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plaque characterization

David J Koss, Glynn Jones, Anna Cranston, Heidi Gardner, Nicholas M Kanaan, Bettina Platt
Post-mortem investigations of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have largely failed to provide unequivocal evidence in support of the original amyloid cascade hypothesis, which postulated deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates to be the cause of a demented state as well as inductive to tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Conflicting evidence suggests, however, that Aβ plaques and NFTs, albeit to a lesser extent, are present in a substantial subset of non-demented individuals. Hence, a range of soluble tau and Aβ species has more recently been implicated as the disease-relevant toxic entities...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Helle Precht, Pieter H Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Jouke Dijkstra, Oke Gerke, Jesper Thygesen, Kenneth Egstrup, Jess Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Qian Cai, Prasad Tammineni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain deposition of amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles along with steady cognitive decline. Synaptic damage, an early pathological event, correlates strongly with cognitive deficits and memory loss. Mitochondria are essential organelles for synaptic function. Neurons utilize specialized mechanisms to drive mitochondrial trafficking to synapses in which mitochondria buffer Ca2+ and serve as local energy sources by supplying ATP to sustain neurotransmitter release...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Andreas Benedikt Weins, Tilo Biedermann, Tina Weiss, Johannes Martin Weiss
A rare eosinophilic dermatosis, Wells syndrome, also referred to as eosinophilic cellulitis, is characterized by great clinical variability. Typical findings include infiltrated erythematous plaques arising on the extremities. Lesions initially resemble erysipelas/cellulitis, however, they do not improve with antibiotic treatment. Eosinophilic cellulitis is a diagnosis of exclusion that may only be made over the course of the disease, taking into account clinical and characteristic histological findings (flame figures)...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Xiaobei Wang, Huaixu Cheng, Mingsheng Lu, Yaowei Fang, Yuliang Jiao, Weijuan Li, Gengmao Zhao, Shujun Wang
Dental plaque is a biofilm of water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharides, produced primarily by Streptococcus mutans. Dextranase can inhibit biofilm formation. Here, a dextranase gene from the marine microorganism Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11-1 is described, and cloned and expressed using E. coli DH5α competent cells. The recombinant enzyme was then purified and its properties were characterized. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be 60°C and 6.5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography data show that the final hydrolysis products were glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose...
November 2016: Biofouling
Moran Frenkel-Pinter, Sharon Tal, Roni Scherzer-Attali, Malak Abu-Hussien, Idan Alyagor, Tal Eisenbaum, Ehud Gazit, Daniel Segal
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most abundant tauopathy and is characterized by Aβ-derived plaques and tau-derived tangles, resulting from the unfolding of the corresponding monomeric subunits into ordered β-sheet oligomers and fibrils. Intervening in the toxic aggregation process is a promising therapeutic approach, but, to date, a disease-modifying therapy is neither available for AD nor for other tauopathies. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that a small naphthoquinone-tryptophan hybrid, termed NQTrp, is an effective modulator of tauopathy in vitro and in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Sang-Chol Lee
Chronic hypertension can result in deleterious effects on various vascular organs including the heart and vessels. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has the unique advantage of the ability to assess ventricular volumes and function, valvular abnormalities, vascular pathology, myocardial perfusion and tissue characterization with high accuracy and reproducibility and also avoid the risk of radiation. As this is the case, CMR seems to be an ideal method for comprehensive assessment of patients with systemic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Girish Dwivedi, Yingwei Liu, Shrankhala Tewari, Joao Inacio, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) has the ability to detect, characterize, and quantify atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA-quantified plaque subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with adverse events and 36 Morise score-matched patients who remained event free on follow-up were identified. Using CCTA images, plaque subtype volumes in the major epicardial arteries were analyzed using predetermined attenuation ranges in Hounsfield units (HU): 1 to 30 HU (low attenuating), 31 to 70 HU (intermediate attenuating), 71 to 150 HU (high attenuating), and mean coronary lumen+2 SD to 1000 HU (calcified)...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
D A Bangasser, H Dong, J Carroll, Z Plona, H Ding, L Rodriguez, C McKennan, J G Csernansky, S H Seeholzer, R J Valentino
Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders share stress as a risk factor and are more prevalent in women than in men. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) orchestrates the stress response, and excessive CRF is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. We previously found that the CRF1 receptor (CRF1) is sex biased whereby coupling to its GTP-binding protein, Gs, is greater in females, whereas β-arrestin-2 coupling is greater in males. This study used a phosphoproteomic approach in CRF-overexpressing (CRF-OE) mice to test the proof of principle that when CRF is in excess, sex-biased CRF1 coupling translates into divergent cell signaling that is expressed as different brain phosphoprotein profiles...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Yue Zhao, Conggui Chen, Sihua Yang, Da Xing
Photoacoustic viscoelasticity imaging (PAVEI) is a technique that directly provides the morphology of biological tissues with correlative mechanical information. In this Letter, we demonstrate the use of PAVEI to successfully characterize early-stage atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid, as the main material in early plaque lesions, embedded in gelatin was imaged to test the feasibility of PAVEI. Atherosclerosis of rabbits was studied ex vivo, and the rabbit arteries were imaged to show the intrinsic contrast of PAVEI...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Rosemary J Jackson, Nikita Rudinskiy, Abigail G Herrmann, Shaun Croft, JeeSoo Monica Kim, Veselina Petrova, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Rose Pitstick, Susanne Wegmann, Monica Garcia-Alloza, George A Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) in senile plaques and tau in neurofibrillary tangles, as well as marked neuron and synapse loss. Of these pathological changes, synapse loss correlates most strongly with cognitive decline. Synapse loss occurs prominently around plaques due to accumulations of oligomeric Aβ. Recent evidence suggests that tau may also play a role in synapse loss but the interactions of Aβ and tau in synapse loss remain to be determined...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Frane Banovic, Keith E Linder, Maarja Uri, Michael A Rossi, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: Generalized discoid lupus erythematosus (GDLE) is a newly recognized canine variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that is not well characterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We report herein the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, histopathology and immunological findings of 10 dogs with GDLE. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (i) a >3 month history of generalized skin lesions indicating a chronic or recurrent nature; (ii) skin lesions resembling those of human GDLE; (iii) histopathology of CLE (lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis)...
