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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659772/interaction-between-two-leafminer-parasitoids-halticoptera-arduine-hymenoptera-pteromalidae-and-diglyphus-isaea-hymenoptera-eulophidae-in-the-management-of-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae
#1
Samuel K Muchemi, Claus P W Zebitz, Christian Borgemeister, Komivi S Akutse, Caroline N Foba, Sunday Ekesi, Komi K M Fiaboe
Liriomyza spp., leafminer flies (Mik; Diptera: Agromyzidae), are economically important quarantine pests that puncture and mine leaves and fruits of various horticultural crops worldwide, affecting yield and trade. Halticoptera arduine (Walker; Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a key parasitoid from the pests' areas of origin in South America, was introduced as a potential alternative management strategy. Prior to H. arduine release, its potential interactions with the dominant local ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Walker; Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were assessed...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655906/substance-use-and-sex-index-susi-first-stage-development-of-an-assessment-tool-to-measure-behaviour-change-in-sexualised-drug-use-for-substance-use-treatment-studies
#2
Nadine Ezard, Beatrice Webb, Brendan Clifford, Michael E Cecilio, Amanda Jellie, Toby Lea, Craig Rodgers, Simon Ruth, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Existing tools for measuring blood-borne virus (BBV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risk behaviours in substance use interventions have limited capacity to assess risk behaviours across varied social, cultural and epidemiological contexts; have not evolved alongside HIV treatment and prevention innovations; or accounted for sexual contexts of drug use including among a range of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) sub-communities...
April 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601290/a-comparison-of-risk-factors-for-various-forms-of-trauma-in-the-lives-of-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-heterosexual-homeless-youth
#3
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz
Numerous homeless youth experience trauma prior to leaving home and while on the street. Bullying and trading sex (i.e. exchanging sexual favors for survival items such as food) are additional forms of trauma experienced by many homeless youth. Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) homeless youth experience higher rates of child abuse compared to their heterosexual counterparts, there is a paucity of research comparing these two groups. As such, we compare whether difficulties finding items of necessity (e...
July 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598857/the-impact-of-u-s-free-trade-agreements-on-calorie-availability-and-obesity-a-natural-experiment-in-canada
#4
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
INTRODUCTION: Globalization via free trade and investment agreements is often implicated in the obesity pandemic. Concerns center on how free trade and investment agreements increase population exposure to unhealthy, high-calorie diets, but existing studies preclude causal conclusions. Few studies of free trade and investment agreements and diets isolated their impact from confounding changes, and none examined any effect on caloric intake, despite its critical role in the etiology of obesity...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577502/do-parasites-and-antioxidant-availability-affect-begging-behaviour-growth-rate-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#5
Lea Maronde, Sylvain Losdat, Heinz Richner
Early-life trade-offs faced by developing offspring can have long-term consequences for their future fitness. Young offspring use begging displays to solicit resources from their parents and have been selected to grow fast to maximize survival. However, growth and begging behaviour are generally traded-off against self-maintenance. Oxidative stress, a physiological mediator of life-history trade-offs, may play a major role in this trade-off by constraining, or being costly to, growth and begging behaviour. Yet, despite implications for the evolution of life-history strategies and parent-offspring conflicts, the interplay between growth, begging behaviour and resistance to oxidative stress remains to be investigated...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576676/evolution-of-sex-specific-pace-of-life-syndromes-genetic-architecture-and-physiological-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Elina Immonen, Anni Hämäläinen, Wiebke Schuett, Maja Tarka
Sex differences in life history, physiology, and behavior are nearly ubiquitous across taxa, owing to sex-specific selection that arises from different reproductive strategies of the sexes. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that most variation in such traits among individuals, populations, and species falls along a slow-fast pace-of-life continuum. As a result of their different reproductive roles and environment, the sexes also commonly differ in pace-of-life, with important consequences for the evolution of POLS...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574927/parental-posttraumatic-stress-and-child-behavioral-problems-in-world-trade-center-responders
#7
Mai Uchida, Huifen Feng, Adriana Feder, Natalie Mota, Clyde B Schechter, Hilary D Woodworth, Caroline G Kelberman, Michael Crane, Philip Landrigan, Jacqueline Moline, Iris Udasin, Denise Harrison, Benjamin J Luft, Craig Katz, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
BACKGROUND: We investigated trans-generational associations between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders and behavioral problems in their children. METHODS: Participants were WTC responders-8034 police and 8352 non-traditional (eg, construction workers)-with one or more children at the time of their first visit to the World Trade Center Health Program (WTC-HP). Self-report questionnaires were administered approximately 4 years after the 9/11 WTC attack...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570407/the-geometry-of-nutrient-space-based-life-history-trade-offs-sex-specific-effects-of-macronutrient-intake-on-the-trade-off-between-encapsulation-ability-and-reproductive-effort-in-decorated-crickets
#8
James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, C Ruth Archer, Clarissa M House, Scott K Sakaluk, Enrique Del Castillo, John Hunt
Life-history theory assumes that traits compete for limited resources, resulting in trade-offs. The most commonly manipulated resource in empirical studies is the quantity or quality of diet. Recent studies using the geometric framework for nutrition, however, suggest that trade-offs are often regulated by the intake of specific nutrients, but a formal approach to identify and quantify the strength of such trade-offs is lacking. We posit that trade-offs occur whenever life-history traits are maximized in different regions of nutrient space, as evidenced by nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions of the global maximum for each trait and large angles (θ) between linear nutritional vectors and Euclidean distances (d) between global maxima...
