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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102112/dutiful-daughters-hiv-aids-moral-pragmatics-female-citizenship-and-structural-violence-among-devadasis-in-northern-karnataka-india
#1
Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077933/bayespop-probabilistic-population-projections
#2
Hana Ševčíková, Adrian E Raftery
We describe bayesPop, an R package for producing probabilistic population projections for all countries. This uses probabilistic projections of total fertility and life expectancy generated by Bayesian hierarchical models. It produces a sample from the joint posterior predictive distribution of future age- and sex-specific population counts, fertility rates and mortality rates, as well as future numbers of births and deaths. It provides graphical ways of summarizing this information, including trajectory plots and various kinds of probabilistic population pyramids...
December 2016: Journal of Statistical Software
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074860/sex-and-age-dependent-patterns-of-survival-and-breeding-success-in-a-long-lived-endangered-avian-scavenger
#3
Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Ainara Cortés-Avizanda, David Serrano, Guillermo Blanco, Olga Ceballos, Juan M Grande, José L Tella, José A Donázar
In long-lived species, the age-, stage- and/or sex-dependent patterns of survival and reproduction determine the evolution of life history strategies, the shape of the reproductive value, and ultimately population dynamics. We evaluate the combined effects of age and sex in recruitment, breeder survival and breeding success of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), using 31-years of exhaustive data on marked individuals in Spain. Mean age of first reproduction was 7-yrs for both sexes, but females showed an earlier median and a larger variance than males...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060225/association-between-menopause-and-unprotected-sex-in-high-risk-hiv-positive-women-in-mombasa-kenya
#4
Marielle S Goyette, Kate S Wilson, Ruth Deya, Linnet N Masese, Juma Shafi, Barbra A Richardson, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Walter Jaoko, R Scott McClelland
OBJECTIVE: Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared to premenopausal visits. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive women ≥16 years old in Mombasa, Kenya...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017185/failure-to-get-into-substance-abuse-treatment
#5
Dennis G Fisher, Grace L Reynolds, Laura H D'Anna, David W Hosmer, Kholoud Hardan-Khalil
Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959638/comparison-of-vascular-plugs-and-pushable-coils-for-variceal-embolization-after-tips
#6
Ammar Sarwar, Anthony M Esparaz, Elliot B Tapper, Olga R Brook, Douglas Grunwald, Raza Malik, Muneeb Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with variceal embolization is routinely performed to treat variceal bleeding. Embolization using vascular plugs is reported, but outcomes are not known. Outcomes and material costs of embolization using vascular plugs and coils are compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single center's medical records of TIPS procedures (May 2003-December 2014) with variceal embolization were reviewed. Twenty patients with vascular plug embolization (age [± SD], 50 ± 10 years; seven men and 13 women; median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD], 20; interquartile range [IQR], 14-23) were compared with an age-, sex-, and MELD-matched cohort who underwent coil embolization (age, 50 ± 9 years; seven men and 13 women; median MELD, 17; IQR, 15-19; p = 0...
December 13, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940536/residential-area-and-physical-activity-a-multi-level-study-of-68-000-adults-in-stockholm-county
#7
Anna C Svensson, Joanna Stjernschantz Forsberg, Dominika Seblova, Anton Lager
AIM: To determine whether there are systematic differences in physical activity between residential areas after extensive control for sociodemographic factors at the individual level. METHODS: Multi-level regressions of walking/bicycling, sedentary activities, household work and exercise were carried out in a representative sample of 68,303 adults in 39 residential areas in Stockholm County, first adjusting at the individual level for country of birth, sex, age, education, occupational class and income...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935803/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-cervical-cancer-incidence-highlights-need-for-targeted-prevention-in-songkhla-province-thailand
#8
Jun Zhao, Shama Virani, Hutcha Sriplung
BACKGROUND: The national cervical cancer screening program in Thailand has been successful in reducing overall burden from this disease. However, evaluation on spatial and temporal scales is needed to assess the efficacy of this program in smaller regions. Here, we geographically assess incidence in a province with a uniquely heterogeneous distribution of lifestyle factors associated with religiosity. METHODS: Cervical cancer cases were extracted from the provincial cancer registry from 1989 to 2013...
October 25, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931563/brazilian-healthcare-professionals-a-study-of-attitudes-toward-organ-donation
#9
C Araujo, M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. METHODS: A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929928/seroepidemiological-survey-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-ruminants-in-garissa-kenya
#10
Mark O Nanyingi, Gerald M Muchemi, Samuel M Thumbi, Fredrick Ade, Clayton O Onyango, Stephen G Kiama, Bernard Bett
INTRODUCTION: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. In Kenya, major outbreaks occurred in 1997-1998 and 2006-2007 leading to human deaths, huge economic losses because of livestock morbidity, mortality, and restrictions on livestock trade. AIM: This study was conducted to determine RVF seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats during an interepidemic period in Garissa County in Kenya. METHODS: In July 2013, we performed a cross-sectional survey and sampled 370 ruminants from eight RVF-prone areas of Garissa County...
December 8, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919289/correlates-of-sex-trading-among-male-non-injecting-drug-users-in-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Yu Mon Saw, Thu Nandar Saw, Kyi Mar Wai, Krishna C Poudel, Hla Hla Win
BACKGROUND: Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited...
