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Likelihood ratios

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528347/discriminative-accuracy-of-physician-and-nurse-predictions-for-survival-and-functional-outcomes-6-months-after-an-icu-admission
#1
Michael E Detsky, Michael O Harhay, Dominique F Bayard, Aaron M Delman, Anna E Buehler, Saida A Kent, Isabella V Ciuffetelli, Elizabeth Cooney, Nicole B Gabler, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Mark E Mikkelsen, Scott D Halpern
Importance: Predictions of long-term survival and functional outcomes influence decision making for critically ill patients, yet little is known regarding their accuracy. Objective: To determine the discriminative accuracy of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses in predicting 6-month patient mortality and morbidity, including ambulation, toileting, and cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study conducted in 5 ICUs in 3 hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and enrolling patients who spent at least 3 days in the ICU from October 2013 until May 2014 and required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, or both...
May 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528225/predicting-type-2-diabetes-using-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors-in-a-multi-ethnic-malaysian-cohort
#2
N Abdullah, N A Abdul Murad, E A Mohd Haniff, S E Syafruddin, J Attia, C Oldmeadow, M A Kamaruddin, N Abd Jalal, N Ismail, M Ishak, R Jamal, R J Scott, E G Holliday
OBJECTIVE: Malaysia has a high and rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While environmental (non-genetic) risk factors for the disease are well established, the role of genetic variations and gene-environment interactions remain understudied in this population. This study aimed to estimate the relative contributions of environmental and genetic risk factors to T2D in Malaysia and also to assess evidence for gene-environment interactions that may explain additional risk variation...
May 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528173/school-wellness-team-best-practices-to-promote-wellness-policy-implementation
#3
Erika Profili, Diana S Rubio, Hannah G Lane, Lea H Jaspers, Megan S Lopes, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
Schools with wellness teams are more likely to implement federally mandated Local Wellness Policies (LWPs, Local Education Agency-level policies for healthy eating/physical activity). Best practices have been developed for wellness teams based on minimal empirical evidence. The purpose of this study is to determine, among schools with wellness teams, associations between LWP implementation and six wellness team best practices (individually and as a sum score). An online survey targeting Maryland school wellness leaders/administrators (52...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527931/predictors-of-surgical-site-infection-after-open-lower-extremity-revascularization
#4
Frank M Davis, Danielle C Sutzko, Scott F Grey, M Ashraf Mansour, Krishna M Jain, Timothy J Nypaver, Greg Gaborek, Peter K Henke
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) after open lower extremity bypass (LEB) is a serious complication leading to an increased rate of graft failure, hospital readmission, and health care costs. This study sought to identify predictors of SSI after LEB for arterial occlusive disease and also potential modifiable factors to improve outcomes. METHODS: Data from a statewide cardiovascular consortium of 35 hospitals were used to obtain demographic, procedural, and hospital risk factors for patients undergoing elective or urgent open LEB between January 2012 and June 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524829/role-of-diffusion-weighted-and-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-differentiating-activity-of-ankylosing-spondylitis
#5
Ying-Hua Zhao, Yan-Yan Cao, Qun Zhang, Ying-Jie Mei, Ji-Jie Xiao, Shao-Yong Hu, Wei Li, Shao-Lin Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that combining apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index value might provide a reliable evaluation of the activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and that contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unnecessary. However, the results were based on confirming only a small random sample. This study aimed to assess the role of CE-MRI in differentiating the disease activity of AS by comparing ADC value with a large sample...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523453/optimizing-the-lee-carter-approach-in-the-presence-of-structural-changes-in-time-and-age-patterns-of-mortality-improvements
#6
Hong Li, Johnny Siu-Hang Li
Researchers using the Lee-Carter approach have often assumed that the time-varying index evolves linearly and that the parameters describing the age pattern of mortality decline are time-invariant. However, as several empirical studies suggest, the two assumptions do not seem to hold when the calibration window begins too early. This problem gives rise to the question of identifying the longest calibration window for which the two assumptions hold true. To address this question, we contribute a likelihood ratio-based sequential test to jointly test whether the two assumptions are satisfied...
