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Drug Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666504/no-prophylactic-antibiotic-use-for-young-children-s-intussusception-with-low-risk-infection-after-successful-air-enema-reduction
#1
Yuan Zhang, Wen Zou, Lemeng Ren, Yinghui Zhang, Zhaohui Sun, Huandi Liu, Qian Liu, Chunfeng Si, Hongying Jia
The Chinese government has issued the policy of promulgating the clinical use of antibacterial drugs since 2011. Prophylactic antibiotic use is a challenging problem among young children with intussusception after successful air enema reduction. There were limited data regarding the clinical value of prophylactic antibiotics for intussusception with low-risk infections. A retrospective non-randomized comparative study was conducted among 188 young children with intussusception after successful air enema reduction between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665064/tourism-labor-embodied-suffering-and-the-deportation-regime-in-the-dominican-republic
#2
Mark Padilla, José Félix Colón-Burgos, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Armando Matiz-Reyes, Caroline Mary Parker
In this article, we use syndemic theory to examine socio-structural factors that result in heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and drug addiction among Dominican deportees who survive post-deportation through informal tourism labor. Through an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study of the syndemic of HIV and problematic drug use among men involved in tourism labor in the Dominican Republic, we argue that the legal and political-economic context of the global deportation regime contributes to structural vulnerabilities among deportees in the Dominican Republic, most of whom are men with histories of incarceration in the United States and/or Puerto Rico...
April 17, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664153/using-the-advocacy-coalition-framework-and-multiple-streams-policy-theories-to-examine-the-role-of-evidence-research-and-other-types-of-knowledge-in-drug-policy
#3
Alison Ritter, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Kari Lancaster, Robert Hoppe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevailing 'evidence-based policy' paradigm emphasizes a technical-rational relationship between alcohol and drug research evidence and subsequent policy action. However, policy process theories do not start with this premise, and hence provide an opportunity to consider anew the ways in which evidence, research and other types of knowledge impact upon policy. This paper presents a case study, the police deployment of drug detection dogs, to highlight how two prominent policy theories [the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and the Multiple Streams (MS) approach] explicate the relationship between evidence and policy...
April 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663899/hiv-1-drug-resistance-profiles-for-the-hiv-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-gene-in-patients-receiving-combination-therapy-in-tehran-iran
#4
Leila Sadeghi, Mahin Lolaie, Reza Adl Tabatabai, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Leila Taj, Niloofar Eghbal Ahmadi, Negin Abedinzadeh, Farzaneh Vakili, Ghazaleh Ahmadi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Determination of drug resistant mutations has a crucial role in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate drug resistance profile of RT and PR gene, and find the correlation between drug resistance mutation and ART regimen to intensify physicians ' options for the most effective therapy and help to establish health related policies at the national level in Iran. METHOD: HIV-1 RNA of 34 samples was extracted from plasma and RT Nested- PCR was performed and the final products were sequenced...
April 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662963/facilitating-and-inhibiting-factors-related-to-treatment-adherence-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-qualitative-study
#5
Fatemeh Bazarganipour, Seyed Abdolvahab Taghavi, Helen Allan, Nazafarin Hosseini
Background: Adherence issues in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have not been examined thoroughly. Patients report prolonged periods of treatment and side effects of the drug as the most common reason for withdrawal from treatment. To improve the effective management of PCOS patients, it is fundamental to understand facilitating and inhibiting factors to treatment adherence. Objective: To explore facilitating/inhibiting factors related to treatment adherence among PCOS patients...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660697/relapse-to-smoking-following-release-from-smoke-free-correctional-facilities-in-queensland-australia
#6
Cheneal Puljević, Dominique de Andrade, Ross Coomber, Stuart A Kinner
BACKGROUND: Smoke-free prison policies are increasingly common, but few studies have investigated relapse to smoking after release from prison. This study investigated return to tobacco smoking and correlates of smoking at reduced levels after release among adults recently released from smoke-free prisons in Queensland, Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 114 people at parole offices within two months of release from prison was used. The survey measured health, social, and criminological factors related to tobacco smoking...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659663/real-world-evidence-for-regulatory-decisions-concomitant-administration-of-zoster-vaccine-live-and-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine
#7
Katia Bruxvoort, Lina S Sy, Yi Luo, Hung Fu Tseng
