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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770279/testing-methods-to-mitigate-caribbean-yellow-band-disease-on-orbicella-faveolata
#1
Carly J Randall, Elizabeth M Whitcher, Tessa Code, Clayton Pollock, Ian Lundgren, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Erinn M Muller
Outbreaks of coral diseases continue to reduce global coral populations. In the Caribbean, yellow band is a severe and wide-spread disease that commonly affects corals of the Orbicella spp. complex, significantly impeding coral reproduction, and hindering the natural recovery of Orbicella spp. POPULATIONS: Caribbean yellow-band disease (CYBD) lesions may be severe, and often result in the complete loss of coral tissue. The slow spread of CYBD, however, provides an opportunity to test methods to mitigate the disease...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755140/resilience-in-carbonate-production-despite-three-coral-bleaching-events-in-5-years-on-an-inshore-patch-reef-in-the-florida-keys
#2
Derek P Manzello, Ian C Enochs, Graham Kolodziej, Renée Carlton, Lauren Valentino
The persistence of coral reef frameworks requires that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) production by corals and other calcifiers outpaces CaCO3 loss via physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Coral bleaching causes declines in CaCO3 production, but this varies with bleaching severity and the species impacted. We conducted census-based CaCO3 budget surveys using the established ReefBudget approach at Cheeca Rocks, an inshore patch reef in the Florida Keys, annually from 2012 to 2016. This site experienced warm-water bleaching in 2011, 2014, and 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750192/attenuating-effects-of-ecosystem-management-on-coral-reefs
#3
Robert S Steneck, Peter J Mumby, Chancey MacDonald, Douglas B Rasher, George Stoyle
Managing diverse ecosystems is challenging because structuring drivers are often processes having diffuse impacts that attenuate from the people who were "managed" to the expected ecosystem-wide outcome. Coral reef fishes targeted for management only indirectly link to the ecosystem's foundation (reef corals). Three successively weakening interaction tiers separate management of fishing from coral abundance. We studied 12 islands along the 700-km eastern Caribbean archipelago, comparing fished and unfished coral reefs...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740611/differences-in-extinction-rates-drove-modern-biogeographic-patterns-of-tropical-marine-biodiversity
#4
Emanuela Di Martino, Jeremy B C Jackson, Paul D Taylor, Kenneth G Johnson
Marine biodiversity in the Coral Triangle is several times higher than anywhere else, but why this is true is unknown because of poor historical data. To address this, we compared the first available record of fossil cheilostome bryozoans from Indonesia with the previously sampled excellent record from the Caribbean. These two regions differ several-fold in species richness today, but cheilostome diversity was strikingly similar until the end of the Miocene 5.3 million years ago so that the modern disparity must have developed more recently...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689819/excavating-sponges-from-the-pacific-of-central-america-descriptions-and-a-faunistic-record
#5
Cristian Pacheco, JosÉ Luis Carballo, Jorge CortÉs, Johanna Segovia, Alejandra Trejo
Excavating sponges are one of the main groups of bioeroders in coral reefs. Their diversity has been thoroughly studied in some regions: in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, and the Indo-Pacific, including the Mexican Pacific. However, there is a lack of information from the Pacific of Central America, with only a few records from Panama and Costa Rica. This study provides additional distributional records and taxonomic descriptions of species collected between 2011 and 2016 at nine localities along the Pacific coast of El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama...
January 15, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682405/symbiotic-immuno-suppression-is-disease-susceptibility-the-price-of-bleaching-resistance
#6
Daniel G Merselis, Diego Lirman, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Accelerating anthropogenic climate change threatens to destroy coral reefs worldwide through the processes of bleaching and disease. These major contributors to coral mortality are both closely linked with thermal stress intensified by anthropogenic climate change. Disease outbreaks typically follow bleaching events, but a direct positive linkage between bleaching and disease has been debated. By tracking 152 individual coral ramets through the 2014 mass bleaching in a South Florida coral restoration nursery, we revealed a highly significant negative correlation between bleaching and disease in the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis ...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623790/molecular-phylogeny-demonstrates-the-need-for-taxonomic-reconsideration-of-species-diversity-of-the-hydrocoral-genus-millepora-cnidaria-hydrozoa-in-the-pacific
#7
Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Cataixa López, James Davis Reimer
Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Milleporidae) spp. are distributed throughout shallow subtropical and tropical marine environments in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean-Atlantic, and have traditionally been identified using pore characteristics and colony form. Until now, representatives of Millepora spp. on the island of Okinawa-jima, Japan, have been divided into five species; three branching species (Millepora intricata, M. tenera, M. dichotoma), one species with plate-like morphology (M. platyphylla), and one encrusting species (M...
