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Commercial sexual exploitation

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November 19, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Pamela T Avila
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.
September 27, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Julia M Geynisman-Tan, Jolyn S Taylor, Terri Edersheim, Debra Taubel
Trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world. This is a public health crisis and, as physicians who have direct contact with victims, we have a unique opportunity to intervene. The authors developed a specialty clinic for survivors of sex trafficking in 2013 at an academic medical center in New York City. Twenty of the 24 women seen in the Survivor Clinic saw a physician while being trafficked. Sex trafficking violates basic human rights, including the rights to bodily integrity, dignity, health and freedom from violence and torture...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lisa Fedina, Celia Williamson, Tasha Perdue
Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Beth Sapiro, Laura Johnson, Judy L Postmus, Cassandra Simmel
Domestic-minor sex trafficking (DMST) continues to affect youth in the United States; however, lack of empirical evidence for interventions and the complex sociopolitical discourses surrounding sex trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) hamper delivery of effective services to this population. To explore perspectives on best practices with these young people, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders whose work provides them with a unique vantage point on the needs and experiences of survivors of DMST in New Jersey...
August 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Brandi D Liles, Dawn M Blacker, Jenny L Landini, Anthony J Urquiza
Research suggests that 90% of youth in the juvenile justice system have experienced at least one traumatic event (Arroyo, ). One such traumatic event is the commercialized sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC). Over the past decade, governmental organizations and community agencies have recognized that the sexual exploitation of children is a significant problem in the United States. In California alone, human trafficking task forces have identified 1200 youth as victims of sexual exploitation from 2010 to 2012 (Walker, )...
January 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Ann Cale Kruger, Erin Harper, Faith Zabek, Staeshe Collins, Catherine Perkins, Joel Meyers
The challenges of developing and researching a school-based prevention program using the participatory culture-specific intervention model are described here. We outline the problem of commercial sexual exploitation of children that motivated our project and the characteristics of students most at risk (African American girls in middle school). We provide an analysis of the factors that can facilitate creation and implementation of similar prevention programs in schools. These factors include establishing partnerships with community resources, including school insiders, and establishing trust, especially with students placed at risk...
July 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Carla D G Borges, Stephen J Hawkins, Tasman P Crowe, C Patrick Doncaster
Grazing mollusks are used as a food resource worldwide, and limpets are harvested commercially for both local consumption and export in several countries. This study describes a field experiment to assess the effects of simulated human exploitation of limpets Patella vulgata on their population ecology in terms of protandry (age-related sex change from male to female), growth, recruitment, migration, and density regulation. Limpet populations at two locations in southwest England were artificially exploited by systematic removal of the largest individuals for 18 months in plots assigned to three treatments at each site: no (control), low, and high exploitation...
January 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Molly Murphy, Nicole Bennett, Melissa Kottke
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a persistent problem in the United States, yet few youth-oriented CSEC prevention tools exist. The objectives of this project were to develop an educational website about CSEC for adolescents and evaluate it through pre- and posttests of adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about CSEC. Results demonstrated increases in participants' CSEC knowledge and decreases in their tolerance of CSEC after navigating the website and viewing an embedded video. Qualitative and quantitative results suggest that CSEC is deemed an important issue by adolescents and web-based content is a relevant and useful mode through which to educate adolescents about CSEC...
2016: Violence and Victims
V Jordan Greenbaum, Martha Dodd, Courtney McCracken
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of commercial sexual exploitation of children/child sex trafficking (CSEC/CST) victims and to develop a screening tool to identify victims among a high-risk adolescent population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 12 to 18 years who presented to 1 of 3 metropolitan pediatric emergency departments or 1 child protection clinic and who were identified as victims of CSEC/CST were compared with similar-aged patients with allegations of acute sexual assault/sexual abuse (ASA) without evidence of CSEC/CST...
November 23, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Nick Dawnay, Rebecca Hughes, Denise Syndercombe Court, Nicola Duxbury
Identifying individual species or determining species' composition in an unknown sample is important for a variety of forensic applications. Food authentication, monitoring illegal trade in endangered species, forensic entomology, sexual assault case work and counter terrorism are just some of the fields that can require the detection of the biological species present. Traditional laboratory based approaches employ a wide variety of tools and technologies and exploit a number of different species specific traits including morphology, molecular differences and immuno-chemical analyses...
January 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Elizabeth S Barnert, Susan Abrams, Veronica F Azzi, Gery Ryan, Robert Brook, Paul J Chung
Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws...
January 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michelle DeCoux Hampton, Kate Shade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Arturo Garrocho-Rangel, Raúl Márquez-Preciado, Ana-Isabel Olguín-Vivar, Socorro Ruiz-Rodríguez, Amaury Pozos-Guillén
According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is "every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power". The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Tonya Chaffee, Abigail English
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex trafficking of adolescents and young adults is both a human rights violation and a public health problem, globally and in the United States. Healthcare providers, including obstetricians and gynecologists, interact with victims, often while they remain under their traffickers' control, but because of providers' lack of training in identification and response many victims go unrecognized and unaided. This review provides an overview of the definitions of sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, contributing factors, health consequences, recruitment of victims, and identification and response by healthcare providers...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Angela Duger
The commercial sexual exploitation of children ("CSEC") is an egregious human rights and public health violation that occurs every day across the US. Although there has been positive change in the US to bring attention to CSEC and to reform laws and policies to assist CSEC victims, scant attention and resources have been dedicated to prevention efforts. This paper critiques current US strategies to address CSEC and highlights the limitations of an interventionist framework that narrows its focus to anti-trafficking efforts...
2015: Health and Human Rights
Stella Regina Taquette, Adriana de Oliveira Rodrigues, Livia Rocha Bortolotti
`The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature...
July 2015: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
G S Sancinetti, A Azevedo, A L Castilho, A Fransozo, R C Costa
This study characterized the population biology of the dendrobranchiate penaeid shrimp Artemesia longinaris Spence Bate, 1888, focusing on population structure, sexual maturity, reproductive period and recruitment, and comparing reproductive parameters of a different populations along western South Atlantic. Samples were collected monthly from March, 2008 to February, 2010 in Macaé, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, a region influenced by the Cabo Frio upwelling. There was a significantly higher percentage of females and with larger sizes than males...
May 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Richard J Chung, Abigail English
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the current state of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of adolescents in the United States and globally, the legal and health implications of this severe form of abuse, and the roles that pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers can play in addressing this issue. Although this form of exploitation and abuse is shrouded in secrecy, pediatric and adolescent healthcare providers are well positioned to respond when it arises. However, awareness and understanding of the issue are generally lacking among healthcare professionals, currently limiting their effectiveness in combating this problem...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Dawn Bounds, Wrenetha A Julion, Kathleen R Delaney
In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels...
February 2015: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
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