The US Food and Drug Administration is charged with expanding the use of real world evidence (RWE) for regulatory decisions. As a test case for RWE to support regulatory decisions, we present the scenario of concomitant vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). The prescribing information states that these vaccines should not be given concurrently, based on a small trial using varicella zoster virus antibody levels as a correlate of ZVL efficacy, even though ZVL protects against herpes zoster via cell-mediated immunity...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657697/characterizing-mortality-from-substance-abuse-in-iran-an-epidemiological-study-during-march-2014-to-february-2015
#8
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Seyed Davood Mirtorabi, Mohammad Reza Ghadirzadeh, Seyed Saeed Hashemi-Nazari, Abdolrazagh Barzegar
Background: Drug abuse is a severe and chronic disorder that leaves morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the society. The study of death due to substance abuse provides useful information for local, national and international administrators. Thus, by identifying the factors that have an impact on overdose-related mortality we can provide suitable intervention for vulnerable groups. The aim of this study was an investigation of mortality rate caused by consumption of narcotic and psychoactive substances in Iran...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656919/trends-and-gaps-in-awareness-of-direct-to-consumer-genetic-tests-from-2007-to-2014
#9
Nate C Apathy, Terri Menser, Lindsay M Keeran, Eric W Ford, Christopher A Harle, Timothy R Huerta
INTRODUCTION: Direct-to-consumer genetic tests for inherited disease risks have gained recent approvals from the Food and Drug Administration, and interest in these tests has continued to grow. Broad use of these tests coupled with planning and discussion with health providers regarding genetic risks and potential protective behavior changes have been proposed as preventive tools to reduce health disparities and improve equity in health outcomes. However, awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing has historically demonstrated differences by education, income, and race; these disparities could jeopardize potential benefits by limiting access and use...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656382/opioid-prescriptions-in-older-medicare-beneficiaries-after-the-2014-federal-rescheduling-of-hydrocodone-products
#10
Yong-Fang Kuo, Mukaila A Raji, Victor Liaw, Jacques Baillargeon, James S Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: To examine how an October 2014 Drug Enforcement Administration policy reclassified hydrocodone product from schedule III to II has affected older adults, who are among the largest consumers of prescription opioids in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A 20% sample of Medicare Part D beneficiaries aged 65 and older from 2013 through 2015 (> 2,500,000 beneficiaries each year) MEASUREMENTS: From January 2013 to December 2015, we calculated the monthly prevalence of opioid prescriptions and the prevalence of individuals who received prescriptions for a 90-day supply or longer (prolonged), as well as hospitalizations related to opioid toxicity in 2013 and 2015...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653439/medical-cannabis-an-oxymoron-physicians-perceptions-of-medical-cannabis
#11
Yuval Zolotov, Simon Vulfsons, Dana Zarhin, Sharon Sznitman
BACKGROUND: Medical cannabis policies are changing in many places around the world, and physicians play a major role in the implementation of these policies. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of physicians' views on medical cannabis and its possible integration into their clinic, as well as to identify potential underlying factors that influence these perceptions. METHODS: Qualitative narrative analysis of in-depth interviews with twenty-four Israeli physicians from three specialties (pain medicine, oncology and family medicine)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652519/drug-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-call-for-optimum-patient-stratification-and-theranostics-via-pharmacogenomics
#12
Chonlaphat Sukasem, Theodora Katsila, Therdpong Tempark, George P Patrinos, Wasun Chantratita
The Global Genomic Medicine Collaborative, a multinational coalition of genomic and policy experts working to implement genomics in clinical care, considers pharmacogenomics to be among the first areas in genomic medicine that can provide guidance in routine clinical practice, by linking genetic variation and drug response. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe life-threatening reactions to medications with a high incidence worldwide. Genomic screening prior to drug administration is a key opportunity and potential paradigm for using genomic medicine to reduce morbidity and mortality and ultimately eliminate one of the most devastating adverse drug reactions...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651981/lamotrigine-for-people-with-borderline-personality-disorder-a-rct
#13
Mike J Crawford, Rahil Sanatinia, Barbara Barrett, Gillian Cunningham, Oliver Dale, Poushali Ganguli, Geoff Lawrence-Smith, Verity C Leeson, Fenella Lemonsky, Georgia Lykomitrou-Matthews, Alan Montgomery, Richard Morriss, Jasna Munjiza, Carol Paton, Iwona Skorodzien, Vineet Singh, Wei Tan, Peter Tyrer, Joseph G Reilly
BACKGROUND: No drug treatments are currently licensed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite this, people with this condition are frequently prescribed psychotropic medications and often with considerable polypharmacy. Preliminary studies have indicated that mood stabilisers may be of benefit to people with BPD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of lamotrigine for people with BPD. DESIGN: A two-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled individually randomised trial of lamotrigine versus placebo...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649190/updated-cdc-recommendations-for-using-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#14
Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Allison Salinger, Paul M Arguin, Meghna Desai, Kathrine R Tan
Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In the United States, treatment options for uncomplicated, chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pregnant women are limited to mefloquine or quinine plus clindamycin (1). However, limited availability of quinine and increasing resistance to mefloquine restrict these options. Strong evidence now demonstrates that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) (Coartem) is effective and safe in the treatment of malaria in pregnancy...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649094/methadone-maintenance-treatment-a-15-year-retrospective-study-in-split-dalmatia-county-croatia
#15
Davorka Sutlovic, Zeljko Kljucevic, Livia Sliskovic, Helena Susnjar, Ivo Viskovic, Marija Definis-Gojanovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to use existing epidemiological data on patients in methadone maintenance treatment in Split Dalmatia County from 2001 to 2015 in order to evaluate the substitution treatment system and policy of opiate addicts treatment, the epidemiological trend, and risk of overdose mortality. In addition, we would like to highlight the problem of poor control of methadone therapy, and thus the possibility of selling methadone. The result is a greater number of deaths caused by methadone in people who were not in methadone therapy...
April 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643264/how-does-economic-recession-affect-substance-use-a-reality-check-with-clients-of-drug-treatment-centres
#16
Pol Bruguera, Jillian Reynolds, Eilish Gilvarry, Fleur Braddick, Abdul Latheef Marath-Veettil, Peter Anderson, Zofia Mielecka-Kubien, Eileen Kaner, Antoni Gual
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between economic downturns and substance use has been studied in numerous economic crises occurring worldwide, but the precise relationship between the two remains unclear. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to undertake a survey on behaviour and perspectives related to the latest European economic crisis among illegal drug users attending substance treatment services. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey in drug dependence treatment settings, in three geographically different jurisdictions (England, Catalonia and Poland), including 180 drug users...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628514/state-of-the-antiretroviral-therapy-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-surveillance-and-regional-gaps
#17
Charles A Boucher, Marina R Bobkova, Chien-Ching Hung, Rolf Kaiser, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Jean van Wyk, Pat Dorr, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
This article is the second of a two-part review aiming to identify gaps in the knowledge and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance (HIVDR) from global and regional perspectives. Here, we examine the policy and programmatic gaps in HIVDR surveillance, the affected populations and settings, and implications for clinical practice. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify gaps in HIVDR surveillance, with a particular focus on specific regional variations within and between Europe and Asia, to highlight directions for research and implementation...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627926/the-burden-of-adverse-drug-reactions-due-to-artemisinin-based-antimalarial-treatment-in-selected-ugandan-health-facilities-an-active-follow-up-study
#18
Helen Byomire Ndagije, Victoria Nambasa, Leonard Manirakiza, Donna Kusemererwa, Dan Kajungu, Sten Olsson, Niko Speybroeck
INTRODUCTION: Uganda has rapidly increased access to antimalarial medicines in an effort to address the huge malaria disease burden. Pharmacovigilance information is important to guide policy decisions. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish the burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and associated risk factors for developing ADRs to artemisinin-based antimalarial treatment in Uganda. METHODS: An active follow-up study was conducted between April and July 2017 in a cohort of patients receiving treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Iganga, Mayuge, and Kampala districts...
April 7, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627872/hospital-clinical-pharmacy-services-in-vietnam
#19
Hieu T Trinh, Huong T L Nguyen, Van T T Pham, Hai L Ba, Phuong T X Dong, Thao T B Cao, Hanh T H Nguyen, Jo-Anne Brien
Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627712/accurate-identification-of-opioid-overdose-deaths-using-coronial-data
#20
Amanda Roxburgh, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Wayne D Hall, Lucinda Burns, Louisa Degenhardt
INTRODUCTION: Defining drug-related mortality is complex as these deaths can include a wide range of diseases and circumstances. This paper outlines a method to identify deaths that are directly due to fatal opioid toxicity (i.e. overdose), utilising coronial data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS), an online coronial database containing information on all deaths that are reported to a coroner in Australia, is used to develop methods to more accurately identify opioid overdose deaths...
March 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
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