April 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610704/the-importance-of-sponges-and-mangroves-in-supporting-fish-communities-on-degraded-coral-reefs-in-caribbean-panama
#8
Janina Seemann, Alexandra Yingst, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Graham J Edgar, Andrew H Altieri
Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm), with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes) and Gobiidae (gobies)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559694/below-the-mesophotic
#9
C C Baldwin, L Tornabene, D R Robertson
Mesophotic coral ecosystems, which occur at depths of ~40 to 150 m, have received recent scientific attention as potential refugia for organisms inhabiting deteriorating shallow reefs. These ecosystems merit research in their own right, as they harbor both depth-generalist species and a distinctive reef-fish fauna. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic are globally underexplored, and the scant recent literature that mentions them often suggests that mesophotic ecosystems transition directly into those of the deep sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555960/author-correction-some-coral-diseases-track-climate-oscillations-in-the-caribbean
#10
C J Randall, R van Woesik
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553820/interspecific-variation-in-coral-settlement-and-fertilization-success-in-response-to-hydrogen-peroxide-exposure
#11
C Ross, N D Fogarty, R Ritson-Williams, V J Paul
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is involved in the regulation of numerous reproductive and morphogenic processes across an array of taxa. Extracellular H2 O2 can be widespread in oceanic waters, and elevated sea surface temperatures can cause increased levels of intracellular H2 O2 within cnidarian tissue, but it remains unclear how this compound affects early life-history processes in corals, such as fertilization, metamorphosis, and settlement. To evaluate the effects of H2 O2 on multiple stages of recruitment, experiments were conducted using Caribbean corals with various reproductive modes, including the brooders Porites astreoides and Favia fragum and the broadcast-spawning species Acropora palmata and Orbicella franksi...
December 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536196/assessing-land-use-sedimentation-and-water-quality-stressors-as-predictors-of-coral-reef-condition-in-st-thomas-u-s-virgin-islands
#12
L M Oliver, W S Fisher, L Fore, A Smith, P Bradley
Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515132/habitat-degradation-alters-trophic-pathways-but-not-food-chain-length-on-shallow-caribbean-coral-reefs
#13
Piedad S Morillo-Velarde, Patricia Briones-Fourzán, Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip, Sergio Aguíñiga-García, Alberto Sánchez-González, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez
Habitat degradation can affect trophic ecology by differentially affecting specialist and generalist species, and the number and type of interspecific relationships. However, the effects of habitat degradation on the trophic ecology of coral reefs have received limited attention. We compared the trophic structure and food chain length between two shallow Caribbean coral reefs similar in size and close to each other: one dominated by live coral and the other by macroalgae (i.e., degraded). We subjected samples of basal carbon sources (particulate organic matter and algae) and the same 48 species of consumers (invertebrates and fishes) from both reefs to stable isotope analyses, and determined the trophic position of consumers and relative importance of various carbon sources for herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507829/outplanting-technique-host-genotype-and-site-affect-the-initial-success-of-outplanted-acropora-cervicornis
#14
Elizabeth A Goergen, David S Gilliam
Acropora cervicornis is the most widely used coral species for reef restoration in the greater Caribbean. However, outplanting methodologies (e.g., colony density, size, host genotype, and attachment technique) vary greatly, and to date have not been evaluated for optimality across multiple sites. Two experiments were completed during this study, the first evaluated the effects of attachment technique, colony size, and genotype by outplanting 405 A. cervicornis colonies, from ten genotypes, four size classes, and three attachment techniques (epoxy, nail and cable tie, or puck) across three sites...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507193/biogeographical-disparity-in-the-functional-diversity-and-redundancy-of-corals
#15
Mike McWilliam, Mia O Hoogenboom, Andrew H Baird, Chao-Yang Kuo, Joshua S Madin, Terry P Hughes
