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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778823/toward-smart-nebulization-engineering-acoustic-airflow-to-penetrate-maxillary-sinuses-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#1
Shima Jowhari Moghadam, Laurent Navarro, Lara Leclerc, Sophie Hodin, Jérémie Pourchez
Treating chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by nebulization requires an airflow capable to deliver medication to deep target sites beyond the nasal valve. Fixed frequency acoustic airflow technology is currently available, mainly as post-surgical therapy, but still have not been able to realize the full potential of direct nose to paranasal sinuses delivery. Reported herein are the application of frequency sweep acoustic airflow and the optimization of its frequency range, sweep cycle duration and intensity. The resonant frequencies of the model's maxillary sinuses can be estimated using the Helmholtz resonator theory...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774778/an-overview-of-glycopyrrolate-eflow%C3%A2-cs-in-copd
#2
Edward Kerwin, Gary T Ferguson
COPD is highly prevalent in the US and globally, requiring new treatment strategies due to the high disease burden and increase in the aging population. Here, we profile the newly FDA-approved LONHALA MAGNAIR (glycopyrrolate [GLY]/eFlow® Closed System [CS]; 25 mcg twice daily), a nebulized long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) for the long-term maintenance treatment of COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. Areas covered: An overview of COPD and the treatment landscape, focusing on GLY/eFlow CS, is reported by reviewing the published literature pertinent to the drug/device combination...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763253/croup-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Dustin K Smith, Andrew J McDermott, John F Sullivan
Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting from swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, leading to inspiratory stridor and a barking cough. Many patients experience low-grade fevers, but fever is not necessary for diagnosis. Less commonly, stridor can be associated with acute epiglottitis, bacterial tracheitis, and foreign body airway obstruction...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751715/-study-on-quality-evaluation-of-dihuang-rehmannia-glutinosa-by-two-dimension-hplc-fingerprints-and-chemometrics-methods
#4
Chun-Yue Huang, Dan-Wei Ouyang, Li-Xin Niu, Jing Zhou, Shan Lin, Xiao Hu
The study is to establish the two-dimension HPLC fingerprints of Dihuang (Rehmannia glutinosa), by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ELSD methods. The separations were performed on Waters Atlantis®T3(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm)and Welch Ultimate®Hilic-NH₂(4.6 mm× 250 mm,5 μm)columns with the gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.01% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile-water, respectively. The chromatographic display wavelength for PDA detector was set at 203 nm. For HPLC-ELSD, the nebulizer was set as cooling mode, the drift tube temperature was set at 60 °C and the gas pressure was 35...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742703/nebulized-heparin-and-n-acetylcysteine-for-smoke-inhalational-injury-a-case-report
#5
Umair Ashraf, Bharat Bajantri, Gabriella Roa-Gomez, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Amanda Cantin, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
RATIONALE: Every year, ∼40,000 people suffer burn-related injuries in the United States. Despite recent advances, the odds of dying from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke are one in ∼1500. Smoke inhalation causes injury to the airways via a complex physiological process, and the treatment is mainly supportive. Many recent interventions aim to decrease the formation of fibrin casts, the main cause of airway damage in these patients. Among these, treatment with a combination of nebulized heparin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown benefit...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736245/pharmacological-properties-of-revefenacin-td-4208-a-novel-nebulized-long-acting-and-lung-selective-muscarinic-antagonist-at-human-recombinant-muscarinic-receptors-and-in-rat-guinea-pig-and-human-isolated-airway-tissues
#6
Sharath S Hegde, M Teresa Pulido-Rios, Mark A Luttmann, James J Foley, Gerald E Hunsberger, Tod Steinfeld, TaeWeon Lee, Yuhua Ji, Mathai M Mammen, Jeffrey R Jasper
Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a novel, long-acting, and lung-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist in development as a nebulized inhalation solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study evaluated the pharmacology of revefenacin at human recombinant mAChRs and in airway tissues from rats, guinea pigs, and humans. At human recombinant mAChRs, revefenacin displayed high affinity (pKI  = 8.2-9.8) and behaved as a competitive antagonist (pKI, apparent = 9...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733750/delivery-of-alx-0171-by-inhalation-greatly-reduces-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-newborn-lambs
#7
Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Jack M Gallup, Albert Van Geelen, Thomas Stohr, Linde Duprez, Mark R Ackermann
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute lower respiratory disease in infants and young children worldwide. Currently, treatment is supportive and no vaccines are available. The use of newborn lambs to model hRSV infection in human infants may provide a valuable tool to assess safety and efficacy of new antiviral drugs and vaccines. ALX-0171 is a trivalent Nanobody targeting the hRSV fusion (F) protein and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in newborn lambs infected with a human strain of RSV followed by daily ALX-0171 nebulization for 3 or 5 consecutive days...
