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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202650/contrasting-effects-of-increased-yolk-testosterone-content-on-development-and-oxidative-status-in-gull-embryos
#1
Marco Parolini, Andrea Romano, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Hormone-mediated maternal effects generate variation in offspring phenotype. In birds, maternal egg testosterone (T) exerts differential effects on offspring traits after hatching, suggesting that mothers experience a trade-off between contrasting T effects. However, there is very little information on T pre-natal effects. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), we increased yolk T concentration within physiological limits and measured the effects on development and oxidative status of late-stage embryos...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#2
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190728/juvenile-hormone-suppresses-resistance-to-infection-in-mated-female-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Robin A Schwenke, Brian P Lazzaro
Hormonal signaling provides metazoans with the ability to regulate development, growth, metabolism, immune defense, and reproduction in response to internal and external stimuli. The use of hormones as central regulators of physiology makes them prime candidates for mediating allocation of resources to competing biological functions (i.e., hormonal pleiotropy) [1]. In animals, reproductive effort often results in weaker immune responses (e.g., [2-4]), and this reduction is sometimes linked to hormone signaling (see [5-7])...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181338/partitioning-of-resources-the-evolutionary-genetics-of-sexual-conflict-over-resource-acquisition-and-allocation
#4
Felix Zajitschek, Timothy Connallon
Fitness depends on both the resources that individuals acquire and the allocation of those resources to traits that influence survival and reproduction. Optimal resource allocation differs between females and males as a consequence of their fundamentally different reproductive strategies. However, because most traits have a common genetic basis between the sexes, conflicting selection between the sexes over resource allocation can constrain the evolution of optimal allocation within each sex, and generate trade-offs for fitness between them (i...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174018/evolving-plastic-responses-to-external-and-genetic-environments
#5
Max Reuter, M Florencia Camus, Mark S Hill, Filip Ruzicka, Kevin Fowler
Phenotypic plasticity can mitigate adaptive trade-offs in fluctuating environments but how plasticity arises is little known. New research documents this process in a bacterial system. We highlight remarkable parallels to the evolution of sexual dimorphism and argue that their approach can aid our understanding of adaptive conflicts between the sexes.
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169185/reproductive-medicine-in-freshwater-turtles-and-land-tortoises
#6
REVIEW
Sean M Perry, Mark A Mitchell
Chelonian reproductive medicine is an extremely important facet to ensuring captive populations for the pet trade and conservation efforts around the globe. This review covers basic chelonian reproductive anatomy and physiology, natural history, behavior, and sexing chelonians, in addition to discussing reproductive disorders that are commonly seen by veterinarians. Reproductive disorders covered include infertility, dystocia, follicular stasis, egg yolk coelomitis, phallus prolapse, and reproductive neoplasia...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167809/exercise-training-reveals-trade-offs-among-endurance-performance-and-immune-function-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-lizards
#7
Jerry F Husak, Jordan C Roy, Matthew B Lovern
Acquired energetic resources allocated to a particular trait cannot then be re-allocated to a different trait. This often results in a trade-off between survival and reproduction for the adults of many species, but such a trade-off may be manifested differently in juveniles not yet capable of reproduction. Whereas adults may allocate resources to current and/or future reproduction, juveniles can only allocate to future reproduction. Thus, juveniles should allocate resources toward traits that increase survival and their chances of future reproductive success...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135632/elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-posttraumatic-stress-pathology-among-survivors-of-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attacks
#8
Rebecca L Rosen, Nomi Levy-Carrick, Joan Reibman, Ning Xu, Yongzhao Shao, Mengling Liu, Lucia Ferri, Angeliki Kazeros, Caralee E Caplan-Shaw, Deepak R Pradhan, Michael Marmor, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation has emerged as a promising marker and potential mechanism underlying post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between posttraumatic stress pathology and systemic inflammation has not, however, been consistently replicated and is potentially confounded by comorbid illness or injury, common complications of trauma exposure. METHODS: We analyzed a large naturalistic cohort sharing a discrete physical and mental health trauma from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001 (n = 641)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116586/hiv-related-sexual-risk-among-african-american-men-preceding-incarceration-associations-with-support-from-significant-others-family-and-friends
#9
Ashley M Coatsworth, Joy D Scheidell, David A Wohl, Nicole E Whitehead, Carol E Golin, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (<median value) and participants' sex risk in the 6 months before incarceration...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110108/boys-are-not-exempt-sexual-exploitation-of-adolescents-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Jones K Adjei, Elizabeth M Saewyc
Research on youth sexual exploitation in Africa has largely neglected the experiences of exploited boys. To date, much of the research in sub-Saharan Africa continues to consider boys mainly as exploiters but not as exploited. Using the only publicly available population-based surveys from the National Survey of Adolescents, conducted in four sub-Saharan African countries - Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda-we assessed factors associated with transactional sexual behaviour among never-married adolescent boys and girls...