October 16, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Aditi Makhija, Sachin Kumar
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Benjamin Farahnik, Collin M Blattner, Michael B Mortazie, Benjamin M Perry, William Lear, Dirk M Elston
Hailey-Hailey disease or familial benign chronic pemphigus is a rare blistering dermatosis that is characterized by recurrent erythematous plaques with a predilection for the skin folds. For extensive Hailey-Hailey disease that is recalcitrant to conventional therapy, laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, electron beam radiotherapy, botulinum toxin type A, dermabrasion, glycopyrrolate, and afamelanotide have been reported as useful treatments, but comparative trials are lacking. This review discusses the various treatment modalities for Hailey-Hailey disease and a summary of the evidence for the most recommended treatments...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Ana Blasco, Carmen Bellas, Leyre Goicolea, Ana Muñiz, Víctor Abraira, Ana Royuela, Susana Mingo, Juan Francisco Oteo, Arturo García-Touchard, Francisco Javier Goicolea
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Thrombus aspiration allows analysis of intracoronary material in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Our objective was to characterize this material by immunohistology and to study its possible association with patient progress. METHODS: This study analyzed a prospective cohort of 142 patients undergoing primary angioplasty with positive coronary aspiration. Histological examination of aspirated samples included immunohistochemistry stains for the detection of plaque fragments...
October 10, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Yibin Xie, Young-Jin Kim, Jianing Pang, Jung-Sun Kim, Qi Yang, Janet Wei, Christopher T Nguyen, Zixin Deng, Byoung Wook Choi, Zhaoyang Fan, C Noel Bairey Merz, Prediman K Shah, Daniel S Berman, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Debiao Li
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the development of coronary atherosclerosis T1-weighted characterization with integrated anatomical reference (CATCH) technique and the validation by comparison with high-risk plaque features (HRPF) observed on intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and invasive coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: T1-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance with or without contrast media has been used for characterizing coronary atherosclerosis showing promising prognostic value...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Xiaotian T Fang, Jonas Eriksson, Gunnar Antoni, Ulrika Yngve, Linda Cato, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into insoluble plaques. Intermediates, Aβ oligomers (Aβo), appear to be the mechanistic cause of disease. The de facto PET AD ligand, [(11)C]PIB, binds and visualizes Aβ plaque load, which does not correlate well with disease severity. Therefore, finding a dynamic target that changes with pathology progression in AD is of great interest. Aβo alter synaptic plasticity, inhibit long-term potentiation, and facilitate long-term depression; key mechanisms involved in memory and learning...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Christian Wissgott, Wolfram Schmidt, Christoph Brandt-Wunderlich, Peter Behrens, Reimer Andresen
PURPOSE: To report early clinical outcomes with a novel double-layer stent for the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the in vitro investigation of the stent's mechanical properties. METHODS: A prospective single-center study enrolled 30 consecutive patients (mean age 73.1±6.3 years; 21 men) with symptomatic (n=25) or high-grade (n=5) ICA stenosis treated with the new double-layer carotid CGUARD Embolic Prevention System (EPS) stent, which has an inner open-cell nitinol design with an outer closed-cell polyethylene terephthalate layer...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Jing Han, Peng Wang, Shaohua Ge
The object of this study is to characterize the bacterial community of subgingival plaque of two subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) pre- and post-treatment. We picked two patients with GAgP and used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. V4 hypervariable region was picked for PCR amplification of subgingival samples. Then, the PCR products were sequenced through Illumina MiSeq platform. One month after therapy, both the clinical features and periodontal parameters improved obviously. Moreover, the composition and structure of subgingival bacterial community changed after initial periodontal therapy...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Francisca Hernández-Hernández, Jaime Vargas-Arzola, Oliver Pedro Ríos-Cruz, Erika Córdova-Martínez, Patricia Manzano-Gayosso, Aristeo Segura-Salvador
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic infection, caused by pigmented fungi affecting skin and subcutaneous tissues characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii are the prevalent agents in the endemic areas. Phoma is an uncommon agent of human infection and involved mainly with phaeohyphomycosis cases. The case of a patient with a history of laceration in foot followed by verrucous aspect and scaly lesions, which had evolved for 27 years is presented. On physical examination disease was clinically compatible with chromoblastomycosis and the microscopic examination of scales showed fumagoid cells...
October 7, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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