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Trading sex

Kwan Hyung Yi
Background: Due to an increasing number of workers aged 50 years and above, the number of those employed is also on the rise, and those workers aged 50 and over has exceeded 50% of the total fatal occupational injuries. Therefore, it is necessary to implement the selection and concentration by identifying the characteristics of high-risk groups necessary for an effective prevention against and reduction of fatal occupational injuries. Methods: This study analyzed the characteristics of high-risk groups and the occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 workers among the workers aged 50 and over through a multi-dimensional analysis by sex, employment status of workers, industry and occupation by targeting 4,079 persons who died in fatal occupational injuries from January 2007 to December 12...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Brian P Tanis, Bradley Bott, Brian J Gaston
Anti-predator behaviors like vigilance or hiding come at the expense of other fitness increasing behaviors such as foraging. To compensate for this trade-off, prey assess predation risk and modify the frequency of anti-predator behaviors according to the likelihood of the threat. In this study, we tested the ability of house crickets ( Acheta domesticus ) to indirectly assess predation risk via odors from a mammalian predator, Elliot's short-tailed shrew ( Blarina hylophaga ). As natural differences in encounter rates and predation risk differs between sexes, we tested if male and female crickets perceive similar rates of predation risk from the presence of shrew odor measured via anti-predator behavioral response...
2018: PeerJ
Jean J Schensul, Kim E Radda, Candace Corbeil
This paper explores the behaviours and meanings associated with intimacy and sexuality among older adults with diverse partners living in subsidised senior housing. It utilises survey and qualitative data from a mixed methods of ageing/HIV exposure to illustrate gendered views on sexual and intimate behaviours, and attitudes towards transactional/commercial sex. Data suggest that women were cautious about engaging in intimate relationships, while men sought them and the companionship they provided to address loneliness...
June 18, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Winston Tan
The voltage-dependent protein SLC26a5 (prestin) underlies outer hair cell electromotility (eM), which is responsible for cochlear amplification in mammals. The electrical signature of eM is a bell-shaped nonlinear capacitance (NLC), deriving from prestin sensor-charge (Qp ) movements, which peaks at the membrane voltage, Vh , where charge is distributed equally on either side of the membrane. Voltage dependencies of NLC and eM differ depending on interrogation frequency and intracellular chloride, revealing slow intermediate conformational transitions between anion binding and voltage-driven Qp movements...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zoltán Rádai, Zoltán Németh, Zoltán Barta
Previous studies on arthropods showed that seasonality and parity in breeding considerably impact the direction of sex differences in immunocompetence, and it has been suggested that life span and the time window available for breeding play key roles in shaping sex-differences in immunity. One proposed mechanism behind this phenomenon is differential investment into life history traits in sexes. Here, we tested whether in a seasonally breeding semelparous arthropod sexes differ in their immunocompetence, predicting that females would show weaker immune response than males...
June 7, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
T J Wade, Justin Mogilski
Prior research examining mate expulsion indicates that women are more likely to expel a mate due to deficits in emotional access while men are more likely to expel a mate due to deficits in sexual access. Prior research highlights the importance of accounting for measurement limitations (e.g., the use of incremental vs. forced-choice measures) when assessing attitudes toward sexual and emotional infidelity, Sagarin et al., 2012, Wade and Brown, 2012). The present research uses conjoint analysis, a novel methodology for controlling several limitations of using continuous self-report measures in mate expulsion research...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Eric R Pedersen, Joan S Tucker, David J Klein, Layla Parast
OBJECTIVE: Homeless youth are a population in need of housing assistance and case management, as well as services to address behavioral health problems. This study examines youth's perceived need for and receipt of services through drop-in centers. DATA SOURCE: Surveys of 273 homeless youth. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. EXTRACTION METHODS: Descriptive analyses with bivariate and multivariable regression models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: About one-third to half of the sample met criteria for behavioral health problems, yet half or less of those meeting criteria reported a need for services targeting the problems...
June 3, 2018: Health Services Research
Sung-Hyun Hong, Jae-Yeon Lee, Sun-Kyeong Park, Jin Hyun Nam, Hyun Jin Song, Sun-Young Park, Eui-Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Utility provides a preference for specific health state in economic evaluation, and they obtained from general population could be useful in respect of societal resource allocation. We aimed to investigate the utilities of health states for heart failure (HF), a major and growing public health problem, related to hospitalization and adverse drug effects by interrogating the general Korean population. METHODS: Five health states for patients with HF were developed based on literature reviews: stable chronic heart failure (SCHF), hospitalization, SCHF + cough, SCHF + hypotension, and SCHF + hyperkalemia...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Marie-Anne Boujaoude, Andrew J Mirelman, Kim Dalziel, Natalie Carvalho
Background: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is frequently used as an input for guiding priority setting in health. However, CEA seldom incorporates information about trade-offs between total health gains and equity impacts of interventions. This study investigates to what extent equity considerations have been taken into account in CEA in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using rotavirus vaccination as a case study. Methods: Specific equity-related indicators for vaccination were first mapped to the Guidance on Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health) checklist criteria...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Yasmin ElTahir, Al Ghalya Al Toobi, Waleed Al-Marzooqi, Osman Mahgoub, Maryne Jay, Yannick Corde, Hadi Al Lawati, Shekar Bose, Abeer Al Hamrashdi, Kaadhia Al Kharousi, Nasseb Al-Saqri, Rudaina Al Busaidi, Eugene H Johnson
Brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases and has significant public health and economic importance worldwide. Few studies and reports have been performed to estimate the true prevalence of animal brucellosis in the Sultanate of Oman; however, no incidence of the disease was previously reported in Al Jabal Al Akhdar. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of brucellosis in goats in eight villages in Al Jebal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman, namely: Al Aqaieb, Al Helailat, Al Ghilayil, Hail Al Hedap, Da'an Al Hamra, Shnoot, Al Qasha'e and Al Sarah, Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the Sultanate of Oman...