January 18, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107164/decreasing-human-trafficking-through-sex-work-decriminalization
#11
Erin Albright, Kate D'Adamo
In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104511/serum-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-children-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-disaster
#12
Leonardo Trasande, Tony T Koshy, Joseph Gilbert, Lauren K Burdine, Teresa M Attina, Akhgar Ghassabian, Masato Honda, Michael Marmor, Dinh Binh Chu, Xiaoxia Han, Yongzhao Shao, Kurunthachalam Kannan
The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the environment, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Yet, no studies have examined exposures in children living or attending schools near the disaster site. We measured serum PFASs in WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) respondents who were ≤8 years of age on September 11, 2001 and a sociodemographically-matched comparison group. We also examined the relationship of PFASs levels with dust cloud exposure; home dust exposure, and with traumatic exposure, the latter to take into account differences related to possible mental health consequences and associated behavioral problems...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102112/dutiful-daughters-hiv-aids-moral-pragmatics-female-citizenship-and-structural-violence-among-devadasis-in-northern-karnataka-india
#13
Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077933/bayespop-probabilistic-population-projections
#14
Hana Ševčíková, Adrian E Raftery
We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids...
December 2016: Journal of Statistical Software
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074860/sex-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-survival-and-breeding-success-in-a-long-lived-endangered-avian-scavenger
#15
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, David Serrano, Guillermo Blanco, Olga Ceballos, Juan M Grande, José L Tella, José A Donázar
In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060225/association-between-menopause-and-unprotected-sex-in-high-risk-hiv-positive-women-in-mombasa-kenya
#16
Marielle S Goyette, Kate S Wilson, Ruth Deya, Linnet N Masese, Juma Shafi, Barbra A Richardson, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Walter Jaoko, R Scott McClelland
OBJECTIVE: Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared to premenopausal visits. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive women ≥16 years old in Mombasa, Kenya...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017185/failure-to-get-into-substance-abuse-treatment
#17
Dennis G Fisher, Grace L Reynolds, Laura H D'Anna, David W Hosmer, Kholoud Hardan-Khalil
Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959638/comparison-of-vascular-plugs-and-pushable-coils-for-variceal-embolization-after-tips
#18
Ammar Sarwar, Anthony M Esparaz, Elliot B Tapper, Olga R Brook, Douglas Grunwald, Raza Malik, Muneeb Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with variceal embolization is routinely performed to treat variceal bleeding. Embolization using vascular plugs is reported, but outcomes are not known. Outcomes and material costs of embolization using vascular plugs and coils are compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center's medical records of TIPS procedures (May 2003-December 2014) with variceal embolization were reviewed. Twenty patients with vascular plug embolization (age [± SD], 50 ± 10 years; seven men and 13 women; median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD], 20; interquartile range [IQR], 14-23) were compared with an age-, sex-, and MELD-matched cohort who underwent coil embolization (age, 50 ± 9 years; seven men and 13 women; median MELD, 17; IQR, 15-19; p = 0...
December 13, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940536/residential-area-and-physical-activity-a-multi-level-study-of-68-000-adults-in-stockholm-county
#19
Anna C Svensson, Joanna Stjernschantz Forsberg, Dominika Seblova, Anton Lager
AIM: To determine whether there are systematic differences in physical activity between residential areas after extensive control for sociodemographic factors at the individual level. METHODS: Multi-level regressions of walking/bicycling, sedentary activities, household work and exercise were carried out in a representative sample of 68,303 adults in 39 residential areas in Stockholm County, first adjusting at the individual level for country of birth, sex, age, education, occupational class and income...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935803/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-cervical-cancer-incidence-highlights-need-for-targeted-prevention-in-songkhla-province-thailand
#20
Jun Zhao, Shama Virani, Hutcha Sriplung
BACKGROUND: The national cervical cancer screening program in Thailand has been successful in reducing overall burden from this disease. However, evaluation on spatial and temporal scales is needed to assess the efficacy of this program in smaller regions. Here, we geographically assess incidence in a province with a uniquely heterogeneous distribution of lifestyle factors associated with religiosity. METHODS: Cervical cancer cases were extracted from the provincial cancer registry from 1989 to 2013...
October 25, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
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