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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331582/lifetime-fitness-consequences-of-early-life-ecological-hardship-in-a-wild-mammal-population
#1
Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Francis Mwanguhya, Robert Businge, Solomon Kyabulima, Michelle C Hares, Emma Inzani, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kenneth Mwesige, Hazel J Nichols, Jennifer L Sanderson, Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant
Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286350/maternal-natal-environment-and-breeding-territory-predict-the-condition-and-sex-ratio-of-offspring
#2
E Keith Bowers, Charles F Thompson, Scott K Sakaluk
Females in a variety of taxa adjust offspring sex ratios to prevailing ecological conditions. However, little is known about whether conditions experienced during a female's early ontogeny influence the sex ratio of her offspring. We tested for past and present ecological predictors of offspring sex ratios among known-age females that were produced as offspring and bred as adults in a population of house wrens. The body condition of offspring that a female produced and the proportion of her offspring that were male were negatively correlated with the size of the brood in which she herself was reared...
March 2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284587/multiple-unintended-pregnancies-in-u-s-women-a-systematic-review
#3
E Angel Aztlan-James, Monica McLemore, Diana Taylor
BACKGROUND: Each year, nearly one-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Risk factors of unintended pregnancy have been studied without attention to whether the pregnancy was the woman's first unintended pregnancy or whether she had had more than one. Little is known about the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for multiple unintended pregnancies. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the extant literature on the risk factors for multiple unintended pregnancies in women in the United States, and whether these factors are specific to multiple unintended pregnancies...
March 8, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240356/density-dependent-selection-on-mate-search-and-evolution-of-allee-effects
#4
Luděk Berec, Andrew M Kramer, Veronika Bernhauerová, John M Drake
Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239017/reducing-risky-sex-among-rural-african-american-cocaine-users-a-controlled-trial
#5
Katharine E Stewart, Patricia B Wright, Brooke E Montgomery, Donna Gullette, Leavonne Pulley, Songthip Ounpraseuth, Jeff Thostenson, Brenda Booth
Rural African American cocaine users experience high rates of STIs/HIV. This NIDA-funded trial tested an adapted evidence-based risk reduction program versus an active control condition. Participants were 251 African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas recruited from 2009-2011. Outcomes included condom use skills and self-efficacy, sexual negotiation skills, peer norms, and self-reported risk behavior. The intervention group experienced greater increases in condom use skills and overall effectiveness in sexual negotiation skills...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237196/using-cost-effectiveness-analysis-to-address-health-equity-concerns
#6
Richard Cookson, Andrew J Mirelman, Susan Griffin, Miqdad Asaria, Bryony Dawkins, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Stéphane Verguet, Anthony J Culyer
This articles serves as a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to address health equity concerns. We first introduce the "equity impact plane," a tool for considering trade-offs between improving total health-the objective underpinning conventional CEA-and equity objectives, such as reducing social inequality in health or prioritizing the severely ill. Improving total health may clash with reducing social inequality in health, for example, when effective delivery of services to disadvantaged communities requires additional costs...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229245/drug-use-and-sexual-hiv-transmission-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-women-msmw-men-who-have-sex-with-men-only-msmo-and-men-who-have-sex-with-women-only-mswo-and-the-female-partners-of-msmw-and-mswo-a-network-perspective
#7
Typhanye V Dyer, Maria R Khan, Milagros Sandoval, Abenaa Acheampong, Rotrease Regan, Melissa Bolyard, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Samuel R Friedman
We described drug use, sex risk, and STI/HIV among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and their female partners. We used the Network, Norms and HIV/STI Risk among Youth (NNAHRAY) study to evaluate drug use, sex risk, and biologically-confirmed STI/HIV in (1) MSMW and men who had sex with men only (MSMO) versus men who had sex with women only (MSWO) and (2) female partners of MSMW versus female partners of MSWO (N = 182 men, 152 women). MSMW versus MSWO had 30 to 60% increased odds of substance use, over twice the odds of multiple partnerships, and almost five times the odds of sex trade and HIV infection...