May 7, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733738/case-study-a-combination-of-mepolizumab-and-omaluzimab-injections-for-severe-asthma
#8
Rejmon Dedaj, Lindie Unsel
A Combination of Mepolizumab and Omaluzimab injections for severe asthma. INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe persistent asthma account for a large proportion of asthma morbidity and health care expenditures. In this case report we describe the use of a combination of omalizumab and mepolizumab in severe asthma with elevated IgE levels and eosinophilic phenotype. CASE STUDY: We are treating a 55 year old woman with severe persistent eosinophilic asthma and elevated IgE levels...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732498/multiobjective-optimization-of-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-underivatized-human-urinary-amino-acids-through-chemometrics
#9
Manuel David Peris-Díaz, Miguel A Sentandreu, Enrique Sentandreu
Optimization of instrumental settings of a triple-quadrupole mass analyzer was performed by Box-Behnken design, support vector machines, and a Pareto-optimality approach. This time-saving, stepped chemometric strategy was used to model the signal response of underivatized human urinary amino acids. Drying gas flow, nebulizer pressure, sheath gas flow, and capillary voltage settings were exhaustively studied beyond the parameters conventionally optimized in triple-quadrupole devices (multiple reaction monitoring transitions, fragmentor and collision energy voltages)...
May 7, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732223/comparison-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-salbutamol-with-jet-and-mesh-nebulizers-in-asthmatic-children
#10
Norihide Murayama, Kikuno Murayama
Background: Ultrasonic, jet, and mesh nebulizers have all been used in the treatment for asthma. Mesh nebulizers reportedly offer the best inhalation efficiency. Methods: This study aimed to clarify the utility of the mesh nebulizer, compared to jet nebulizers, in the treatment of pediatric asthma patients. Participants included 88 children <6 years old who were receiving treatment for asthma at Murayama Pediatric Clinic. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation in arterial blood, and Mitsui symptom scores were compared before and after treatment with a mesh nebulizer ( n = 43) or jet nebulizer ( n = 45) using a salbutamol inhalation solution (0...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717099/results-of-a-pulmonologist-survey-regarding-knowledge-and-practices-with-inhalation-devices-for-copd
#11
Sidney S Braman, Brian W Carlin, Nicola A Hanania, Donald A Mahler, Jill A Ohar, Victor Pinto-Plata, Tina Shah, David Eubanks, Rajiv Dhand
BACKGROUND: COPD guidelines advise on inhaled medication use, yet no advice is offered on when to use and which type of patient could benefit from a specific delivery device. We investigated pulmonologists' perception of their knowledge and practices with delivery devices for COPD management. METHODS: An online survey was designed by a steering committee of American Thoracic Society clinicians and scientists and conducted by a national market research firm between January 7 and 29, 2016...
May 1, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716819/a-randomized-trial-comparing-metered-dose-inhalers-and-breath-actuated-nebulizers
#12
Mark A Snider, Jim Y Wan, Jonathan Jacobs, Rudy Kink, Barry Gilmore, Sandra R Arnold
BACKGROUND: Despite little evidence for its effectiveness, the breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN) is the default albuterol delivery method in our pediatric emergency department. OBJECTIVE: We compared the clinical efficacy of BAN and the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in treating subjects patients 2 to 17 years of age who presented with mild to moderate asthma exacerbations. METHODS: This is a randomized, nonblinded, noninferiority study conducted at a single pediatric tertiary care emergency department...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706063/feasibility-of-rare-earth-elements-determination-in-low-concentration-in-crude-oil-direct-sampling-electrothermal-vaporization-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#13
Jussiane Souza Silva, Alessandra Henn, Valderi L Dressler, Paola Mello, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores
A comprehensive study for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) present in low concentration in crude oil was developed for the first time using direct sampling electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The effect of an organic modifier on the REE signal was evaluated and the use of 6 mg of citric acid allowed calibration using aqueous reference solutions. The selected pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 700 and 2200 °C, respectively. Due to the facility of REE in forming refractory compounds inside the graphite furnace during the heating step, the use of a modifier gas (Freon R-12, 3...
