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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329304/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-a-population-based-study
#1
Ranjani Somayaji, Christopher H Goss, Umer Khan, Moni Neradilek, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz
Background: Characterization of the role of respiratory viral pathogens on cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is needed. We aimed to determine the association of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity with risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in persons with CF in the United States. Methods: We conducted a cohort study from January 2003 - March 2009 using the CF Foundation Patient Registry merged with CDC respiratory virus surveillance data...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#2
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324670/relationship-of-antibiotic-treatment-to-recovery-after-acute-fev1-decline-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Wayne J Morgan, Jeffrey S Wagener, David J Pasta, Stefanie J Millar, Donald R VanDevanter, Michael W Konstan
RATIONALE: Children with cystic fibrosis often suffer acute declines in lung function. We previously showed that such declines are not always treated with antibiotics, but did not assess whether treatment improves the likelihood of recovery. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether new antibiotic treatment was associated with recovery from acute FEV1 decline. METHODS: We studied episodes of FEV1 decline (≥10% from baseline) from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis...
March 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296935/peptide-modification-results-in-the-formation-of-a-dimer-with-a-60-fold-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#4
Amal Thamri, Myriam Létourneau, Alex Djoboulian, David Chatenet, Eric Déziel, Annie Castonguay, Jonathan Perreault
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) occur naturally in numerous organisms and are considered as a class of antibiotics with promising potential against multi-resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a strategy that can lead to the discovery of novel small CAMPs with greatly enhanced antimicrobial activity and retained antibiofilm potential. We geared our efforts towards i) the N-terminal cysteine functionalization of a previously reported small synthetic cationic peptide (peptide 1037, KRFRIRVRV-NH2), ii) its dimerization through a disulfide bond, and iii) a preliminary antimicrobial activity assessment of the newly prepared dimer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, pathogens responsible for the formation of biofilms in lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282386/strong-incidence-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-on-bacterial-rrs-and-its-genetic-structures-of-cystic-fibrosis-sputa
#5
Laurence Pages-Monteiro, Romain Marti, Carine Commun, Nolwenn Alliot, Claire Bardel, Helene Meugnier, Michele Perouse-de-Montclos, Philippe Reix, Isabelle Durieu, Stephane Durupt, Francois Vandenesch, Jean Freney, Benoit Cournoyer, Anne Doleans-Jordheim
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs harbor a complex community of interacting microbes, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Meta-taxogenomic analysis based on V5-V6 rrs PCR products of 52 P. aeruginosa-positive (Pp) and 52 P. aeruginosa-negative (Pn) pooled DNA extracts from CF sputa suggested positive associations between P. aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas and Prevotella, but negative ones with Haemophilus, Neisseria and Burkholderia. Internal Transcribed Spacer analyses (RISA) from individual DNA extracts identified three significant genetic structures within the CF cohorts, and indicated an impact of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279152/the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
D G Burke, F Fouhy, M J Harrison, M C Rea, P D Cotter, O O'Sullivan, C Stanton, C Hill, F Shanahan, B J Plant, R P Ross
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
March 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275471/immunity-status-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-patients-with-structural-lung-diseases-in-chinese-adults
#7
Shuo Liang, Rong Jiang, Hai-Wen Lu, Bei Mao, Man-Hui Li, Cheng-Wei Li, Shu-Yi Gu, Jiu-Wu Bai, Jin-Fu Xu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection frequently observed in patients with immune dysfunction, such as those suffering from structural lung diseases. Nevertheless, studies assessing IPA combined with other common respiratory diseases remain scarce, particularly those regarding the immune status of its patients. Different structural lung diseases are known to differently affect patient immune status; however, the mechanisms by which this is conferred have yet to be determined...
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273168/within-host-whole-genome-analysis-of-an-antibiotic-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-sub-type-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Laura J Sherrard, Anna S Tai, Bryan A Wee, Kay A Ramsay, Timothy J Kidd, Nouri L Ben Zakour, David M Whiley, Scott A Beatson, Scott C Bell
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AUST-02 strain sub-type (M3L7) has been identified in Australia, infects the lungs of some people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with antibiotic resistance. Multiple clonal lineages may emerge during treatment with mutations in chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes commonly observed. Here we describe the within-host diversity and antibiotic resistance of M3L7 during and after antibiotic treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation using whole genome sequencing and show both variation and shared mutations in important genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264560/overcoming-an-extreme-drug-resistant-xdr-pathogen-avibactam-restores-susceptibility-to-ceftazidime-for-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-isolates-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#9
Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Scott A Becka, Elise T Zeiser, Nozumi Ohuchi, Maria F Mojica, Julian A Gatta, Monica Falleni, Delfina Tosi, Elisa Borghi, Marisa L Winkler, Brigid M Wilson, John J LiPuma, Michiyoshi Nukaga, Robert A Bonomo
Burkholderia multivorans is a significant health threat to persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). Infections are difficult to treat as this pathogen is inherently resistant to multiple antibiotics. Susceptibility testing of isolates obtained from CF respiratory cultures revealed that single agents selected from different antibiotic classes were unable to inhibit growth. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftazidime when combined with the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam (all minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) were ≤ 8 mg/L of ceftazidime and 4 mg/L of avibactam)...