April 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566664/rival-seminal-fluid-induces-enhanced-sperm-motility-in-a-polyandrous-ant
#9
Joanito Liberti, Boris Baer, Jacobus J Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Promiscuous mating and sperm competition often induce arms races between the sexes with detrimental outcomes for females. However, ants with multiply-inseminated queens have only a single time-window for sperm competition and queens are predicted to gain control over the outcome of sperm storage quickly. The seminal fluid of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants reduces the viability of rival sperm, but how confrontations between unrelated ejaculates affect sperm storage remains unknown...
March 23, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558982/microfinance-for-women-at-high-risk-for-hiv-in-kazakhstan-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Tara McCrimmon, Susan Witte, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Azamat Kuskulov, Scarlett L Bellamy, Nabila El-Bassel
BACKGROUND: Among women at high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), gender and economic issues limit the impact of behavioral prevention strategies. Women in Kazakhstan with dual risks of sex trading and drug use face elevated risk for HIV and STIs and may benefit from an economic empowerment intervention which combines HIV-risk reduction (HIVRR) education with financial skills-building and asset-building to promote reduced reliance on sex trading for income. METHODS/DESIGN: The study employs a two-arm, cluster-randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) design...
March 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536420/factors-determining-the-occurrence-of-anthropogenic-materials-in-nests-of-the-white-stork-ciconia-ciconia
#11
Zuzanna A Jagiello, Łukasz Dylewski, Dominika Winiarska, Katarzyna M Zolnierowicz, Marcin Tobolka
Birds have been using anthropogenic materials for nest construction for the past few decades. However, there is a trade-off between the use of new nesting material, which is often linked to greater breeding success, and the higher risk of nestling mortality due to entanglement or ingestion of debris. Here, we investigate the incorporation of anthropogenic materials into nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, based on a long-term study of a population in Western Poland. We recorded at least one item of debris in 50 and 42% of nests at the egg and nestling stages, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506439/ecologies-of-security-on-the-everyday-security-tactics-of-female-sex-workers-in-nairobi-kenya
#12
Robert Lorway, Lisa Lazarus, Claudyne Chevrier, Shamshad Khan, Helgar K Musyoki, John Mathenge, Peninah Mwangi, Pascal Macharia, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Joshua Kimani, Gloria Gaaki, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard
This paper highlights important environmental dimensions of HIV vulnerability by describing how the sex trade operates in Nairobi, Kenya. Although sex workers there encounter various forms of violence and harassment, as do sex workers globally, we highlight how they do not merely fall victim to a set of environmental risks but also act upon their social environment, thereby remaking it, as they strive to protect their health and financial interests. In so doing, we illustrate the mutual constitution of 'agency' and 'structure' in social network formations that take shape in everyday lived spaces...
March 5, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491972/increased-population-density-reduces-body-growth-and-female-investment-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite
#13
Elio Cannarsa, Stefania Meconcelli
Sex allocation theory applied to hermaphrodites assumes that there is a trade off between the allocation of resources to male and female functions, within a fixed reproductive resource budget. Charnov's classic resource allocation model predicts a more female-biased sex allocation when competition among different sperm donors is low due to diminishing fitness returns for male investment. By manipulating the social group size, one automatically changes the population density at which individuals live. Increasing population density may affect reproductive allocation, leading to resource competition and/or to increased concentration of harmful metabolites...