April 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696536/transgenic-up-regulation-of-claudin-6-decreases-fine-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#14
Joshua B Lewis, Jared S Bodine, Jason R Gassman, Samuel Arce Muñoz, Dallin C Milner, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein that contributes to tight junctional complexes and has been implicated in the maintenance of lung epithelial barriers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that genetic up-regulation of Cldn-6 influences inflammation in mice exposed to short-term environmental diesel particulate matter (DPM). Mice were subjected to ten exposures of nebulized DPM (PM2.5) over a period of 20 days via a nose-only inhalation system (Scireq, Montreal, Canada). Using real-time RT-PCR, we discovered that the Cldn6 gene was up-regulated in control mice exposed to DPM and in lung-specific transgenic mice that up-regulate Cldn-6 (Cldn-6 TG)...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692212/use-of-glucocorticoids-in-patients-with-copd-exacerbations-in-china-a-retrospective-observational-study
#15
Jing Zhang, Jinping Zheng, Kewu Huang, Yahong Chen, Jingping Yang, Wanzhen Yao
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are common in patients with underlying moderate to severe COPD and are associated with increased health and economic burden. International and Chinese guidelines recommend using glucocorticoids for the management of AECOPD because glucocorticoid therapy has been shown to benefit clinical outcomes. However, only scant data are available for current status of glucocorticoid therapy in hospitalized AECOPD patients in China...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691812/excipient-selection-and-aerodynamic-characterization-of-nebulized-lipid-based-nanoemulsion-loaded-with-docetaxel-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#16
Azren Aida Asmawi, Norazlinaliza Salim, Cheng Loong Ngan, Haslina Ahmad, Emilia Abdulmalek, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683731/bronchiolitis-obliterans-murine-model-induced-by-nitric-acid-aerosol-inhalation-an-economical-and-reproducible-model
#17
Jianing Yin, Xiaobo Ma, Fei Huang, Yucong Ma, Yanan Li
PURPOSE: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a highly debilitative and fatal syndrome associated with a series of severe lower airway disorders. The pathogenesis of BO is complicated and not entirely understood. An appropriate animal model of BO may aid research into its pathogenesis. Here, we establish a mouse model of BO to provide insight into this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6-8 week old BABL/c mice were exposed to 5% nitric acid (NA) aerosol through a nebulizer for 3 hours, and controls were exposed to distilled water instead...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682793/salbutamol-induced-electrophysiological-changes-show-no-correlation-with-electrophysiological-changes-during-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic-clamp-in-young-people-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
P Novodvorsky, A Bernjak, E J Robinson, A Iqbal, I A Macdonald, R M Jacques, J L B Marques, P J Sheridan, S R Heller
AIMS: Hypoglycaemia causes QT-interval prolongation and appears pro-arrhythmogenic. Salbutamol, a β2 -adrenoreceptor agonist also causes QT-interval prolongation. We hypothesized that the magnitude of electrophysiological changes induced by salbutamol and hypoglycaemia might relate to each other and that salbutamol could be used as a non-invasive screening tool for predicting an individual's electrophysiological response to hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Eighteen individuals with Type 1 diabetes were administered 2...
April 23, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681239/inhaled-formulation-and-device-selection-bridging-the-gap-between-preclinical-species-and-first-in-human-studies
#19
Jennifer L Wylie, Aileen House, Peter J Mauser, Shari Sellers, Jenna Terebetski, Zhenyu Wang, Jason D Ehrick
The factors that influence inhaled first-in-human (FIH) device and formulation selection often differ significantly from the factors that have influenced the preceding preclinical experiments and inhalation toxicology work. In order to minimize the risk of delivery issues negatively impacting a respiratory pipeline program, the preclinical and FIH delivery systems must be considered holistically. This topic will be covered in more detail in this paper. Several examples will be presented that highlight how appropriate scientific strategy can help bridge the gap between delivering to preclinical species and human...
May 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679678/characterisation-of-40-mg-ml-and-100-mg-ml-tobramycin-formulations-for-aerosol-therapy-with-adult-mechanical-ventilation
#20
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
April 18, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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