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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017626/case-series-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-toward-an-understanding-of-the-early-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-affecting-behavior-and-cognition
#1
Alicja Cieslak, Eric E Smith, John Lysack, Zahinoor Ismail
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is characterized by later life acquired, sustained, and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of any severity that cannot be better accounted for by other formal medical and psychiatric nosology. MBI is an "at risk" state for incident cognitive decline and dementia, and for some, MBI is the index manifestation of neurodegeneration, observed in advance of cognitive impairment. Initially described in Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), MBI evolved to describe a preclinical stage of all cause dementia, and has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment-Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) proposed research diagnostic criteria...
October 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980614/-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-dementia-mechanisms-and-treatment-approach
#2
E E Vasenina, O A Gan'kina
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can manifest at various stages during the disease. Prominence and rate of progression may depend on nosological form of dementia as well as environmental factors, concomitant diseases et al. Each psychiatric symptom is based on the specific neurotransmitter imbalance and differentiated involvement of various parts of the Central Nervous System in the pathological process. Treatment in each case should be chosen individually taking into account the balance of benefits and risks of prescribed drugs...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974593/endocrine-abnormalities-in-lithium-toxicity
#3
Gabriella Shanks, Vinita Mishra, Stanka Nikolova
Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#4
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961886/the-neuropsychology-of-huntington-s-disease
#5
Julie S Snowden
Huntington's disease is an inherited, degenerative brain disease, characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive disorder and neuropsychiatric change. Men and women are affected equally. Symptoms emerge at around 40 years, although there is wide variation. A rare juvenile form has onset in childhood or adolescence. The evolution of disease is insidious and structural and functional brain changes may be present more than a decade before symptoms and signs become manifest. The earliest site of pathology is the striatum and neuroimaging measures of striatal change correlate with neurological and cognitive markers of disease...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961866/cognitive-and-neuropsychiatric-features-in-parkinson-s-and-lewy-body-dementias
#6
Julie A Fields
Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms affect a substantial number of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). These non-motor changes can occur at all stages of disease, often years before motor symptoms manifest in some patients while occurring much later in the disease process for others. Lewy bodies are the hallmark of PD, yet not all patients with PD follow the same course or present in the same way clinically, either from a motor or non-motor standpoint. This has implications on assessment, intervention, and planning for the future...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940018/assessment-of-the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale-hads-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-anxiety-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#7
REVIEW
Eduardo de Almeida Macêdo, Simone Appenzeller, Lilian Tereza Lavras Costallat
Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) is described in 12-95% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent manifestations of NPSLE, occurring in 4-85% of these patients. Several diagnostic tools, such as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), have been used to assess anxiety in clinical studies in SLE, but there is a lack of data on the performance of these questionnaires in the disease. This study aimed to assess the performance of HADS for the detection of anxiety in male and female patients with SLE, also investigating possible gender differences in this aspect...
September 22, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#8
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931452/factors-associated-with-appropriate-psychotropic-drug-prescription-in-nursing-home-patients-with-severe-dementia
#9
Klaas van der Spek, Raymond Tcm Koopmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Marjorie Hjmg Nelissen-Vrancken, Roland B Wetzels, Claudia Hw Smeets, Steven Teerenstra, Sytse U Zuidema, Debby L Gerritsen
BACKGROUND: We studied the patient and non-patients factors of inappropriate psychotropic drug (PD) prescription for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing home patients with severe dementia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the appropriateness of prescriptions was explored using the Appropriate Psychotropic drug use In Dementia (APID) index sum score. This index assesses information from medical records on indication, evaluation, dosage, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, duplications, and therapy duration...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#10
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925645/vitamin-b12-deficiency-recognition-and-management
#11
Robert C Langan, Andrew J Goodbred
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and other clinical manifestations. Screening average-risk adults for vitamin B12 deficiency is not recommended. Screening may be warranted in patients with one or more risk factors, such as gastric or small intestine resections, inflammatory bowel disease, use of metformin for more than four months, use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 blockers for more than 12 months, vegans or strict vegetarians, and adults older than 75 years...
September 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904921/hashimoto-s-encephalitis-rare-manifestation-of-hypothyroidism
#12
Manish Gutch, Annesh Bhattacharjee, Sukriti Kumar, Durgesh Pushkar
Hashimoto's encephalitis is a rare, heterogeneous and completely treatable form of neuroendocrine disorder manifesting with seizures, stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy, dementia and variable neuropsychiatric manifestations. It is generally associated with a background of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, and the patient has high titers of antithyroid antibodies, especially antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. This entity responds dramatically to corticosteroids, hence should be always considered and excluded while treating a patient with encephalopathy in the background of a thyroid disease...
