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cystic fibrosis antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096997/bronchial-tree-shaped-mucous-plug-in-cystic-fibrosis-imaging-guided-management
#1
Ignazio Salamone, Baldassare Mondello, Maria Cristina Lucanto, Simona Cristadoro, Mariangela Lombardo, Mario Barone
We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis (CF) who presented with persistent cough; after starting intravenous antibiotics for Pseudomonas aeruginosa he underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. CT revealed extensive consolidation in the right lower lobe with relative bronchus obstruction; the cause of bronchial obstruction was detected in the mediastinal window, corresponding to a bronchial tree-shaped, thick, tenacious mucous plug. This was extracted 48 h after unresponsive bronchial washing and endobronchial instillation of rhDNAse, using foreign-body forceps, with subsequent resolution of cough...
March 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094327/rapid-adaptation-drives-invasion-of-airway-donor-microbiota-by-pseudomonas-after-lung-transplantation
#2
M Beaume, T Köhler, G Greub, O Manuel, J-D Aubert, L Baerlocher, L Farinelli, A Buckling, C van Delden
In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas leads to progressive lung destruction ultimately requiring lung transplantation (LT). Following LT, CF-adapted Pseudomonas strains, potentially originating from the sinuses, may seed the allograft leading to infections and reduced allograft survival. We investigated whether CF-adapted Pseudomonas populations invade the donor microbiota and adapt to the non-CF allograft. We collected sequential Pseudomonas isolates and airway samples from a CF-lung transplant recipient during two years, and followed the dynamics of the microbiota and Pseudomonas populations...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091521/mechanisms-of-intrinsic-resistance-and-acquired-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients-to-temocillin-a-revived-antibiotic
#3
Hussein Chalhoub, Daniel Pletzer, Helge Weingart, Yvonne Braun, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos, Patrick Plésiat, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Mathias Winterhalter, Paul M Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke
The β-lactam antibiotic temocillin (6-α-methoxy-ticarcillin) shows stability to most extended spectrum β-lactamases, but is considered inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutations in the MexAB-OprM efflux system, naturally occurring in cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates, have been previously shown to reverse this intrinsic resistance. In the present study, we measured temocillin activity in a large collection (n = 333) of P. aeruginosa CF isolates. 29% of the isolates had MICs ≤ 16 mg/L (proposed clinical breakpoint for temocillin)...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087053/six-minute-walk-test-results-predict-risk-of-hospitalization-for-youths-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#4
Márcio V F Donadio, João P Heinzmann-Filho, Fernanda M Vendrusculo, Patrícia X H Frasson, Paulo J C Marostica
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other variables (anthropometry, chronic Pseudomonas aeroginosa colonization, pulmonary function, and respiratory muscle strength) with the risk of hospitalization for pulmonary exacerbation in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study that included patients with CF aged 6-18 years. All participants underwent spirometry, manovacuometry, and 6MWT during the 5-year follow-up...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086849/successful-outcome-following-pneumonectomy-in-a-teenage-boy-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-case-report
#5
Zheyi Liew, Santosh Mallikarjuna, Asif Hasan, F Kate Gould, Su Bunn, Matthew F Thomas, Jim L Lordan, Christopher O'Brien, Malcolm Brodlie
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis lung disease is generally a diffuse process however rarely one lung may become particularly damaged through chronic collapse and consolidation resulting in end-stage bronchiectasis with relative sparing of the contralateral lung. This clinical situation is sometimes referred to as "destroyed lung". Lung resection surgery is seldom indicated in cystic fibrosis and the associated medical literature is relatively sparse. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14 year old boy was referred to our centre for lung transplantation assessment...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068000/strem-1-is-elevated-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-correlates-with-proteases
#6
D L Forrester, H L Barr, A Fogarty, A Knox
BACKGROUND: sTREM-1 (soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1) is a novel inflammatory marker that may be of clinical use in cystic fibrosis (CF). Dysregulation of the TREM pathway has been demonstrated in other inflammatory diseases and modulation in animal models has therapeutic benefit. We hypothesised that sTREM-1 could act as a biomarker of disease in cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Plasma from 17 patients with CF (stable and pre and post pulmonary exacerbation) and eight healthy volunteers was analyzed for sTREM-1 and proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, and human neutrophil elastase HNE)...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060284/visualizing-the-effects-of-sputum-on-biofilm-development-using-a-chambered-coverglass-model
#7
Trevor Beaudoin, Sarah Kennedy, Yvonne Yau, Valerie Waters
Biofilms consist of groups of bacteria encased in a self-secreted matrix. They play an important role in industrial contamination as well as in the development and persistence of many health related infections. One of the most well described and studied biofilms in human disease occurs in chronic pulmonary infection of cystic fibrosis patients. When studying biofilms in the context of the host, many factors can impact biofilm formation and development. In order to identify how host factors may affect biofilm formation and development, we used a static chambered coverglass method to grow biofilms in the presence of host-derived factors in the form of sputum supernatants...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058864/frequency-and-costs-of-pulmonary-exacerbations-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-united-states
#8
Jaime L Rubin, Sarah Thayer, Angela Watkins, Jeffrey S Wagener, Paul S Hodgkins, Michael S Schechter
BACKGROUND: Information is limited regarding the cost of pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) among patients with cystic fibrosis in the United States. METHODS: To examine PEx costs, medical chart data were linked to insurance claims for patients aged ≥6 years who had commercial coverage from a large US health insurer affiliated with Optum during 2008-2013. A PEx was categorized as an episode requiring newly started 1) oral antibiotics (PEx-O) or 2) intravenous (IV) antibiotics and/or inpatient stay (PEx-IV)...
