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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646599/boldness-predicts-an-individual-s-position-along-an-exploration-exploitation-foraging-trade-off
#1
Samantha C Patrick, David Pinaud, Henri Weimerskirch
Individuals do not have complete information about the environment and therefore they face a trade-off between gathering information (exploration) and gathering resources (exploitation). Studies have shown individual differences in components of this trade-off but how stable these strategies are in a population and the intrinsic drivers of these differences is not well understood. Top marine predators are expected to experience a particularly strong trade-off as many species have large foraging ranges and their prey often have a patchy distribution...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630557/international-guidelines-on-human-rights-and-drug-control-a-tool-for-securing-women-s-rights-in-drug-control-policy
#2
Rebecca Schleifer, Luciana Pol
Discrimination and inequality shape women's experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a 'gender perspective' into drug control policies, with 'gender' limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622920/post-9-11-sarcoidosis-in-wtc-exposed-firefighters-and-emergency-medical-service-workers
#3
Mayris P Webber, Jennifer Yip, Rachel Zeig-Owens, William Moir, Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Charles B Hall, Nadia Jaber, Michael D Weiden, Eric L Matteson, David J Prezant
INTRODUCTION: The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure...
June 7, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620738/variation-in-sex-pheromone-emission-does-not-reflect-immunocompetence-but-affects-attractiveness-of-male-burying-beetles-a-combination-of-laboratory-and-field-experiments
#4
Johanna Chemnitz, Nadiia Bagrii, Manfred Ayasse, Sandra Steiger
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616168/does-selection-on-horn-length-of-males-and-females-differ-in-protected-and-hunted-populations-of-a-weakly-dimorphic-ungulate
#5
Luca Corlatti, Ilse Storch, Flurin Filli, Pia Anderwald
Weaponry in ungulates may be costly to grow and maintain, and different selective pressures in males and females may lead to sex-biased natural survival. Sexual differences in the relationship between weapon growth and survival may increase under anthropogenic selection through culling, for example because of trophy hunting. Selection on weaponry growth under different scenarios has been largely investigated in males of highly dimorphic ungulates, for which survival costs (either natural or hunting related) are thought to be greatest...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608982/high-reproductive-effort-is-associated-with-decreasing-mortality-late-in-life-in-captive-ruffed-lemurs
#6
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608292/sex-differences-on-the-go-no-go-test-of-inhibition
#7
Espen A Sjoberg, Geoff G Cole
Parental investment theory suggests that women, due to greater investment in child rearing, can be more choosy than men when considering a potential mate. A corollary to this is that women should possess greater inhibition abilities compared to men in contexts related to sex and reproduction. This notion has found support from the inhibition literature demonstrating that while women do indeed show greater inhibition on tasks that include a social aspect, no such effect is found on cognitive tasks that do not possess a social component...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606163/tobacco-smoking-trends-in-samoa-over-four-decades-can-continued-globalization-rectify-that-which-it-has-wrought
#8
Christine Linhart, Take Naseri, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Stephen T McGarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605016/flexibility-in-the-duration-of-parental-care-female-leopards-prioritise-cub-survival-over-reproductive-output
#9
Guy A Balme, Hugh S Robinson, Ross T Pitman, Luke T B Hunter
1.Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. 2.We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591181/combined-use-of-tri-axial-accelerometers-and-gps-reveals-the-flexible-foraging-strategy-of-a-bird-in-relation-to-weather-conditions
#10
Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Carlos Rodríguez, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Javier Bustamante
Tri-axial accelerometry has proved to be a useful technique to study animal behavior with little direct observation, and also an effective way to measure energy expenditure, allowing a refreshing revisit to optimal foraging theory. This theory predicts that individuals should gain the most energy for the lowest cost in terms of time and energy when foraging, in order to maximize their fitness. However, during a foraging trip, central-place foragers could face different trade-offs during the commuting and searching parts of the trip, influencing behavioral decisions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577690/value-of-comprehensive-hcv-treatment-among-vulnerable-high-risk-populations
#11
Gigi A Moreno, Alice Wang, Yuri Sánchez González, Oliver Díaz Espinosa, Diana K Vania, Brian R Edlin, Ronald Brookmeyer
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the trade-offs society and payers make when expanding treatment access to patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in early stages of disease as well as to vulnerable, high-risk populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV). METHODS: A discrete time Markov model simulated HCV progression and treatment over 20 years. Population cohorts were defined by behaviors that influence the risk of HCV exposure: PWID, MSM-HIV, an overlap cohort of individuals who are both PWID and MSM-HIV, and all other adults...
