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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662944/combined-blockade-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-1%C3%AE-signaling-protects-mice-from-cognitive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Elizabeth A Newell, Brittany P Todd, Jolonda Mahoney, Andrew A Pieper, Polly J Ferguson, Alexander G Bassuk
Diffuse activation of interleukin-1 inflammatory cytokine signaling after traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits progressive neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and thus represents a potential opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β both activate the common type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), they manifest distinct injury-specific roles in some models of neurodegeneration. Despite its potential relevance to treating patients with TBI, however, the individual contributions of IL-1α and IL-1β to TBI-pathology have not been previously investigated...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#2
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651573/metabolic-syndrome-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-relationship-to-disease-activity-and-neuropsychiatric-lupus
#3
N Hammam, S M Rashad, A A A Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Egyptian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Additionally, we intended to determine the association of MetS with disease activity, clinical and laboratory features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included adult SLE patients diagnosed and followed in rheumatology outpatient clinics. The demographic data, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed for all patients...
April 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628029/-mild-behavioral-impairment-a-new-concept-for-the-prodromic-phases-of-dementia
#4
Luis Agüera Ortiz, Jorge López Álvarez
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are frequent in dementia. These symptoms are also present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can even constitute the first manifestations of a neurodegenerative process, preceding the development of cognitive symptoms. The presence of NPS is associated with higher rates of conversion to dementia in healthy persons and patients with MCI. Recognizing the importance of NPS, the Alzheimer Association created a working group that has designed the ISTAART criteria for mild behavioral impairment (MBI), including the following areas of assessment: motivation, affect, impulse control, social appropriateness and thoughts/perception...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626340/neuroimmune-biomarkers-in-mental-illness
#5
James W Herron, Louis Nerurkar, Jonathan Cavanagh
Exploration of neuroimmune mechanisms is vital to the understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of mental disorders. Inflammatory and immune mechanisms are increasingly understood to underpin a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, with an ever-expanding evidence base drawn from basic science to large-scale epidemiological data. Unravelling of these mechanisms should lead to biomarker discovery and potential new avenues for therapeutics that modulate immunological mechanisms. Identification of neuroimmune biomarkers is vital to improving diagnosis, stratification and treatment of mental disorders...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621974/characteristics-of-a-newly-diagnosed-polish-cohort-of-patients-with-neurological-manifestations-of-wilson-disease-evaluated-with-the-unified-wilson-s-disease-rating-scale
#6
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Karolina Dzieżyc, Michal Karliński, Johan Bring, Carl Bjartmar
BACKGROUND: Wilson disease is a rare genetic disorder in which impaired copper excretion results in toxic copper levels and tissue damage. Manifestations are primarily hepatic and/or neuropsychiatric, with a variety of neurological phenotypes. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological signs of Wilson disease in newly diagnosed patients and to determine whether they correlated with disability, liver function, and copper metabolism. METHODS: Fifty-three treatment-naïve patients recently diagnosed with Wilson disease who exhibited neurological symptoms were included...
April 5, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614655/low-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-and-a%C3%AE-40-are-related-to-white-matter-lesions-in-cognitively-normal-elderly
#7
Ingmar Skoog, Silke Kern, Henrik Zetterberg, Svante Östling, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Xinxin Guo, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ42 may be the earliest manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Knowledge on how CSF Aβ interacts with different brain pathologies early in the disease process is limited. We examined how CSF Aβ markers relate to brain atrophy and white matter lesions (WMLs) in octogenarians with and without dementia to explore the earliest pathogenetic pathways of AD in the oldest old. OBJECTIVE: To study CSF amyloid biomarkers in relation to brain atrophy and WMLs in 85-year-olds with and without dementia...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606903/mosaic-brain-aneuploidy-in-mental-illnesses-an-association-of-low-level-post-zygotic-aneuploidy-with-schizophrenia-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Yuri B Yurov, Svetlana G Vorsanova, Irina A Demidova, Alexei D Kolotii, Ilia V Soloviev, Ivan Y Iourov
Background: Postzygotic chromosomal variation in neuronal cells is hypothesized to make a substantial contribution to the etiology and pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the role of somatic genome instability and mosaic genome variations in common mental illnesses is a matter of conjecture. Materials and Methods: To estimate the pathogenic burden of somatic chromosomal mutations, we determined the frequency of mosaic aneuploidy in autopsy brain tissues of subjects with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders (intellectual disability comorbid with autism spectrum disorders)...
