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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042177/antibiotic-exposure-and-interpersonal-variance-mask-the-effect-of-ivacaftor-on-respiratory-microbiota-composition
#1
Anton Y Peleg, Jocelyn Choo, Katherine Langan, Deirdre Edgeworth, Dominic Keating, John Wilson, Geraint B Rogers, Tom Kotsimbos
BACKGROUND: G551D is a class III mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that results in impaired chloride channel function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor, a CFTR-potentiating agent improves sweat chloride, weight, lung function, and pulmonary exacerbation rate in CF patients with G551D mutations, but its effect on the airway microbiome remains poorly characterised. METHODS: Twenty CF patients with at least one G551D mutation from a single centre were recruited to a 4month double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of ivacaftor with 28days of active treatment...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035090/early-respiratory-bacterial-detection-and-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Matthew N Hurley, Andrew Fogarty, Tricia M McKeever, Christopher H Goss, Margaret Rosenfeld, Alan R Smyth
RATIONALE: Consensus is lacking regarding anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis use for young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylaxis is recommended in the UK, but recommended against in the US. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with a decreased risk of Staphylococcus aureus acquisition, but no increased risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal observational study of children with cystic fibrosis who were recruited from birth (or their first registry entry in the period) and followed until the age of 4 years (1500 days) using UK CF Trust and US CF Foundation Registries, 2000-2009...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033313/developing-a-model-for-cystic-fibrosis-sociomicrobiology-based-on-antibiotic-and-environmental-stress
#3
Susana Patrícia Lopes, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Maria Olívia Pereira
Cystic fibrosis (CF) infections are invariably biofilm-mediated and polymicrobial, being safe to assume that a myriad of factors affects the sociomicrobiology within the CF infection site and modulate the CF community dynamics, by shaping their social activities, overall functions, virulence, ultimately affecting disease outcome. This work aimed to assess changes in the dynamics (particularly on the microbial composition) of dual-/three-species biofilms involving CF-classical (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and unusual species (Inquilinus limosus and Dolosigranulum pigrum), according to variable oxygen conditions and antibiotic exposure...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033215/treating-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-disease-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Sandy Z P Lim, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterial pathogen in the evolution of bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis. The appearance of resistant strains of pseudomonas is increasing with the earlier and more liberal use of a range of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial chest infections. The rationale for treatment and potential benefits of aggressive treatment of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from early in life are discussed.
September 1, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029070/development-and-validation-of-an-lc-tandem-ms-assay-for-the-quantification-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#5
Katrien Forier, Virginie Van Heck, Mieke Carlier, Eva Van Braeckel, Sabine Van Daele, Frans De Baets, Petra Schelstraete, Filomeen Haerynck, Veronique Stove, Leen Van Simaey, Mario Vaneechoutte, Alain G Verstraete
Objectives: Antibiotic therapy is of vital importance for the control of infectious exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, very little is known regarding the fraction of systemically administered antibiotics reaching the lower respiratory tract secretions. We developed and validated a method to measure the concentrations of piperacillin, ceftazidime, meropenem and aztreonam in CF sputum, and present the validation data. Methods: Ultra-performance LC coupled to tandem MS was used...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025281/understanding-treatment-adherence-with-the-health-belief-model-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Nicole R Dempster, Beth G Wildman, Tracy L Masterson, Gregory J Omlor
OBJECTIVE: Children's health beliefs are significantly related to their adherence; however, pediatric literature has rarely tested health-related theories as a whole. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the use of the health belief model (HBM) in understanding children's adherence, both globally and to individual treatment components. METHOD: Thirty-three patient-parent dyads completed questionnaires regarding health beliefs and adherence to medical regimens...
October 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020462/syk-inhibitor-r406-down-regulates-inflammation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#7
Alaa Alhazmi, Joshua Choi, Marina Ulanova
As Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are characterized by strong inflammation of infected tissues anti-inflammatory therapies in combination with antibiotics have been considered for the treatment of associated diseases. Syk tyrosine kinase is an important regulator of inflammatory responses, and its specific inhibition was explored as a therapeutic option in several inflammatory conditions; however, this has not been studied in bacterial infections. We used a model of in vitro infection of human monocytic cell line THP-1 and lung epithelial cell line H292 with both wild type and flagella-deficient mutant of P...
October 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018773/activity-of-bacteriophages-in-removing-biofilms-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#8
Stephanie A Fong, Amanda Drilling, Sandra Morales, Marjolein E Cornet, Bradford A Woodworth, Wytske J Fokkens, Alkis J Psaltis, Sarah Vreugde, Peter-John Wormald
Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death. Aim: To assess the activity of a phage cocktail in eradicating biofilms of ex vivo P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients. Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) across three continents were multi-locus sequence typed and tested for antibiotic resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017247/a-17-year-nationwide-study-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-in-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#9
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Brigid M Wilson, Federico Perez, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Robert A Bonomo
Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are a group of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria rarely reported in patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) or immunocompromising conditions. We investigated Bcc bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a cohort of non-CF patients from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: Using VHA databases, we identified patients with Bcc BSI at facilities nationwide from 1999 through 2015. We ascertained clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and identified factors associated with 30-day mortality in logistic regression analysis...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994899/prophylactic-antibiotics-for-preventing-pneumococcal-infection-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#10
REVIEW
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Shirley Owusu-Ofori
BACKGROUND: Persons with sickle cell disease (SCD) are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population...
