abel Valdivia, Courtney Cox, Craig A Layman
Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities...
2016: Nature Communications
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