December 5, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898572/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-among-street-based-and-residence-based-female-sex-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#12
Rasheda Khanam, Masud Reza, Dilruba Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, M Shah Alam, Salima Sultana, Anadil Alam, Sharful I Khan, Kenneth H Mayer, Tasnim Azim
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh remain at elevated risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among them is low. Recent information on the burden and etiological diagnosis of STIs among them has been lacking. This study examines prevalence and risk behaviors of selected STIs among FSWs in Dhaka in 2014. METHODS: Between August and October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among street-based and residence-based FSWs receiving HIV prevention services at 24 drop in centers in Dhaka...
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891354/emerging-trends-of-intentional-firearm-injuries-in-northern-india-a-study
#13
Iram Khan, Mohammad Shakeel, Jawed Ahmad Usmani, Syed Abrar Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Many developing countries are facing rise in firearm injury cases owing to communal and ethnic clashes, political violence, armed robberies and suicide causing huge economic loss to society. On the basis of intention, injuries can be categorized as intentional and unintentional or accidental injuries. Intentional injuries will include suicidal, homicidal and assault related injuries. AIM: This study was undertaken to document the trends and patterns associated with intentional firearm injuries in order to suggest ways to curb the emerging trends...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883363/sexual-selection-shapes-development-and-maturation-rates-in-drosophila
#14
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856219/cuticular-colour-reflects-underlying-architecture-and-is-affected-by-a-limiting-resource
#15
Sophie E F Evison, Joe D Gallagher, John J W Thompson, Michael T Siva-Jothy, Sophie A O Armitage
Central to the basis of ecological immunology are the ideas of costs and trade-offs between immunity and life history traits. As a physical barrier, the insect cuticle provides a key resistance trait, and Tenebrio molitor shows phenotypic variation in cuticular colour that correlates with resistance to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Here we first examined whether there is a relationship between cuticular colour variation and two aspects of cuticular architecture that we hypothesised may influence resistance to fungal invasion through the cuticle: its thickness and its porosity...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853561/sex-roles-parental-care-and-offspring-growth-in-two-contrasting-coucal-species
#16
Wolfgang Goymann, Ignas Safari, Christina Muck, Ingrid Schwabl
The decision to provide parental care is often associated with trade-offs, because resources allocated to parental care typically cannot be invested in self-maintenance or mating. In most animals, females provide more parental care than males, but the reason for this pattern is still debated in evolutionary ecology. To better understand sex differences in parental care and its consequences, we need to study closely related species where the sexes differ in offspring care. We investigated parental care in relation to offspring growth in two closely related coucal species that fundamentally differ in sex roles and parental care, but live in the same food-rich habitat with a benign climate and have a similar breeding phenology...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810938/post-9-11-2001-lung-function-trajectories-by-sex-and-race-in-world-trade-center-exposed-new-york-city-emergency-medical-service-workers
#17
Madeline Vossbrinck, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Charles B Hall, Theresa Schwartz, William Moir, Mayris P Webber, Hillel W Cohen, Anna Nolan, Michael D Weiden, Vasilios Christodoulou, Kerry J Kelly, Thomas K Aldrich, David J Prezant
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lung function trajectories after 9/11/2001 (9/11) differed by sex or race/ethnicity in World Trade Center-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York emergency medical service (EMS) workers. METHOD: Serial cross-sectional study of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) taken between 9/11 and 9/10/2015. We used data from routine PFTs (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1% predicted), conducted at 12-18 month intervals. FEV1 and FEV1% predicted were assessed over time, stratified by sex, and race/ethnicity...
November 3, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807207/defining-and-predicting-pimps-coerciveness-toward-sex-workers-socialization-processes
#18
Loretta J Stalans, Mary A Finn
Prior research has found that pimps use both non-coercive and coercive management styles across and within market segments of the illicit sex trade. The current study is the first to examine the socialization processes underlying variation in the self-reported coerciveness of pimps. This study begins to fill a void in the almost non-existent research on pimps who are actively managing Internet-solicited sex workers, and adds to the sparse research on pimps' coerciveness. We extend Anderson's concepts of "street code" families, where respect is acquired through displaying physical violence and toughness, and "decent" families, where middle class values of avoiding unnecessary aggression and complying with the law prevail, to understand variation in the degree of coerciveness that pimps utilize toward sex workers...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803678/psychological-and-physiological-processes-in-figure-tracing-abilities-measured-using-a-tablet-computer-a-study-with-7-and-9-years-old-children
#19
Enrico Giammarco, Sergio Di Sano, Tiziana Aureli, Paola Cerratti, Giorgio Fanò-Illic, Tiziana Pietrangelo
The present study investigated the use of a tablet computer to assess figure-tracing skills and their relationships with psychological (visual-perceptual processes, cognitive processes, handwriting skills) and physiological (body mass index, isometric strength of arms) parameters with school-children of second (7-8-year-olds) and fourth (9-10-year-olds) grades. We were also interested in gender differences. The task required tracing of geometric figures on a template, shown on a tablet screen in light gray, for the segments that make up the target figure, one at a time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801547/utility-of-three-anthropometric-indices-in-assessing-the-cardiometabolic-risk-profile-in-children
#20
Duncan S Buchan, Lynne M Boddy, Fergal M Grace, Elise Brown, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Conor Cunningham, Marie H Murphy, Rebecca Dagger, Lawrence Foweather, Lee E F Graves, Nicola D Hopkins, Gareth Stratton, Julien S Baker
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of BMI, WC, and WHtR to identify increased cardiometabolic risk in pre-adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 192 children (10.92 ± 0.58 years, 56% female) from the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the discriminatory ability of BMI, WC and WHtR to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, and glucose)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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