October 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989817/medical-and-surgical-advancements-in-the-management-of-cystic-fibrosis-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#11
Kiranya E Tipirneni, Bradford A Woodworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide otolaryngologists with the most up-to-date advancements in both the medical and surgical management of CF-related sinus disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have supported more aggressive CRS management, often with a combination of both medical and surgical therapies. Comprehensive treatment strategies have been shown to reduce hospital admissions secondary to pulmonary exacerbations in addition to improving CRS symptoms...
March 2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984368/autogenic-drainage-for-airway-clearance-in-cystic-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Pamela McCormack, Paul Burnham, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual. It is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis...
October 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982193/cysteamine-mediated-clearance-of-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens-in-human-cystic-fibrosis-macrophages
#13
Chandra L Shrestha, Kaivon D Assani, Hannah Rinehardt, Florentina Albastroiu, Shuzhong Zhang, Richard Shell, Amal O Amer, Larry S Schlesinger, Benjamin T Kopp
Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2), which causes the sequestration (accumulation) of essential autophagy initiating proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981972/standard-versus-biofilm-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-guide-antibiotic-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: The antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis are typically chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974743/targeting-the-alternative-sigma-factor-rpon-to-combat-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Megan G Lloyd, Benjamin R Lundgren, Clayton W Hall, Luke B-P Gagnon, Thien-Fah Mah, Jennifer F Moffat, Christopher T Nomura
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that infects immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. Treatment is difficult due to antibiotic resistance, and new antimicrobials are needed to treat infections. The alternative sigma factor 54 (σ(54), RpoN), regulates many virulence-associated genes. Thus, we evaluated inhibition of virulence in P. aeruginosa by a designed peptide (RpoN molecular roadblock, RpoN*) which binds specifically to RpoN consensus promoters. We expected that RpoN* binding to its consensus promoter sites would repress gene expression and thus virulence by blocking RpoN and/or other transcription factors...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970943/towards-individualized-diagnostics-of-biofilm-associated-infections-a-case-study
#16
Mathias Müsken, Kathi Klimmek, Annette Sauer-Heilborn, Monique Donnert, Ludwig Sedlacek, Sebastian Suerbaum, Susanne Häussler
Organized within biofilm communities, bacteria exhibit resistance towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, one might argue that bacteria isolated from biofilm-associated chronic infections should be subjected to resistance profiling under biofilm growth conditions. Various test systems have been developed to determine the biofilm-associated resistance; however, it is not clear to what extent the in vitro results reflect the situation in vivo, and whether the biofilm-resistance profile should guide clinicians in their treatment choice...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965267/exercise-performance-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-mildly-impaired-lung-function-relation-with-antibiotic-treatments-and-hospitalization
#17
Kristof Vandekerckhove, Michiel Keyzer, Jasper Cornette, Ilse Coomans, Filip Pyl, Frans De Baets, Petra Schelstraete, Filomeen Haerynck, Daniel De Wolf, Sabine Van Daele, Jan Boone
This study evaluates the impact of antibiotic treatments and hospitalization on exercise performance and health-related quality of life (QOL) in children with mild cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Forty-seven children between 7 and 17 years with mild CF underwent a maximal exercise test including spiro-ergometry and filled out a QOL-questionnaire (PedsQL™). Amount of antibiotic treatments (AB) and hospitalization days in the last 3 years were reviewed. FEV1% was mildly decreased (91.7 ± 17.9 L/min, p = 0...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965047/physicochemical-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalation-system-containing-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#18
Keyhaneh Karimi, Gábor Katona, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus
Antibiotic delivery in form of dry powder inhalation has been studied for possible clinical treatment of respiratory tract infection in the recent years. Dry powder inhalation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) assures local antibacterial activity and comfort of easy application. The aim of this work was to test the stability of co-spray-dried CIP in carrier free system. Since the microparticles in the dry powder system are amorphous and do not contain any stabilizer, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the physicochemical properties and aerosolization behavior are very important...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964265/incidental-late-diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis-following-ah1n1-influenza-virus-pneumonia-a-case-report
#19
Carlo Iadevaia, Paola Iacotucci, Vincenzo Carnovale, Cecilia Calabrese, Gaetano Rea, Nicola Ferrara, Fabio Perrotta, Gennaro Mazzarella, Andrea Bianco
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic progressive multisystem involvement. AH1N1 virus infections caused classic influenza symptoms in the majority of cystic fibrosis patients while others experienced severe outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of late incidental cystic fibrosis diagnosis in a young Caucasian man suffering from respiratory failure following infection due to AH1N1 influenza virus. The patient was admitted to our department with fever, cough, and dyspnea at rest unresponsive to antibiotics CONCLUSIONS: Late diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in uncommon...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964261/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-pathogens-in-bronchiectasis-exacerbations
#20
Rosario Menéndez, Raúl Méndez, Eva Polverino, Edmundo Rosales-Mayor, Isabel Amara-Elori, Soledad Reyes, José Miguel Sahuquillo-Arce, Laia Fernández-Barat, Victoria Alcaraz, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is a chronic structural lung condition that courses with recurrent infectious exacerbations that lead to frequent antibiotic treatment making this population more susceptible to acquire pathogens with antibiotic resistance. We aimed to investigate risk factors associated with isolation of multidrug-resistant pathogens in bronchiectasis exacerbations. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in two tertiary-care hospitals, enrolling patients when first exacerbation appeared...
September 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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