Read by QxMD icon Read

plaque characterization

Lisa K Gouwens, Mudar S Ismail, Victoria A Rogers, Nathan T Zeller, Evan C Garrad, Fatima S Amtashar, Nyasha J Makoni, David C Osborn, Michael R Nichols
Microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes comprise a class of cell-secreted particles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs). These cargo-holding vesicles mediate cell-to-cell communication and have recently been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two types of EVs are distinguished by the mechanism of cell release and their size, with the smaller exosomes and the larger MVs ranging from 30 to 100 nm and 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, respectively. MV numbers are increased in AD and appear to interact with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the primary protein component of the neuritic plaques in the AD brain...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Peter Bryk, Matthew G Brewer, Brian M Ward
The vaccinia virus protein F13, encoded by the F13L gene, is conserved across the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and is critical among orthopoxviruses to produce the wrapped form of virus that is required for cell-to-cell spread. F13 is the major envelope protein on the membrane of extracellular forms of virus, however it is not known if F13 is required in steps post-wrapping. In this report, we utilize two temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants from the Condit collection of temperature-sensitive viruses whose small plaque phenotypes have been mapped to the F13L gene...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yan Sun, Xiao-Li Liu, Dai Zhang, Fang Liu, Yu-Jing Cheng, Yue Ma, Yu-Jie Zhou, Ying-Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intraplaque angiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels mediated by endothelial cells, contributes to plaque growth, intraplaque hemorrhage, and thromboembolic events. Platelet-derived exosomes (PLT-EXOs) affect angiogenesis in multiple ways. The ability of miR-126, one of the best-characterized miRNAs that regulates angiogenesis, carried by PLT-EXOs to influence angiogenesis via the regulation of the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Frank Matthes, Moritz M Hettich, Judith Schilling, Diana Flores-Dominguez, Nelli Blank, Thomas Wiglenda, Alexander Buntru, Hanna Wolf, Stephanie Weber, Ina Vorberg, Alina Dagane, Gunnar Dittmar, Erich Wanker, Dan Ehninger, Sybille Krauss
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two neuropathological hallmarks: senile plaques, which are composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Aβ peptides are derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In this study, we identified a so far unknown mode of regulation of APP protein synthesis involving the MID1 protein complex: MID1 binds to and regulates the translation of APP mRNA...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Elda Favari, Michael J Thomas, Mary G Sorci-Thomas
The formation of the atherosclerotic plaque that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal amounts of cholesterol-loaded macrophages in the artery wall is mediated by both inflammatory events and alterations of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism. Reverse transport of cholesterol (RCT) opposes the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaque through high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, promoting the removal of cholesterol from peripheral macrophages and its delivery back to the liver for excretion into the bile...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Lena L Law, Rachael N Rol, Stephanie A Schultz, Ryan J Dougherty, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Barbara B Bendlin, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Sanjay Asthana, Mark A Sager, Bruce P Hermann, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, Ozioma C Okonkwo
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neurodegeneration, evidence of which may be detected in vivo via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Physical activity (PA) has emerged as a possible modifier of these AD-related pathological changes. Consequently, the aim of this study was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between objectively measured PA and CSF levels of Aβ42 and tau in asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults at risk for AD...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
A Mattina, D Rosenbaum, R Bittar, D Bonnefont-Rousselot, D Noto, M Averna, E Bruckert, P Giral
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development. It is considered a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and plaque vulnerability. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a higher prevalence of early CVD. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in Lp-PLA2 activity in a population of hypercholesterolemic patients with and without definite FH...
February 2, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Daniel Belstrøm, Maria Anastasia Grande, Maria Lynn Sembler-Møller, Nikolai Kirkby, Sean L Cotton, Bruce J Paster, Palle Holmstrup
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Qian Wu, Mengmeng Yu, Yuehua Li, Wenbin Li, Zhigang Lu, Meng Wei, Jing Yan, Jiayin Zhang
Objective: To investigate the morphological changes of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) as determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) follow-up using semi-automated quantitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with 31 CTO lesions confirmed by invasive coronary angiography and baseline/follow-up CCTA were retrospectively included. CTOs were quantitatively analyzed by a semi-automated coronary plaque analysis software (Coronary Plaque Analysis, version 2...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Yixi Chen, Jianping Cao, Qihui Zhao, Haiyong Luo, Yiguang Wang, Wenjian Dai
Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) is a novel protein involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammatory reaction and signal transduction. However, little information is available on the relationship between MR-1 expression and the progression of atherosclerosis. Here we report atheroprotective effects of silencing MR-1 in a model of Ang II-accelerated atherosclerosis, characterized by suppression focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and atherosclerotic lesion macrophage content...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Tomoaki Kanaya, Teruo Noguchi, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Yasuhide Asaumi, Yu Kataoka, Yoshiaki Morita, Hiroyuki Miura, Kazuhiro Nakao, Masashi Fujino, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Kunihiro Nishimura, Teruo Inoue, Jagat Narula, Satoshi Yasuda
Aims: Coronary high-intensity plaques (HIPs) with a high plaque-to-myocardial signal intensity ratio (PMR) on non-contrast T1-weighted imaging in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with future coronary events. To characterize the morphological substrate of HIP, we performed a correlative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study. Methods and results: We examined 137 lesions in 105 patients with stable angina pectoris or silent myocardial ischaemia scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner...