April 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#9
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594125/attribution-of-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-to-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#10
REVIEW
Alessandra Bortoluzzi, Carlo Alberto Scirè, Marcello Govoni
Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most severe manifestations of the disease that has a heavy impact on patient's functioning, quality of life, and disease outcome. The prevalence is highly variable and the clinical phenotypes vary from common syndromes to rare NP entities. Its occurrence may be the result of a primary manifestation of SLE, secondary to other conditions (such as infections or metabolic disturbances) or the effect of concomitant comorbidities that often complicate the disease course...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593732/a-distinct-t-follicular-helper-cell-subset-infiltrates-the-brain-in-murine-neuropsychiatric-lupus
#11
Shweta Jain, Ariel Stock, Fernando Macian, Chaim Putterman
Neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not uncommon, yet the mechanisms underlying disease initiation and progression in the brain are incompletely understood. Although the role of T cells in other lupus target organs such as the kidney is well defined, which T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE is not known. The present study was aimed at characterizing the CD4 T cell populations that are present in the choroid plexus (CP) of MRL/MpJ-fas lpr mice, the primary site of brain infiltration in this classic lupus mouse model which exhibits a prominent neurobehavioral phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579551/anti-gad-antibodies-in-a-cohort-of-neuropsychiatric-patients
#12
Anita M Vinke, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Joost Nicolai, Marian H J M Majoie, Pilar Martinez Martinez, Carolin Hoffmann, Jan G M C Damoiseaux, Rob P W Rouhl
OBJECTIVE: Antiglutamate decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies are associated with several neurological manifestations, like epilepsy and movement disorders. However, in daily neurological practice, it remains hard to define when to test for anti-GAD antibodies in patients with neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, here, we report the patient characteristics of a large retrospective cohort of patients tested for anti-GAD antibodies in clinical practice and compare the characteristics of anti-GAD positive and anti-GAD negative patients...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568536/cerebellar-cognitive-affective-syndrome-insights-from-joubert-syndrome
#13
Chelsea L Hickey, Janet C Sherman, Paula Goldenberg, Amy Kritzer, Paul Caruso, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Mary K Colvin
Background: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited genetic disorder characterized morphologically by unique developmental malformations of the cerebellum and brainstem (the molar tooth sign), and clinically by impaired motor functions and intellectual disability. Patients with JS often face multiple cognitive challenges, but the neuropsychological profile of this condition has not been well characterized. Methods: We performed comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological evaluations in three adult brothers with JS, ages 32, 27, and 25 years...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558773/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-tuberous-sclerosis-manifestations-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#14
Marina Flotats-Bastardas, Daniel Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Ludwig Gortner, Martin Poryo, Michael Zemlin, Alfons Macaya-Ruiz, Sascha Meyer
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease with a significant morbidity and mortality. We conducted a retrospective analysis of two cohorts (Vall d'Hebron University Hospital [HVH], Barcelona, Spain, 1982-2015, and at Saarland University Medical Center [UKS], Homburg, Germany, 1998-2015) to assess prevalence and treatment of TSC associated manifestations and to evaluate if the follow-up was in line with published recommendations. This was considered if more than 15% of patients did not receive adequate examination with regard to potential organ involvement...
March 20, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558350/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-problems
#15
Zbigniew Zdrojewski
Recognizing the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in patients with lupus (SLE) can be difficult and therefore underestimated. Detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in each patient with SLE should be done as a rule. Introduction of the new classification criteria of this syndrome will certainly improve the recognition of APS in the future. The Sapporo APS classification criteria (1998) were replaced by the Sydney criteria in 2006. Based on the most recent criteria, classification with APS requires one clinical and one laboratory manifestation...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553944/psychosis-in-cognitively-asymptomatic-elderly-subjects-is-associated-with-neuritic-plaque-load-not-neurofibrillary-tangles
#16
Julia Kim, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
INTRODUCTION: Despite having severe Alzheimer disease pathology, some individuals remain cognitively asymptomatic (cASYM). To explore noncognitive manifestations in these cASYM individuals, we aim to investigate the prevalence and pathologic substrates of psychosis. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, quick version was used to evaluate presence of psychosis. Subjects with Mini-Mental Status Examination score of ≥24 with frequent neuritic plaques (NPs) were defined as NPcASYM, and those with Braak and Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles of V/VI were defined as NTcASYM (both groups collectively designated cASYM)...
March 16, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553037/cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-and-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538266/synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-in-adolescents-presenting-for-emergency-care
#18
Meghan Gilley, Jeffrey Brent, Diane P Calello, Paul Wax, Yaron Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical picture and management of synthetic cannabinoid exposure in a cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Using the 45 participating sites of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry, a North American database, we conducted an observational study of a prospectively collected cohort. We identified all adolescent (12-19 years) cases of synthetic cannabinoid exposure who have received medical toxicology consultation between January 2012 and December 2016...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530301/is-it-feasible-to-identify-natural-clusters-of-tsc-associated-neuropsychiatric-disorders-tand
#19
Loren Leclezio, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Petrus J de Vries
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. The lifetime prevalence of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) is in the region of 90% in an apparently unique, individual pattern. This "uniqueness" poses significant challenges for diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. To date, no studies have explored whether there may be natural clusters of TAND. The purpose of this feasibility study was (1) to investigate the practicability of identifying natural TAND clusters, and (2) to identify appropriate multivariate data analysis techniques for larger-scale studies...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518821/cerebellar-%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-gaba-a-receptors-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-disrupted-prepulse-inhibition-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Lih-Chu Chiou, Hsin-Jung Lee, Margot Ernst, Wei-Jan Huang, Jui-Feng Chou, Hon-Lie Chen, Akihiro Mouri, Liang-Chieh Chen, Marco Treven, Takayoshi Mamiya, Pi-Chuan Fan, Daniel E Knutson, Chris Witzigmann, James Cook, Werner Sieghart, Toshitaka Nabeshima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiological role of α6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α6GABAA Rs), which are mainly expressed in cerebellar granule cells, remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that hispidulin, a flavonoid isolated from a local herb that remitted a patient's intractable motor tics, attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs. Here, using hispidulin and a selective α6GABAA R PAM, the pyrazoloquinolinone Compound 6, we revealed an unprecedented role of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs in disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI), which reflects sensorimotor gating deficits manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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