May 18, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522943/accuracy-of-computed-tomographic-features-in-differentiating-intestinal-tuberculosis-from-crohn-s-disease-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Saurabh Kedia, Raju Sharma, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan, Vishal Sharma, Sawan Bopanna, Venigalla Pratap Mouli, Rajan Dhingra, Dawesh Prakash Yadav, Govind Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
Abdominal computed tomography (CT) can noninvasively image the entire gastrointestinal tract and assess extraintestinal features that are important in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (ITB). The present meta-analysis pooled the results of all studies on the role of CT abdomen in differentiating between CD and ITB. We searched PubMed and Embase for all publications in English that analyzed the features differentiating between CD and ITB on abdominal CT. The features included comb sign, necrotic lymph nodes, asymmetric bowel wall thickening, skip lesions, fibrofatty proliferation, mural stratification, ileocaecal area, long segment, and left colonic involvements...
April 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522384/usefulness-of-d-dimer-testing-in-predicting-recurrence-in-elderly-patients-with-unprovoked-venous-thromboembolism
#8
T Tritschler, A Limacher, M Méan, N Rodondi, D Aujesky
BACKGROUND: Whether post-anticoagulation D-dimer levels are useful in predicting recurrence in elderly patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism is unknown. METHODS: We followed-up 157 patients aged ≥65 years with acute symptomatic unprovoked venous thromboembolism in a prospective multicenter cohort study. All patients completed 3-12 months of anticoagulation and then underwent quantitative D-dimer testing (ELISA, VIDAS DD) 12 months after the index venous thromboembolism...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522351/effect-of-early-supplemental-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-paediatric-icu-a-preplanned-observational-study-of-post-randomisation-treatments-in-the-pepanic-trial
#9
Ilse Vanhorebeek, Sascha Verbruggen, Michaël P Casaer, Jan Gunst, Pieter J Wouters, Jan Hanot, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Dirk Vlasselaers, Koen Joosten, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521783/association-of-post-treatment-hypoalbuminemia-and-survival-in-chinese-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Wen Cai, Jin Zhang, Yonghui Chen, Wen Kong, Yiran Huang, Jiwei Huang, Lixin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hypoalbuminemia adversely affects the clinical outcomes of various cancers. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prognostic value of hypoalbuminemia 3-5 weeks after treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received sorafenib or sunitinib as first-line treatment. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we assessed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 184 mRCC patients who received first-line sorafenib or sunitinib treatment...
May 18, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521181/utility-of-a-brief-assessment-tool-developed-from-the-dizziness-handicap-inventory-to-screen-for-cervicogenic-dizziness-a-case-control-study
#11
Susan A Reid, Robin Callister, Michael G Katekar, Julia M Treleaven
BACKGROUND: Cervicogenic dizziness (CGD) is hard to diagnose as there is no objective test. OBJECTIVE: Can a brief assessment tool be derived from the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) to assist in screening for CGD? DESIGN: Case-control study with split-sample analysis. METHOD: 86 people with CGD and 86 people with general dizziness completed the DHI as part of the assessment of their dizziness. Descriptive statistics were used to assess how frequently each question on the DHI was answered 'yes' or 'sometimes' by participants with CGD and by participants with general dizziness...
March 20, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521006/does-immediate-pain-relief-after-an-injection-into-the-sacroiliac-joint-with-anesthetic-and-corticosteroid-predict-subsequent-pain-relief
#12
Byron J Schneider, Lisa Huynh, Josh Levin, Pranathip Rinkaekan, Ramin Kordi, David J Kennedy
Objectives. : To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief. Design.:  Prospective observational cohort. Setting.:  An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center. Methods.:  Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ...