Corals are major contributors to a range of key ecosystem functions on tropical reefs, including calcification, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, and the provision of habitat structure. The abundance of corals is declining at multiple scales, and the species composition of assemblages is responding to escalating human pressures, including anthropogenic global warming. An urgent challenge is to understand the functional consequences of these shifts in abundance and composition in different biogeographical contexts...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466633/-distribution-and-abundance-of-the-lionfish-pterois-volitans-scorpaeniformes-scorpaenidae-and-associated-native-species-in-parque-marino-cayos-de-san-felipe-cuba
#16
Elena de la Guardia, Dorka Cobián Rojas, Leonardo Espinosa, Zaimiuri Hernández, Lázaro García, Jesús Ernesto Arias González
The first lionfish sighting at the National Park "Cayos de San Felipe" was in 2009 and could be a threat to its marine ecosystem diversity and their capacity to generate services. To analyze the incidence of the lionfish invasion in the area, an annual sampling was conducted between 2013 and 2015. Lionfish abundance and size was investigated on mangroves through visual census on ten transects of 30x2 m/station, and on coral reefs (15 and 25 m deep) with stereo video on six transects of 50x2 m/station...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416056/socio-ecological-dynamics-of-caribbean-coral-reef-ecosystems-and-conservation-opinion-propagation
#17
Vivek A Thampi, Madhur Anand, Chris T Bauch
The Caribbean coral reef ecosystem has experienced a long history of deterioration due to various stressors. For instance, over-fishing of parrotfish - an important grazer of macroalgae that can prevent destructive overgrowth of macroalgae - has threatened reef ecosystems in recent decades and stimulated conservation efforts such as the formation of marine protected areas. Here we develop a mathematical model of coupled socio-ecological interactions between reef dynamics and conservation opinion dynamics to better understand how natural and human factors interact individually and in combination to determine coral reef cover...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404224/a-review-of-bottom-up-vs-top-down-control-of-sponges-on-caribbean-fore-reefs-what-s-old-what-s-new-and-future-directions
#18
Joseph R Pawlik, Tse-Lynn Loh, Steven E McMurray
Interest in the ecology of sponges on coral reefs has grown in recent years with mounting evidence that sponges are becoming dominant members of reef communities, particularly in the Caribbean. New estimates of water column processing by sponge pumping activities combined with discoveries related to carbon and nutrient cycling have led to novel hypotheses about the role of sponges in reef ecosystem function. Among these developments, a debate has emerged about the relative effects of bottom-up (food availability) and top-down (predation) control on the community of sponges on Caribbean fore-reefs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370873/phylogenetic-analysis-of-apicomplexan-parasites-infecting-commercially-valuable-species-from-the-north-east-atlantic-reveals-high-levels-of-diversity-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-group
#19
Raquel Xavier, Ricardo Severino, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Camino Gestal, Rita Freitas, D James Harris, Ana Veríssimo, Daniela Rosado, Joanne Cable
BACKGROUND: The Apicomplexa from aquatic environments are understudied relative to their terrestrial counterparts, and the seminal work assessing the phylogenetic relations of fish-infecting lineages is mostly based on freshwater hosts. The taxonomic uncertainty of some apicomplexan groups, such as the coccidia, is high and many genera were recently shown to be paraphyletic, questioning the value of strict morphological and ecological traits for parasite classification. Here, we surveyed the genetic diversity of the Apicomplexa in several commercially valuable vertebrates from the North-East Atlantic, including farmed fish...
January 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299297/herbivory-facilitates-growth-of-a-key-reef-building-caribbean-coral
#20
Adam Suchley, Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip
The decline of reef-building corals in conjunction with shifts to short-lived opportunistic species has prompted concerns that Caribbean reef framework-building capacity has substantially diminished. Restoring herbivore populations may be a potential driver of coral recovery; however, the impact of herbivores on coral calcification has been little studied. We performed an exclusion experiment to evaluate the impact of herbivory on Orbicella faveolata coral growth over 14 months. The experiment consisted of three treatments: full exclusion cages; half cage procedural controls; and uncaged control plates, each with small O...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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