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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444845/antibacterial-activity-of-male-and-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-ants
#1
Francisco Dávila, Anne Botteaux, David Bauman, Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life. Males die shortly after mating, but queens use the acquired sperm to fertilise their eggs for years, sometimes decades...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433568/the-peopling-of-the-last-green-sahara-revealed-by-high-coverage-resequencing-of-trans-saharan-patrilineages
#2
Eugenia D'Atanasio, Beniamino Trombetta, Maria Bonito, Andrea Finocchio, Genny Di Vito, Mara Seghizzi, Rita Romano, Gianluca Russo, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Elizabeth Watson, Alfredo Coppa, Paolo Anagnostou, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Daniele Sellitto, Andrea Novelletto, Fulvio Cruciani
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the peopling of the Sahara during the Holocene climatic optimum, when the desert was replaced by a fertile environment. RESULTS: In order to investigate the role of the last Green Sahara in the peopling of Africa, we deep-sequence the whole non-repetitive portion of the Y chromosome in 104 males selected as representative of haplogroups which are currently found to the north and to the south of the Sahara. We identify 5,966 mutations, from which we extract 142 informative markers then genotyped in about 8,000 subjects from 145 African, Eurasian and African American populations...
February 12, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429371/a-best-worst-scaling-in-colombian-patients-to-rank-the-characteristics-of-hiv-aids-treatment
#3
A Hendriks, B Wijnen, R van Engelen, R Conde, S Evers, J Gonzalez, M Govers, A Mühlbacher, M Hiligsmann
AIM: To elicit patients' preferences for HIV/AIDS treatment characteristics in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A best-worst scaling case 1 was used to provide a ranking of 26 HIV/AIDS treatment characteristics that were similar to a previous study conducted in Germany. In each choice task, participants were asked to choose the most important and the least important treatment characteristics from a set of five from the master list. Using the Hierarchical Bayes method, relative importance scores were calculated...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428886/family-size-effects-on-childhood-obesity-evidence-on-the-quantity-quality-trade-off-using-the-nlsy
#4
Kabir Dasgupta, Keisha T Solomon
In this study, we use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to study the effects of family size on child health. Focusing on excess body weight indicators as children's health outcome of interest, we examine the effects of exogenous variations in family size generated by twin births and parental preference for mixed sex composition of their children. We find no significant empirical support in favor of the quantity-quality trade-off theory in instrumental variable regression analysis...
February 8, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411228/traumatic-events-and-hiv-sexual-risk-behaviors-among-migrant-and-non-migrant-male-market-workers-in-central-asia
#5
Lynn Murphy Michalopoulos, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Alyssa Brelsford, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Nabila El-Bassel
We examined potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relationship between PTEs and HIV risk behaviors among male market workers in Kazakhstan, comparing Kazakhstani to external migrants. Using respondent-driven sampling, participants were 1342 male marketplace workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regressions were conducted. We found high prevalence of PTEs among participants, and significant differences between PTEs and HIV risk by migrant status. Kazakhstanis reporting 1-2 or three-or-more traumatic events were more likely to report engaging in sex trading, compared to Kazakhstanis who reported no PTEs (OR = 3...
February 6, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401513/context-dependent-interactive-effects-of-non-lethal-predation-on-larvae-impact-adult-longevity-and-body-composition
#6
Karthikeyan Chandrasegaran, Samyuktha Rao Kandregula, Suhel Quader, Steven A Juliano
Predation impacts development, behavior and morphology of prey species thereby shaping their abundances, distribution and community structure. Non-lethal threat of predation, specifically, can have a strong influence on prey lifehistory characteristics. While investigations often focus on the impact of predation threat on prey in isolation, tests of its interactive effects with food availability and resource competition on prey survival and fitness can improve understanding of costs, benefits and trade-offs of anti-predator strategies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345308/positive-size-speed-relationships-in-gametes-and-vegetative-cells-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-implications-for-the-evolution-of-sperm
#7
Catherine E Seed, Joseph L Tomkins
It is commonly held that differences in gametes of the two sexes (anisogamy) evolved from ancestors whose gametes were similar in size and behaviour (isogamy). Underlying many hypotheses explaining anisogamy are assumed relationships between cell size and speed in the ancestral isogamous population. Using the isogamous alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explored size-speed distributions in vegetative and gamete cells of ten cell lines, and clonal data from within two cell lines. We applied an independent speed selection approach to gamete populations of C...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336476/drivers-and-demographic-consequences-of-seasonal-mass-changes-in-an-alpine-ungulate
#8
Mathieu Douhard, Simon Guillemette, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier
We know little about the determinants and demographic consequences of the marked seasonal mass changes exhibited by many northern and alpine mammals. We analysed 43 years of data on individual winter mass loss (the difference between mass in early June and mass in mid-September the previous year) and summer mass gain (the difference between mass in mid-September and in early June of the same year) in adult bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We calculated relative seasonal mass change as a proportion of individual body mass at the start of each season...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329306/lifespan-extension-without-fertility-reduction-following-dietary-addition-of-the-autophagy-activator-torin1-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Janet S Mason, Tom Wileman, Tracey Chapman
