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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241900/a-latent-class-of-their-own-response-patterns-in-trading-off-quantity-and-quality-of-life-in-time-trade-off-exercises
#1
F E van Nooten, K Houghton, J van Exel, M van Agthoven, W B F Brouwer, D E Stull
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results regarding associations of time trade-off (TTO) valuations with respondent characteristics have been reported, mostly on the basis of regression analyses. Alternative approaches, such as the latent class analysis (LCA), may add to the further understanding of variations in TTO responses. OBJECTIVES: To identify whether subgroups of respondents can be identified on the basis of their responses to TTO exercises and to investigate which respondent characteristics are associated with membership of the identified subgroups...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235115/the-mechanistic-basis-of-demographic-allee-effects-the-search-for-mates
#2
Anna Kuparinen
In Focus: Berec, L., Kremer, A.M., Bernhauverova, V., & Drake, J.M. (2017). Density-dependent selection on mate-finding Allee effects. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12662 In Focus: Shaw, A.K., Kokko, H., & Neubert, M.G. (2017). Details of mate finding drive dynamics of sex structured invasions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12658 Lowered population growth ability at low abundances is called the demographic Allee effect. The difficulty of finding mates in a sparse population is the best documented pathway through which a demographic Allee effect might arise...
January 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228958/sero-prevalence-risk-factors-and-distribution-of-sheep-and-goat-pox-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#3
Tsegaw Fentie, Nigusie Fenta, Samson Leta, Wassie Molla, Birhanu Ayele, Yechale Teshome, Seleshe Nigatu, Ashenafi Assefa
BACKGROUND: Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease...
December 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225350/maternal-by-environment-but-not-genotype-by-environment-interactions-in-a-fish-without-parental-care
#4
Regina Vega-Trejo, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Loeske E B Kruuk
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203178/fruit-flies-may-face-a-nutrient-dependent-life-history-trade-off-between-secondary-sexual-trait-quality-survival-and-developmental-rate
#5
Lindsey J Gray, Stephen J Simpson, Michal Polak
Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188010/effects-of-macronutrient-intake-on-the-lifespan-and-fecundity-of-the-marula-fruit-fly-ceratitis-cosyra-tephritidae-extreme-lifespan-in-a-host-specialist
#6
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187992/field-evidence-challenges-the-often-presumed-relationship-between-early-male-maturation-and-female-biased-sexual-size-dimorphism
#7
Marie-Claire Chelini, Eileen Hebets
Female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female-biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for small male size/large female size...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175092/differences-in-resistance-to-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-deficiencies-explain-male-biased-populations-of-poplar-in-nutrient-deficient-habitats
#8
Haifeng Song, Yanbao Lei, Sheng Zhang
In most forest soils, the availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrients is low and unable to meet the requirement of tree growth. In the past decades, sex-based differences in poplar have been investigated in morphology and physiology. Proteomic techniques provide new insights into sex-specific differences at the molecular level. This review gives a comparative overview of the effects of N and P deficiencies on poplar physiological and proteomic characteristics. Male poplars are more efficient at photosynthesis and nutrient usage than females...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163268/sex-differences-in-intergenerational-income-transmission-and-educational-attainment-testing-the-trivers-willard-hypothesis
#9
Katharina E Pink, Anna Schaman, Martin Fieder
From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158981/fitness-implications-of-sex-specific-catch-up-growth-in-nephila-senegalensis-a-spider-with-extreme-reversed-ssd
#10
Rainer Neumann, Nicole Ruppel, Jutta M Schneider
Background: Animal growth is often constrained by unfavourable conditions and divergences from optimal body size can be detrimental to an individual's fitness, particularly in species with determinate growth and a narrow time-frame for life-time reproduction. Growth restriction in early juvenile stages can later be compensated by means of plastic developmental responses, such as adaptive catch-up growth (the compensation of growth deficits through delayed development). Although sex differences regarding the mode and degree of growth compensation have been coherently predicted from sex-specific fitness payoffs, inconsistent results imply a need for further research...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156995/combined-repeated-dose-and-reproductive-developmental-toxicity-screening-test-of-benzene-1-1-oxybis-tetrapropylene-derivs-in-rats
#11
Yasuhiro Tsubokura, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Sunao Aso, Toshio Kobayashi, Takayuki Koga, Satsuki Hoshuyama, Yutaka Oshima, Katsumi Miyata, Yuji Kusune, Takako Muroi, Naoki Hashizume, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Shozo Ajimi, Kotaro Furukawa
We have conducted animal toxicity tests of chemicals for a chemical safety program implemented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. Here we conducted a combined repeated-dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of benzene, 1,1'-oxybis-, tetrapropylene derivs. (BOTD). BOTD was administered to 9-week-old Crl:CD(SD) male and female rats by gavage at 0, 40, 200, or 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were treated for 42 days including mating period. Females were treated for 42-53 days through the premating, mating, pregnancy, and until Day 4 of lactation periods...