March 6, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261568/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lifestyle-a-paradigm-for-adaptation-survival-and-persistence
#10
REVIEW
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258146/a-broad-host-range-tailocin-from-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#11
Guichun W Yao, Iris Duarte, Tram T Le, Lisa Carmody, John J LiPuma, Ry Young, Carlos F Gonzalez
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) consists of 20 closely related gram-negative bacterial species that are significant pathogens for persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some Bcc strains are highly transmissible and resistant to multiple antibiotics, making infection difficult to treat. A tailocin (phage-tail-like bacteriocin), designated BceTMilo, with broad host range against members of the Bcc was identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia strain BC0425. Sixty-eight percent of Bcc representing 10 species and 90% of non-Bcc Burkholderia strains tested were sensitive to BceTMilo...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258141/aggregate-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-alginate-bead-model-system-exhibits-in-vivo-like-characteristics
#12
Majken Sønderholm, Kasper Nørskov Kragh, Klaus Koren, Tim Holm Jakobsen, Sophie Darch, Maria Alhede, Peter Østrup Jensen, Marvin Whiteley, Michael Kühl, Thomas Bjarnsholt
Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates were primarily growing in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance towards the centre of the bead...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254026/the-fate-of-inhaled-antibiotics-after-deposition-in-cystic-fibrosis-how-to-get-drug-to-the-bug
#13
REVIEW
Aukje C Bos, Kimberly M Passé, Johan W Mouton, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are most often treated with inhaled antibiotics of which deposition patterns have been extensively studied. However, the journey of aerosol particles does not end after deposition within the bronchial tree. OBJECTIVES: To review how local conditions affect the clinical efficacy of antibiotic aerosol particles after deposition in the airways of patients with CF. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception to September 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253277/longitudinal-sampling-of-the-lung-microbiota-in-individuals-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Fiona J Whelan, Alya A Heirali, Laura Rossi, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins, Michael G Surette
Cystic fibrosis (CF) manifests in the lungs resulting in chronic microbial infection. Most morbidity and mortality in CF is due to cycles of pulmonary exacerbations-episodes of acute inflammation in response to the lung microbiome-which are difficult to prevent and treat because their cause is not well understood. We hypothesized that longitudinal analyses of the bacterial component of the CF lung microbiome may elucidate causative agents within this community for pulmonary exacerbations. In this study, 6 participants were sampled thrice-weekly for up to one year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248999/evaluation-of-combination-therapy-for-burkholderia-cenocepacia-lung-infection-in-different-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#15
Freija Van den Driessche, Bieke Vanhoutte, Gilles Brackman, Aurélie Crabbé, Petra Rigole, Jurgen Vercruysse, Glenn Verstraete, Davie Cappoen, Chris Vervaet, Paul Cos, Tom Coenye
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia is extremely resistant towards antibiotics and therapy is complicated by its ability to form biofilms. We investigated the efficacy of an alternative antimicrobial strategy for B. cenocepacia lung infections using in vitro and in vivo models. A screening of the NIH Clinical Collection 1&2 was performed against B. cenocepacia biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of tobramycin to identify repurposing candidates with potentiator activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248714/nebulization-of-antiinfective-agents-in-invasively-mechanically-ventilated-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Jean Chastre, Lucy B Palmer, Matteo Bassetti, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jose M Pereira, Jordi Riera, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Tobias Welte, Jose M Garcia-Alamino, Jason A Roberts, Jordi Rello
BACKGROUND: Nebulization of antiinfective agents is a common but unstandardized practice in critically ill patients. METHODS: A systematic review of 1,435 studies was performed in adults receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. Two different administration strategies (adjunctive and substitute) were considered clinically relevant. Inclusion was restricted to studies using jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating-mesh nebulizers. Studies involving children, colonized-but-not-infected adults, and cystic fibrosis patients were excluded...
March 1, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238634/the-cumulative-effects-of-intravenous-antibiotic-treatments-on-hearing-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Angela C Garinis, Campbell P Cross, Priya Srikanth, Kelly Carroll, M Patrick Feeney, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Daniel B Putterman, David M Cohen, Jeffrey A Gold, Peter S Steyger
BACKGROUND: Aminoglycosides (AGs) and glycopeptides are antibiotics essential for treating life-threatening respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to examine the effects of cumulative intravenous (IV)-AG (amikacin and/or tobramycin) and/or glycopeptide (vancomycin) dosing on hearing status in patients with CF. METHODS: Hearing thresholds were measured from 0.25 to 16.0kHz, in 81 participants with CF. Participants were categorized into two groups: normal hearing in both ears (≤25dB HL for all frequency bands) or hearing loss (>25dB HL for any frequency band in either ear)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#18
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187782/sputum-dna-sequencing-in-cystic-fibrosis-non-invasive-access-to-the-lung-microbiome-and-to-pathogen-details
#20
Rounak Feigelman, Christian R Kahlert, Florent Baty, Frank Rassouli, Rebekka L Kleiner, Philipp Kohler, Martin H Brutsche, Christian von Mering
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disorder, characterized by chronic microbial lung infections due to abnormally viscous mucus secretions within airways. The clinical management of CF typically involves regular respiratory-tract cultures in order to identify pathogens and to guide treatment. However, culture-based methods can miss atypical or slow-growing microbes. Furthermore, the isolated microbes are often not classified at the strain level due to limited taxonomic resolution...
February 10, 2017: Microbiome
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