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for cellular repair that becomes progressively down-regulated during normal ageing. Hence, manipulations that activate autophagy could increase lifespan. Previous reports show that manipulations to the autophagy pathway can result in longevity extension in yeast, flies, worms and mammals. Under standard nutrition, autophagy is inhibited by the nutrient sensing kinase Target of Rapamycin (TOR). Therefore, manipulations of TOR that increase autophagy may offer a mechanism for extending lifespan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295020/disclosing-sex-trading-histories-to-providers-barriers-and-facilitators-to-navigation-of-social-services-among-women-impacted-by-commercial-sexual-exploitation
#10
Lara Gerassi, Tonya E Edmond, Vanessa Fabbre, Abby Howard, Andrea J Nichols
Sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) can lead to devastating health and mental health consequences for women, such as elevated rates of substance use, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV. Consequently, engagement with services that address addiction, mental health, and housing, and provide general advocacy is critically important to women's increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. The purpose of this study is to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to service access and engagement with social services among women involved in CSE...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288562/interactions-between-host-sex-and-age-of-exposure-modify-the-virulence-transmission-trade-off
#11
Stephen A Y Gipson, Matthew D Hall
The patterns of immunity conferred by host sex or age represent two sources of host heterogeneity that can potentially shape the evolutionary trajectory of disease. With each host sex or age encountered, a pathogen's optimal exploitative strategy may change, leading to considerable variation in expression of pathogen transmission and virulence. To date, these host characteristics have been studied in the context of host fitness alone, overlooking the effects of host sex and age on the fundamental virulence-transmission trade-off faced by pathogens...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274054/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-mycobacterial-infections-in-farm-and-trade-cattle-in-southwestern-nigeria
#12
Victor O Akinseye, Muideen D Adebayo, Oghenekaro O Genesis, Olubukola D Adelakun, Simeon I B Cadmus
We evaluated the prevalence of mycobacterial infections (i.e., Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) and their associated risk factors among cattle herds and trade cattle in southwestern Nigeria. Through cross-sectional study design, cattle herds from three locations were screened using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test based on two diagnostic standards; more than 4 mm (˃ 4 mm) and more than 2 mm (˃ 2 mm) cut-off points. Abattoir study involved screening trade cattle for tuberculous lesions...
December 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248976/hoopoe-males-experience-intra-seasonal-while-females-experience-inter-seasonal-reproductive-costs
#13
Floriane Plard, Raphaël Arlettaz, Michael Schaub
Reproductive and survival costs due to reproductive investment are a central element for the evolution of life histories. Both intra- (reduction of reproductive performance of second brood due to investment in first brood) and inter-seasonal costs (reduction of reproductive performance or annual survival due to reproductive investment in preceding year) may appear in multiple breeding species. Knowledge about how trade-offs within and between seasons shape individual trajectories and influence fitness are crucial in life-history evolution, yet intra- and inter-seasonal reproductive costs are rarely analysed simultaneously...
December 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246432/adolescents-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-collapse-have-elevated-serum-dioxin-and-furan-concentrations-more-than-12years-later
#14
Linda G Kahn, Xiaoxia Han, Tony T Koshy, Yongzhao Shao, Dinh Binh Chu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 released a dust cloud containing numerous environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs are toxic and are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including cancer, diabetes, and impaired reproductive and immunologic function. Prior studies have found adults exposed to the WTC disaster to have elevated levels of PCDD/Fs...
December 2, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241900/a-latent-class-of-their-own-response-patterns-in-trading-off-quantity-and-quality-of-life-in-time-trade-off-exercises
#15
F E van Nooten, K Houghton, J van Exel, M van Agthoven, W B F Brouwer, D E Stull
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results regarding associations of time trade-off (TTO) valuations with respondent characteristics have been reported, mostly on the basis of regression analyses. Alternative approaches, such as the latent class analysis (LCA), may add to the further understanding of variations in TTO responses. OBJECTIVES: To identify whether subgroups of respondents can be identified on the basis of their responses to TTO exercises and to investigate which respondent characteristics are associated with membership of the identified subgroups...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235115/the-mechanistic-basis-of-demographic-allee-effects-the-search-for-mates
#16
Anna Kuparinen
In Focus: Berec, L., Kremer, A.M., Bernhauverova, V., & Drake, J.M. (2017). Density-dependent selection on mate-finding Allee effects. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12662 In Focus: Shaw, A.K., Kokko, H., & Neubert, M.G. (2017). Details of mate finding drive dynamics of sex structured invasions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12658 Lowered population growth ability at low abundances is called the demographic Allee effect. The difficulty of finding mates in a sparse population is the best documented pathway through which a demographic Allee effect might arise...
January 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228958/sero-prevalence-risk-factors-and-distribution-of-sheep-and-goat-pox-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#17
Tsegaw Fentie, Nigusie Fenta, Samson Leta, Wassie Molla, Birhanu Ayele, Yechale Teshome, Seleshe Nigatu, Ashenafi Assefa
BACKGROUND: Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease...
December 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225350/maternal-by-environment-but-not-genotype-by-environment-interactions-in-a-fish-without-parental-care
#18
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Loeske E B Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203178/fruit-flies-may-face-a-nutrient-dependent-life-history-trade-off-between-secondary-sexual-trait-quality-survival-and-developmental-rate
#19
Lindsey J Gray, Stephen J Simpson, Michal Polak
Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188010/effects-of-macronutrient-intake-on-the-lifespan-and-fecundity-of-the-marula-fruit-fly-ceratitis-cosyra-tephritidae-extreme-lifespan-in-a-host-specialist
#20
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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