November 20, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130073/patterns-of-mortality-by-occupation-in-the-uk-1991-2011-a-comparative-analysis-of-linked-census-and-mortality-records
#12
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Alastair H Leyland, Martin McKee, Kevin Ralston, David Stuckler
Background: Detailed assessments of mortality by occupation are scarce. We aimed to assess mortality by occupation in the UK, differences in rates between England and Wales and Scotland, and changes over time in Scotland. Methods: We analysed adults of working age (20-59 years) using linked census and death records. Main occupation was coded into more than 60 groups in the 2001 census, with mortality follow-up until Dec 31, 2011. Comparable occupation data were available for Scotland in 1991, allowing assessment of trends over time...
November 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124410/absence-of-haemosporidian-parasite-infections-in-the-long-lived-cory-s-shearwater-evidence-from-molecular-analyses-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Letizia Campioni, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Jordi Figuerola, José Pedro Granadeiro, Mónica C Silva, Paulo Catry
The apparent scarcity or absence of blood parasites in some avian groups, such as seabirds, has been related to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host immunological capacity, host-parasite assemblage, and ecological parameters, but also to reduced sensitivity of some methods to detect low parasite prevalence/intensities of infection. Here, we examined the haemosporidian parasite prevalence in a breeding population of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis, a long-distance migrant seabird, nesting in the Macaronesian region, in the Eastern Atlantic...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124117/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-severe-cognitive-impairment-the%C3%A2-role-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Sean A P Clouston, Oren Shapira, Roman Kotov, Lan Lei, Monika Waszczuk, Evelyn J Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), a common treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were recently associated with increased risk of dementia. However, severe or chronic stress including, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not accounted for. This study examined whether PPI use was associated with severe cognitive impairment (SCI) and whether PTSD explained this association in a cohort of World Trade Center (WTC) responders. Method: A prospective cohort study of 3779 WTC responders attending a university-based monitoring and treatment program...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100827/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-fatigability-in-response-to-load-carriage-in-the-field-in-british-army-recruits
#15
Thomas J O'Leary, Samantha C Saunders, Stephen J McGuire, Rachel M Izard
OBJECTIVES: Women are resistant to neuromuscular fatigue compared to men in response to a range of exercise tasks. The sex differences in the neuromuscular responses to load carriage have yet to be investigated. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twenty-three male and 19 female British Army recruits completed a 9.7km loaded march within 90min, with the weight carried dependent on military trade (16±2kg for men and 15±1kg for women)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100086/genome-wide-ancestry-and-demographic-history-of-african-descendant-maroon-communities-from-french-guiana-and-suriname
#16
Cesar Fortes-Lima, Antoine Gessain, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Maria-Cátira Bortolini, Florence Migot-Nabias, Gil Bellis, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Berta Nelly Restrepo, Winston Rojas, Efren Avendaño-Tamayo, Gabriel Bedoya, Ludovic Orlando, Antonio Salas, Agnar Helgason, M Thomas P Gilbert, Martin Sikora, Hannes Schroeder, Jean-Michel Dugoujon
The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081540/harvesting-wildlife-affected-by-climate-change-a-modelling-and-management-approach-for-polar-bears
#17
Eric V Regehr, Ryan R Wilson, Karyn D Rode, Michael C Runge, Harry L Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity (K). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K, and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072312/stable-isotope-analysis-of-a-pre-hispanic-andean-community-reconstructing-pre-wari-and-wari-era-diets-in-the-hinterland-of-the-wari-empire-peru
#18
Tiffiny A Tung, Kelly J Knudson
OBJECTIVES: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis is used to reconstruct diet among a pre-Hispanic population from the Peruvian Andes to evaluate whether local foodways changed with Wari imperial influence in the region. This study also compares local diet to other Wari-era sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples derive from the site of Beringa in Peru and correspond primarily to pre-Wari (200-600 CE) and Wari (600-1,000 CE). We examine stable carbon isotopes from enamel (n = 29) and bone apatite (n = 22), and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from bone collagen (n = 29), and we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data on archaeological and modern fauna (n = 37) and plants (n = 19) from the region...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057949/immunosenescence-patterns-differ-between-populations-but-not-between-sexes-in-a-long-lived-mammal
#19
L Cheynel, J-F Lemaître, J-M Gaillard, B Rey, G Bourgoin, H Ferté, M Jégo, F Débias, M Pellerin, L Jacob, E Gilot-Fromont
In animals, physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive and actuarial senescence remain poorly understood. Immunosenescence, the decline in the ability to display an efficient immune response with increasing age, is likely to influence both reproductive and actuarial senescence through increased risk of disease. Evidence for such a link has been reported from laboratory animal models but has been poorly investigated in the wild, where variation in resource acquisitions usually drives life-history trade-offs...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040631/longevity-fertility-and-fecundity-of-adult-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-held-at-varying-densities-implications-for-use-in-bioconversion-of-waste
#20
Nina Jennifer Parry, Elsje Pieterse, Christopher William Weldon
Large numbers of flies are needed to produce the quantity of larvae required for insect bioconversion of waste. However, this 'mass-rearing' may negatively affect adult survival and reproductive output. This study assessed the suitability for mass-rearing of four blow fly species, Chrysomya chloropyga, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen). Flies were kept at densities of 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 flies per 30 × 30 × 30 cm cage with an even sex ratio...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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