March 5, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg
The recent progress in the development of in vivo biomarkers is rapidly changing how neurodegenerative diseases are conceptualized and diagnosed, and how clinical trials are designed today. Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most common neurodegenerative disorder-is characterized by a complex neuropathology involving the deposition of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, accompanied by the activation of glial cells-astrocytes and microglia-and neuroinflammatory responses, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tessa Timmers, Bart N M van Berckel, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Rik Ossenkoppele
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles consisting of tau. Recently, several positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have been developed that yielded promising initial results. In this chapter, we discuss how tau PET can be used in the context in clinical trials. We argue that simplified reference tissue models based on dynamic data acquisition are most suitable for accurately measuring changes in tau pathology in trials tailored to reduce cerebral tau load...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu You, Tian Liu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, XinXin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Ling Zhang
To analyse the function of the duck plague virus (DPV) glycoprotein J homologue (gJ), two different mutated viruses, a gJ deleted mutant ΔgJ and a gJR rescue mutant gJR with US5 restored were generated. All recombinant viruses were constructed by using two-step of RED recombination system implemented on the duck plague virus Chinese virulent strain (DPV CHv) genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. DPV-mutants were characterized on non-complementing DEF cells compared with parental virus. Viral replication kinetics of intracellular and extracellular viruses revealed that the ΔgJ virus produce a 10-fold reduction of viral titers than the gJR and parental virus, which especially the production of extracellular infectivity was affected...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jens W Fischer
Hyaluronan (HA), HA synthases (HAS) and HA receptors are expressed during the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. HA is thought to promote the activated phenotype of local vascular smooth muscle cells characterized by increased migration, proliferation and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, HA may modulate the immune response by increasing macrophage retention and by promoting the polarization of Th1 cells that enhance macrophage driven inflammation as well. The pro-atherosclerotic functions of HA are opposed by the presence of HA in the glycocalyx where it critically contributes to anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory function of the glycocalyx...
March 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jing Wang, Kang Xiao, Wei Zhou, Chen Gao, Cao Chen, Qi Shi, Xiao-Ping Dong
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) with the P102L mutation in PRNP gene is characterized with progressive cerebellar dysfunction clinically and PrPSc plaques neurologically. Due to the cerebellar ataxia in the early stage, GSS P102L is often misdiagnosed as other neurodegenerative disorders. We presented here a 49-year-old female patient with proven P102L PRNP mutation, and three heterologous mutations in hereditary ataxias associated gene SYNE1, including p.V3643L, p.M3376V and p.T2860A. The patient appeared progressive unsteady gait in early stage and developed the Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) - associated clinical manifestations, including progressive dementia, myoclonus, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs...
March 6, 2018: Prion
C Roy, J P Adam, F Morin, É Lemieux-Blanchard, S Doucet, D Friedmann, A Belisle, D Charpentier
Pyoderma gangrenosum (pg) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by painful necrotic ulceration affecting preferentially the lower extremities. Diagnosis is challenging, and a thorough workup (including biopsy) is required. In this case report, we describe a 67-year-old patient with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (mds) who developed fever and pg two days after the first cycle of subcutaneous azacitidine (Vidaza; Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA). On physical examination, the patient had four erythematous plaques at sites of subcutaneous injections of azacitidine on the arms, as well as three other plaques in proximity...
February 2018: Current Oncology
M Umit Arabul, H Maarten Heres, Marcel C M Rutten, Marc R H M van Sambeek, Frans N van de Vosse, Richard G P Lopata
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a promising imaging modality due to its high optical specificity. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of in vivo PA images are major challenges that prevent PAI from finding its place in clinics. This paper investigates the merit of spatial compounding of PA images in arterial phantoms and the achievable improvements of SNR, when in vivo conditions are mimicked. The analysis of the compounding technique was performed on a polyvinyl alcohol vessel phantom with black threads embedded in its wall...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Pankaj D Mehta, Bruce A Patrick, Marc Barshatzky, Sangita P Mehta, Janusz Frackowiak, Bozena Mazur-Kolecka, Jerzy Wegiel, Thomas Wisniewski, David L Miller
N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide starting at position 3 represents a significant fraction of Aβ peptides (pE3-Aβ) in amyloid plaques of postmortem brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and older persons with Down syndrome (DS). Studies in transgenic mouse models of AD also showed that pE3-Aβ is a major component of plaques, and mouse monoclonal antibody to pE3-Aβ appears to be a desirable therapeutic agent for AD. Since small peptides do not typically elicit a good immune response in mice, but do so favorably in rabbits, our aims were to generate and partially characterize a rabbit monoclonal antibody (RabmAb) to pE3-Aβ...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maira Giannelou, Andrianos Nezos, Sofia Fragkioudaki, Dimitra Kasara, Kyriaki Maselou, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Dimitris Ioakeimidis, Haralampos M Moutsopoulos, Clio P Mavragani
OBJECTIVE: Elevated concentrations of homocysteine have been previously identified as an independent risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Given that heightened homocysteine levels are known to be strongly influenced by genetic factors, in the current study we investigated the contribution of high homocysteine levels as well as of functional polymorphisms of the gene encoding for the enzyme 5, 10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase to atherosclerotic disease characterizing SLE patients...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"