April 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479907/measurable-and-unmeasurable-features-of-ultrasound-lymph-node-images-in-detection-of-malignant-infiltration
#14
Tatjana Rotim, Branka Kristek, Tajana Turk, Domagoj Kretić, Marija Perić, Ivo Pušeljić, Tijana Pandurović, Mario Štefanić
The aim of the study was to assess diagnostic value and utility of selected morphological features in predicting lymph node (LN) malignancy using B-mode, Doppler ultrasonography and multivariate settings in a tertiary radiological referral center. The study included 123 patients having undergone ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and cytologic analysis (FNAC) of cervical, axillary and inguinal LNs. Each LN was characterized by long/L and short/T-axis, shape, margins, echogenicity, cortical thickness, vascularization, and examiner's subjective impression...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477875/mortality-among-rescue-and-recovery-workers-and-community-members-exposed-to-the-september-11-2001-world-trade-center-terrorist-attacks-2003-2014
#15
Hannah T Jordan, Cheryl R Stein, Jiehui Li, James E Cone, Leslie Stayner, James L Hadler, Robert M Brackbill, Mark R Farfel
BACKGROUND: Multiple chronic health conditions have been associated with exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks (9/11). We assessed whether excess deaths occurred during 2003-2014 among persons directly exposed to 9/11, and examined associations of 9/11-related exposures with mortality risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deaths occurring in 2003-2014 among members of the World Trade Center Health Registry, a cohort of rescue/recovery workers and lower Manhattan community members who were exposed to 9/11, were identified via linkage to the National Death Index...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466996/-just-because-she-s-young-it-doesn-t-mean-she-has-to-die-exploring-the-contributing-factors-to-high-maternal-mortality-in-adolescents-in-eastern-freetown-a-qualitative-study
#16
Lucy November, Jane Sandall
BACKGROUND: In Sierra Leone, 34% of pregnancies and 40% of maternal deaths are in the adolescent population. Risks are known to be higher for younger adolescents, this being borne out by a household survey in Eastern Freetown in 2015. This current qualitative study, funded by Wellbeing of Women's international midwifery fellowship, was conducted to explore the causes of this high incidence of maternal death for younger teenagers, and to identify possible interventions to improve outcomes...
February 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444845/antibacterial-activity-of-male-and-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-ants
#17
Francisco Dávila, Anne Botteaux, David Bauman, Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life. Males die shortly after mating, but queens use the acquired sperm to fertilise their eggs for years, sometimes decades...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433568/the-peopling-of-the-last-green-sahara-revealed-by-high-coverage-resequencing-of-trans-saharan-patrilineages
#18
Eugenia D'Atanasio, Beniamino Trombetta, Maria Bonito, Andrea Finocchio, Genny Di Vito, Mara Seghizzi, Rita Romano, Gianluca Russo, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Elizabeth Watson, Alfredo Coppa, Paolo Anagnostou, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Pedro Moral, Daniele Sellitto, Andrea Novelletto, Fulvio Cruciani
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the peopling of the Sahara during the Holocene climatic optimum, when the desert was replaced by a fertile environment. RESULTS: In order to investigate the role of the last Green Sahara in the peopling of Africa, we deep-sequence the whole non-repetitive portion of the Y chromosome in 104 males selected as representative of haplogroups which are currently found to the north and to the south of the Sahara. We identify 5,966 mutations, from which we extract 142 informative markers then genotyped in about 8,000 subjects from 145 African, Eurasian and African American populations...
February 12, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429371/a-best-worst-scaling-in-colombian-patients-to-rank-the-characteristics-of-hiv-aids-treatment
#19
A Hendriks, B Wijnen, R van Engelen, R Conde, S Evers, J Gonzalez, M Govers, A Mühlbacher, M Hiligsmann
AIM: To elicit patients' preferences for HIV/AIDS treatment characteristics in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A best-worst scaling case 1 was used to provide a ranking of 26 HIV/AIDS treatment characteristics that were similar to a previous study conducted in Germany. In each choice task, participants were asked to choose the most important and the least important treatment characteristics from a set of five from the master list. Using the Hierarchical Bayes method, relative importance scores were calculated...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428886/family-size-effects-on-childhood-obesity-evidence-on-the-quantity-quality-trade-off-using-the-nlsy
#20
Kabir Dasgupta, Keisha T Solomon
In this study, we use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to study the effects of family size on child health. Focusing on excess body weight indicators as children's health outcome of interest, we examine the effects of exogenous variations in family size generated by twin births and parental preference for mixed sex composition of their children. We find no significant empirical support in favor of the quantity-quality trade-off theory in instrumental variable regression analysis...
February 8, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
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