June 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575521/sex-determines-xylem-anatomy-in-a-dioecious-conifer-hydraulic-consequences-in-a-drier-world
#12
José M Olano, Noelia González-Muñoz, Alberto Arzac, Vicente Rozas, Georg von Arx, Sylvain Delzon, Ana I García-Cervigón
Increased drought frequency and severity may reshape tree species distribution in arid environments. Dioecious tree species may be more sensitive to climate warming if sex-related vulnerability to drought occurs, since lower performance of one sex may drive differential stress tolerance, sex-related mortality rates and biased sex ratios. We explored the effect of sex and environment on branch hydraulic (hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to embolism) and trunk anatomical traits in both sexes of the dioecious conifer Juniperus thurifera L...
June 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572582/coordination-between-the-sexes-constrains-the-optimization-of-reproductive-timing-in-honey-bee-colonies
#13
Natalie J Lemanski, Nina H Fefferman
Honeybees are an excellent model system for examining how trade-offs shape reproductive timing in organisms with seasonal environments. Honeybee colonies reproduce two ways: producing swarms comprising a queen and thousands of workers or producing males (drones). There is an energetic trade-off between producing workers, which contribute to colony growth, and drones, which contribute only to reproduction. The timing of drone production therefore determines both the drones' likelihood of mating and when colonies reach sufficient size to swarm...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554570/sex-specific-lifespan-and-its-evolution-in-nematodes
#14
REVIEW
Henry Ancell, Andre Pires-daSilva
Differences between sexes of the same species in lifespan and aging rate are widespread. While the proximal and evolutionary causes of aging are well researched, the factors that contribute to sex differences in these traits have been less studied. The striking diversity of nematodes provides ample opportunity to study variation in sex-specific lifespan patterns associated with shifts in life history and mating strategy. Although the plasticity of these sex differences will make it challenging to generalize from invertebrate to vertebrate systems, studies in nematodes have enabled empirical evaluation of predictions regarding the evolution of lifespan...
May 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543867/an-age-dependent-fitness-cost-of-migration-old-trans-saharan-migrating-spoonbills-breed-later-than-those-staying-in-europe-and-late-breeders-have-lower-recruitment
#15
Tamar Lok, Linde Veldhoen, Otto Overdijk, Joost M Tinbergen, Theunis Piersma
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. On the basis of the considerable variation that exists between and within species, and even within populations, we may be able to infer the (age- and sex-specific) ecological trade-offs and constraints moulding migration systems from assessments of fitness associated with migration and wintering in different areas. During three consecutive breeding seasons, we compared the reproductive performance (timing of breeding, breeding success, chick body condition and post-fledging survival) of Eurasian spoonbills Platalea leucorodia that breed at a single breeding site in The Netherlands, but migrate different distances (ca...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524791/sagittal-craniosynostosis-a-utility-outcomes-study
#16
Victoria Kuta, P Daniel McNeely, Simon Walling, Michael Bezuhly
OBJECTIVE Sagittal craniosynostosis results in a characteristic scaphocephalic head shape that is typically corrected surgically during a child's 1st year of life. The authors' objective was to determine the potential impact of being born with sagittal craniosynostosis by using validated health state utility assessment measures. METHODS An online utility assessment was designed to generate health utility scores for scaphocephaly, monocular blindness, and binocular blindness using standardized utility assessment tools, namely the visual analog scale (VAS) and the standard gamble (SG) and time trade-off (TTO) tests...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506206/females-of-a-gift-giving-spider-do-not-trade-sex-for-food-gifts-a-consequence-of-male-deception
#17
Irene Pandulli-Alonso, Agustín Quaglia, Maria J Albo
BACKGROUND: Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499282/can-social-network-analysis-help-address-the-high-rates-of-bacterial-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-saskatchewan
#18
Molly A Trecker, Jo-Anne R Dillon, Kathy Lloyd, Maurice Hennink, Ann Jolly, Cheryl Waldner
BACKGROUND: Saskatchewan has one of the highest rates of gonorrhea among the Canadian provinces-more than double the national rate. In light of these high rates, and the growing threat of untreatable infections, improved understanding of gonorrhea transmission dynamics in the province and evaluation of the current system and tools for disease control are important. METHODS: We extracted data from a cross-sectional sample of laboratory-confirmed gonorrhea cases between 2003 and 2012 from the notifiable disease files of the Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region...
June 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497849/differential-investment-in-body-girths-by-sex-evidence-from-3d-photonic-scanning-in-a-thai-cohort
#19
Meghan K Shirley, Tim J Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C K Wells
OBJECTIVES: Life history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492343/multi-level-risk-factors-associated-with-sex-trading-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-kazakhstan-a-neglected-key-population
#20
Alissa Davis, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Sholpan Primbetova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Yelena Bilokon, Lyubov Chubukova, Nabila El-Bassel
Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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