May 17, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520665/family-history-of-migraine-associated-with-posttraumatic-migraine-symptoms-following-sport-related-concussion
#13
Alicia Sufrinko, Jamie McAllister-Deitrick, R J Elbin, Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether family history of migraine increased the likelihood of posttraumatic migraine (PTM) symptom presentation in adolescents following concussion, and examine the influence of family history of migraine and PTM on postinjury outcomes. SETTING: Outpatient concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 patients with concussion (103 males and 50 females) aged 15.72 ± 1.48 years (range 12-18 years). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of patients presenting for initial evaluation 4...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517493/accuracy-of-computed-tomography-for-detecting-hepatic-steatosis-in-donors-for-liver-transplantation-a-meta-analysis
#14
Danping Zheng, Wenshuo Tian, Zhouying Zheng, Jincui Gu, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for detecting donor hepatic steatosis (HS) before liver transplantation is not well established. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of CT for HS detection in liver donor candidates. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curves, and the area under the curve (AUC) were estimated using HSROC and bivariate random-effects models...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516504/prognostic-potential-of-midregional-pro-adrenomedullin-following-decompensation-for-systolic-heart-failure-comparison-with-cardiac-natriuretic-peptides
#15
Caroline Morbach, Almuth Marx, Mathias Kaspar, Gülmisal Güder, Susanne Brenner, Carolin Feldmann, Stefan Störk, Jörn O Vollert, Georg Ertl, Christiane E Angermann
AIMS: Whereas guidelines recommend the routine use of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in heart failure (HF) care, the clinical relevance and prognostic potential of midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is less well established. We aimed to compare the prognostic potential of MR-proADM after acute decompensation for systolic HF with that of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and midregional pro-atrial NP (MR-proANP), to investigate the significance of high/rising MR-proADM, and to evaluate the incremental prognostic yield of repeat measurements...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516344/defining-optimal-cutoff-value-of-mgmt-promoter-methylation-by-roc-analysis-for-clinical-setting-in-glioblastoma-patients
#16
Guoqiang Yuan, Liang Niu, Yinian Zhang, Xiaoqing Wang, Kejun Ma, Hang Yin, Junqiang Dai, Wangning Zhou, Yawen Pan
Resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy poses a significant challenge in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). Hypermethylation in O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is thought to play a critical role in this resistance. Pyrosequencing (PSQ) has been shown to be accurate and robust for MGMT promoter methylation testing. The unresolved issue is the determination of a cut-off value for dichotomization of quantitative MGMT PSQ results into "MGMT methylated" and "MGMT unmethylated" patient subgroups as a basis for further treatment decisions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515805/is-computed-tomography-defined-obstruction-a-predictor-of-urological-intervention-in-emergency-department-patients-presenting-with-renal-colic
#17
Peter Alexander Massaro, Avinash Kanji, Paul Atkinson, Ryan Pawsey, Tom Whelan
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether unilateral calculus-induced ureteric obstruction on computed tomography (CT) was independently associated with the need for urological intervention and 30-day return to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic urinary calculi diagnosed by unenhanced helical CT. Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of urological intervention and 30-day return to the ED...
March 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515373/how-accurately-does-the-brief-job-stress-questionnaire-identify-workerswith-or-without-potential-psychological-distress
#18
Akizumi Tsutsumi, Akiomi Inoue, Hisashi Eguchi
OBJECTIVES: The manual for the Japanese Stress Check Program recommends use of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) from among the program's instruments and proposes criteria for defining "high-stress" workers. This study aimed to examine how accurately the BJSQ identifies workers with or without potential psychological distress. METHODS: We used an online survey to administer the BJSQ with a psychological distress scale (K6) to randomly selected workers (n=1,650)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515114/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-disparities-in-the-united-states
#19
Audrey L Blewer, Said A Ibrahim, Marion Leary, David Dutwin, Bryan McNally, Monique L Anderson, Laurie J Morrison, Tom P Aufderheide, Mohamud Daya, Ahamed H Idris, Clifton W Callaway, Peter J Kudenchuk, Gary M Vilke, Benjamin S Abella
BACKGROUND: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with increased survival from cardiac arrest, yet bystander CPR rates are low in many communities. The overall prevalence of CPR training in the United States and associated individual-level disparities are unknown. We sought to measure the national prevalence of CPR training and hypothesized that older age and lower socioeconomic status would be independently associated with a lower likelihood of CPR training. METHODS AND RESULTS: We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a nationally representative adult sample...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514747/diagnostic-value-of-using-18f-fdg-pet-and-pet-ct-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Yaru Zou, Jianjing Tong, Haiyan Leng, Jingwei Jiang, Meng Pan, Zi Chen
BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT have become two of the most powerful tools for malignant lymphoma exploration, but their diagnostic role in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is still disputed. The purpose of our study is to identify the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT for detecting PCNSL. RESULTS: A total of 129 patients, obtained from eight eligible studies, were included for this systematic review and meta-analysis...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
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