February 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#8
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220080/validation-of-a-method-for-the-assessment-of-urinary-neopterin-levels-to-monitor-health-status-in-non-human-primate-species
#9
Verena Behringer, Jeroen M G Stevens, Fabian H Leendertz, Gottfried Hohmann, Tobias Deschner
Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1-type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217865/caching-reduces-kleptoparasitism-in-a-solitary-large-felid
#10
Guy A Balme, Jennifer R B Miller, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
Food caching is a common strategy used by a diversity of animals, including carnivores, to store and/or secure food. Despite its prevalence, the drivers of caching behaviour, and its impacts on individuals, remain poorly understood, particularly for short-term food cachers. Leopards Panthera pardus exhibit a unique form of short-term food caching, regularly hoisting, storing, and consuming prey in trees. We explored the factors motivating such behaviour among leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa, associated with four not mutually exclusive hypotheses: food-perishability, consumption-time, resource-pulse, and kleptoparasitism-avoidance...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202650/contrasting-effects-of-increased-yolk-testosterone-content-on-development-and-oxidative-status-in-gull-embryos
#11
Marco Parolini, Andrea Romano, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Hormone-mediated maternal effects generate variation in offspring phenotype. In birds, maternal egg testosterone (T) exerts differential effects on offspring traits after hatching, suggesting that mothers experience a trade-off between contrasting T effects. However, there is very little information on T pre-natal effects. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), we increased yolk T concentration within physiological limits and measured the effects on development and oxidative status of late-stage embryos...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#12
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181338/partitioning-of-resources-the-evolutionary-genetics-of-sexual-conflict-over-resource-acquisition-and-allocation
#14
Felix Zajitschek, Timothy Connallon
Fitness depends on both the resources that individuals acquire and the allocation of those resources to traits that influence survival and reproduction. Optimal resource allocation differs between females and males as a consequence of their fundamentally different reproductive strategies. However, because most traits have a common genetic basis between the sexes, conflicting selection between the sexes over resource allocation can constrain the evolution of optimal allocation within each sex, and generate trade-offs for fitness between them (i...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174018/evolving-plastic-responses-to-external-and-genetic-environments
#15
Max Reuter, M Florencia Camus, Mark S Hill, Filip Ruzicka, Kevin Fowler
Phenotypic plasticity can mitigate adaptive trade-offs in fluctuating environments but how plasticity arises is little known. New research documents this process in a bacterial system. We highlight remarkable parallels to the evolution of sexual dimorphism and argue that their approach can aid our understanding of adaptive conflicts between the sexes.
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169185/reproductive-medicine-in-freshwater-turtles-and-land-tortoises
#16
REVIEW
Sean M Perry, Mark A Mitchell
Chelonian reproductive medicine is an extremely important facet to ensuring captive populations for the pet trade and conservation efforts around the globe. This review covers basic chelonian reproductive anatomy and physiology, natural history, behavior, and sexing chelonians, in addition to discussing reproductive disorders that are commonly seen by veterinarians. Reproductive disorders covered include infertility, dystocia, follicular stasis, egg yolk coelomitis, phallus prolapse, and reproductive neoplasia...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-among-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#17
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135632/elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-posttraumatic-stress-pathology-among-survivors-of-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attacks
#18
Rebecca L Rosen, Nomi Levy-Carrick, Joan Reibman, Ning Xu, Yongzhao Shao, Mengling Liu, Lucia Ferri, Angeliki Kazeros, Caralee E Caplan-Shaw, Deepak R Pradhan, Michael Marmor, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation has emerged as a promising marker and potential mechanism underlying post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between posttraumatic stress pathology and systemic inflammation has not, however, been consistently replicated and is potentially confounded by comorbid illness or injury, common complications of trauma exposure. METHODS: We analyzed a large naturalistic cohort sharing a discrete physical and mental health trauma from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001 (n = 641)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116586/hiv-related-sexual-risk-among-african-american-men-preceding-incarceration-associations-with-support-from-significant-others-family-and-friends
#19
Ashley M Coatsworth, Joy D Scheidell, David A Wohl, Nicole E Whitehead, Carol E Golin, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (<median value) and participants' sex risk in the 6 months before incarceration...
February 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110108/boys-are-not-exempt-sexual-exploitation-of-adolescents-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Jones K Adjei, Elizabeth M Saewyc
Research on youth sexual exploitation in Africa has largely neglected the experiences of exploited boys. To date, much of the research in sub-Saharan Africa continues to consider boys mainly as exploiters but not as exploited. Using the only publicly available population-based surveys from the National Survey of Adolescents, conducted in four sub-Saharan African countries - Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda-we assessed factors associated with transactional sexual behaviour among never-married adolescent boys and girls...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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