January 6, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056789/evolutionary-diversification-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-artificial-sputum-model
#9
Emily V Davies, Chloe E James, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley
BACKGROUND: During chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo extensive evolutionary diversification. However, the selective drivers of this evolutionary process are poorly understood. To test the effects of temperate phages on diversification in P. aeruginosa biofilms we experimentally evolved populations of P. aeruginosa for approximately 240 generations in artificial sputum medium with or without a community of three temperate phages...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052955/hypoxia-and-sterile-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways-mechanisms-and-potential-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Samuel T Montgomery, Marcus A Mall, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive genetic diseases in Caucasian populations. Diagnosis via newborn screening and targeted nutritional and antibiotic therapy have improved outcomes, however respiratory failure remains the key cause of morbidity and mortality. Progressive respiratory disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation associated with structural airway damage leading to bronchiectasis and decreased lung function. Mucus obstruction is a characteristic early abnormality in the cystic fibrosis airway, associated with neutrophilic inflammation often in the absence of detectable infection...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050369/a-case-of-surgical-site-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-fortuitum-following-herniorrhaphy
#11
N S Madhusudhan, A Malini, Mima Maychet B Sangma
Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic pathogens found in the environment. Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M.abscessus are the important human pathogens of this group. They cause wound infections, disseminated cutaneous disease, pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis, bone and joint infections and keratitis. Infections due to these Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly reported. Post laparoscopic wound infections, mesh site infections and other surgical site infections due to M...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025037/impact-of-azithromycin-on-the-clinical-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-tobramycin-in-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Dave P Nichols, Carrie L Happoldt, Preston E Bratcher, Silvia M Caceres, James F Chmiel, Kenneth C Malcolm, Milene T Saavedra, Lisa Saiman, Jennifer L Taylor-Cousar, Jerry A Nick
BACKGROUND: Concomitant use of oral azithromycin and inhaled tobramycin occurs in approximately half of US cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent data suggest that this combination may be antagonistic. METHODS: Test the hypothesis that azithromycin reduces the clinical benefits of tobramycin by analyses of clinical trial data, in vitro modeling of P. aeruginosa antibiotic killing, and regulation of the MexXY efflux pump. RESULTS: Ongoing administration of azithromycin associates with reduced ability of inhaled tobramycin, as compared with aztreonam, to improve lung function and quality of life in a completed clinical trial...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012509/changes-in-the-inner-ear-structures-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#13
Henrique F Pauna, Rafael C Monsanto, Natsuko Kurata, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: Although prolonged use of antibiotics is very common in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, no studies have assessed the changes in both cochlear and peripheral vestibular systems in this population. METHODS: We used human temporal bones to analyze the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in specimens from CF patients who were exposed to several types of antibiotics, as compared with specimens from an age-matched control group with no history of ear disease or antibiotic use...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000919/antibiotic-treatment-for-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-lung-infection-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 40% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis leading to more a rapid decline in lung function and even death in certain circumstances...
December 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979930/draft-genome-sequences-of-40-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-strains-isolated-from-the-sputum-of-a-single-cystic-fibrosis-patient-over-an-8-year-period
#15
Irene Bianconi, Silvia D'Arcangelo, Mattia Benedet, Kate E Bailey, Alfonso Esposito, Elena Piffer, Alex Mariotto, Ermanno Baldo, Grazia Dinnella, Paola Gualdi, Michele Schinella, Claudio Donati, Olivier Jousson
We report draft genome sequences of 40 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, isolated from the sputum of a single cystic fibrosis patient over eight years. Analyses indicated a correlation between multidrug-resistant phenotypes and population structure. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms leading to acquisition of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa.
December 15, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957481/respiratory-infection-rates-differ-between-geographically-distant-paediatric-cystic-fibrosis-cohorts
#16
Kathryn A Ramsey, Emily Hart, Lidija Turkovic, Marc Padros-Goossens, Stephen M Stick, Sarath C Ranganathan
Respiratory infections are a major cause of pulmonary decline in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We compared the prevalence of infection in early life at geographically distant CF treatment centres participating in the same surveillance programme in Australia. Lower airway microbiology, inflammation and structural lung disease at annual review were evaluated for 260 children 0-8 years old with CF at 1032 visits to CF treatment centres in Melbourne or Perth. Melbourne patients were more likely to be culture-positive for common respiratory pathogens at all age groups (odds ratio (OR) 1...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922234/long-term-azithromycin-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Zeynelabidin Öztürk, Ebru Yalçın, Deniz Doğru, Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper
Inflammation is a central contributor to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease; so limiting the excessive production of inflammatory mediators represents a major therapeutic strategy for slowing the decline in lung function and improving survival. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in CF. The aim of this study was to document the long term use of AZM effect on pulmonary function, nutritional status and number of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with CF...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922232/changing-epidemiology-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#18
Semiha Bahçeci, Sait Karaman, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroğlu, Selçuk Yazıcı, Saniye Girit, Şule Ünsal-Karkıner, Demet Can
Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis again becomes a major health problem due to inappropriate antibiotic use and increasing frequency of protracted bacterial bronchitis. The aim was to determine the changes in etiology of bronchiectasis. Patients who admitted to Behçet Uz Children Hospital between 2005 and 2015 (n=110) were retrospectively examined. The etiology of bronchiectasis was detected as; primary ciliary dyskinesia 26.4%, protracted bacterial bronchitis 22.8%, primary immune deficiency 11.8%, bronchiolitis obliterans 8...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#19
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras-Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
January 2, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#20
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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