May 23, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Lianne A Urada, Laramie R Smith, Jennifer Yore, Daniel P Triplett, Christopher Hucks-Ortiz, Anita Raj
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are more likely to have a history of trading sex, but little research has examined whether trading sex is associated with lower health care utilization amongst PLWH. This study assesses this association with PLWH (N = 583) recruited and surveyed from seven community sites in six US cities participating in a multi-site community-based HIV test and treat initiative. Participants were 90.6% Black or Latino, 30.4% homeless, and 9.0% (1 in 11) sold sex (past 90 days). Most reported receiving HIV clinical care (63...
May 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jenjit Khudamrongsawat, Kanyamas Nakchamnan, Phadet Laithong, Chalita Kongrit
The illegal wildlife trade, especially of live animals, is a major threat to slow lorises. Large numbers of confiscated slow lorises are sent to rescue facilities. We aimed to describe the occurrence and types of abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs) in 36 confiscated Bengal slow lorises (Nycticebus bengalensis), and examined factors influencing the occurrence of ARBs. We recorded behaviours of the slow lorises using instantaneous scans every 5 min from 19: 00 to 06: 00 h, and observed 6 types of ARBs in 14 (38...
May 7, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Pei-Jen L Shaner, Ai-Yun Yu, Shou-Hsien Li, Ching-Ho Hou
Food and parasitism can have complex effects on small mammal reproduction. In this study, we tested the effects of sex, food, and parasitism on reproductive performance of the Taiwan field mouse ( Apodemus semotus ). In a field experiment, we increased food availability for a portion of the mice in the population by providing sorghum seeds to a set of food stations. We reduced parasite intensity of randomly chosen mice through ivermectin treatment. We determined the number and quality of offspring for the mice using paternity analysis...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Sabine Hummert, Christina Glock, Stefan N Lang, Christian Hummert, Christine Skerka, Peter F Zipfel, Sebastian Germerodt, Stefan Schuster
As a part of the complement system, factor H regulates phagocytosis and helps differentiate between a body's own and foreign cells. Owing to mimicry efforts, some pathogenic microorganisms such as Candida albicans are able to bind factor H on their cell surfaces and, thus, become similar to host cells. This implies that the decision between self and foreign is not clear-cut, which leads to a classification problem for the immune system. Here, two different alleles determining the binding affinity of factor H are relevant...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Guillaume Sallé, Sławomir Kornaś, Marta Basiaga
BACKGROUND: Equine strongyles are a major health issue. Large strongyles can cause death of horses while cyathostomins (small strongyles) have shown increased resistance to anthelmintics worldwide. Description of strongyle communities have accumulated but little is known about the diversity of these communities and underpinning environmental factors. METHODS: Strongyles were recovered after ivermectin treatment from 48 horses located in six premises in Poland. Correlation between previously published species fecundity and the observed relative abundance and prevalence were estimated...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bart P S Nieuwenhuis, Sergio Tusso, Pernilla Bjerling, Josefine Stångberg, Jochen B W Wolf, Simone Immler
Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes requires the fusion of two compatible gametes of opposite sexes or mating types. To meet the challenge of finding a mating partner with compatible gametes, evolutionary mechanisms such as hermaphroditism and self-fertilization have repeatedly evolved. Here, by combining the insights from comparative genomics, computer simulations and experimental evolution in fission yeast, we shed light on the conditions promoting separate mating types or self-compatibility by mating-type switching...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Samuel K Muchemi, Claus P W Zebitz, Christian Borgemeister, Komivi S Akutse, Caroline N Foba, Sunday Ekesi, Komi K M Fiaboe
Liriomyza spp., leafminer flies (Mik; Diptera: Agromyzidae), are economically important quarantine pests that puncture and mine leaves and fruits of various horticultural crops worldwide, affecting yield and trade. Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a key parasitoid from the pests' areas of origin in South America, was introduced as a potential alternative management strategy. Prior to H. arduine release, its potential interactions with the dominant local ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were assessed...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Nadine Ezard, Beatrice Webb, Brendan Clifford, Michael E Cecilio, Amanda Jellie, Toby Lea, Craig Rodgers, Simon Ruth, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Existing tools for measuring blood-borne virus (BBV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risk behaviours in substance use interventions have limited capacity to assess risk behaviours across varied social, cultural and epidemiological contexts; have not evolved alongside HIV treatment and prevention innovations; or accounted for sexual contexts of drug use including among a range of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) sub-communities...
May 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz
Numerous homeless youth experience trauma prior to leaving home and while on the street. Bullying and trading sex (i.e. exchanging sexual favors for survival items such as food) are additional forms of trauma experienced by many homeless youth. Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) homeless youth experience higher rates of child abuse compared to their heterosexual counterparts, there is a paucity of research comparing these two groups. As such, we compare whether difficulties finding items of necessity (e...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
INTRODUCTION: Globalization via free trade and investment agreements is often implicated in the obesity pandemic. Concerns center on how free trade and investment agreements increase population exposure to unhealthy, high-calorie diets, but existing studies preclude causal conclusions. Few studies of free trade and investment agreements and diets isolated their impact from confounding changes, and none examined any effect on caloric intake, despite its critical role in the etiology of obesity...
May 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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