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899446/affective-and-emotional-dysregulation-as-pre-dementia-risk-markers-exploring-the-mild-behavioral-impairment-symptoms-of-depression-anxiety-irritability-and-euphoria
#13
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882191/effects-of-sustained-i-c-v-infusion-of-lupus-csf-and-autoantibodies-on-behavioral-phenotype-and-neuronal-calcium-signaling
#14
Minesh Kapadia, Dunja Bijelić, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Ljudmila Stojanovich, Milena Milošević, Pavle Andjus, Boris Šakić
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that is often accompanied by brain atrophy and diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations of unknown origin. More recently, it was observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients and lupus-prone mice can be neurotoxic and that acute administration of specific brain-reactive autoantibodies (BRAs) can induce deficits in isolated behavioral tasks. Given the chronic and complex nature of CNS SLE, the current study examines broad behavioral performance and neuronal Ca(2+) signaling in mice receiving a sustained infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from CNS SLE patients and putative BRAs (anti-NR2A, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-α-tubulin)...
September 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879200/the-nuclear-proteome-of-white-and-gray-matter-from-schizophrenia-postmortem-brains
#15
Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Aline G Santana, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder that manifests through several symptoms from early adulthood. Numerous studies over the last decades have led to significant advances in increasing our understanding of the factors involved in SCZ. For example, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis has provided important insights by uncovering protein dysfunctions inherent to SCZ. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear proteome of postmortem brain tissues from corpus callosum (CC) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL)...
July 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852248/pathological-laughter-in-a-female-with-multiple-episodes-of-stroke-and-subdural-hematoma
#16
Sujita Kumar Kar, Sushanta Kumar Sahoo
Various brain areas in both cortical as well as subcortical locations are involved in pathological laughter. Pathological laughter may be seen as a prodromal symptom or acute manifestation or late sequel of stroke. Various other neuropsychiatric conditions attribute to stroke. It is often difficult to ascertain the cause of pathological laughter in the presence of multiple brain pathologies. Here, we highlight a case of a 55-year-old female, who had multiple episodes of stroke and subdural hematoma, presented with pathological laughter and other behavioral abnormalities...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844871/emerging-role-of-amyloid-beta-in-stress-response-implication-for-depression-and-diabetes
#17
Maria Grazia Morgese, Stefania Schiavone, Luigia Trabace
Chronic stress is considered a widely accepted risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, high cortisol levels, and, thus, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation, have been indicated as the most frequent alteration in patients affected by depression, as well as by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, depressive state has been pointed as an early manifestation of AD, advocating an overlap between these neuropathological events. We have previously demonstrated that central soluble beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ) administration peptide induces a depressive like-behavior in rats, with altered HPA axis activation, reduced cortical serotonin and neurotrophin levels...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841275/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-pediatric-nmda-receptor-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#18
Salah Basheer, Madhu Nagappa, Anita Mahadevan, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Arun B Taly, Satish Chandra Girimaji
Objective: Although psychiatric manifestations are one of the most common presentations of pediatric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, there is a lack of studies that characterize psychiatric aspects of this disorder. This study was designed to address this gap. Methods: Initial clinical presentations including psychiatric symptoms, treatment details, and outcome with respect to psychiatric symptoms were collected from medical case records of children aged less than 18 years with seropositive NMDAR encephalitis from a single tertiary care center (May 2010-November 2016)...
August 17, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822071/imaging-the-etiology-of-apathy-anxiety-and-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-implication-for-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Stephane Thobois, Stephane Prange, Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Léon Tremblay, Emmanuel Broussolle
Apathy, depression, and anxiety are among the most important non-motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD). This may be encountered at early stages of illness and represent a major source of burden. Understanding their pathophysiology is a major prerequisite for efficient therapeutic strategies. Anatomical and metabolic imaging studies have enabled a breakthrough by demonstrating that widespread abnormalities within the limbic circuits notably the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, amygdala, thalamus, and ventral striatum are involved in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety, and apathy in PD...
August 18, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816531/prevalence-and-predictors-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-amongpatients-with-urolithiasis
#20
S Sharma, A Rastogi, S K Bhadada, P Singh, S Varshney, A Behera, A Bhansali, S K Singh, D S Rao
BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis may be the only presenting manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), and early detection of PHPT in such patients may prevent future urolithiasis and other PHPT complications. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and predictors of PHPT in patients presenting with urolithiasis. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with urolithiasis were evaluated for clinical and biochemical manifestations of PHPT with serum and urine calcium, serum intact parathyroid hormone and 25 (OH) vitamin D...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
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