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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809769/adverse-experiences-in-childhood-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-risk-from-adolescence-into-adulthood
#1
Stephanie London, Kelly Quinn, Joy D Scheidell, B Christopher Frueh, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual abuse, has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors later in life. We aimed to evaluate associations between a broad range of childhood traumas and sexual risk behaviors from adolescence into adulthood. METHODS: Using data from Waves I, III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR (AOR) for associations between 9 childhood traumas and a cumulative trauma score and three sexual risk outcomes (multiple partnerships, sex trade involvement, and sexually transmitted infection [STI]) in adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803518/a-feminist-intervention-that-hurt-women-biological-differences-ergonomics-and-occupational-health-une-intervention-f%C3%A3-ministe-qui-a-nui-aux-femmes-diff%C3%A3-rences-biologiques-%C3%A3-galit%C3%A3-ergonomie-et-sant%C3%A3-au-travail
#2
Karen Messing
The University of Québec in Montréal has agreements with trade unions providing access to university resources. Researchers involved in this program worked in partnership with union women's and health and safety committees for more than twenty years. Not all studies succeeded in improving women's working conditions. One joint project involved observational studies of tasks done by health-care workers, complemented by interviews and questionnaires. We found that task assignments, movements, postures, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied by gender/sex and made recommendations for change...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801426/patient-preferences-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-after-injury-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Bryce E Haac, Nathan N O'Hara, C Daniel Mullins, Deborah M Stein, Theodore T Manson, Herman Johal, Renan Castillo, Robert V O'Toole, Gerald P Slobogean
OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence for the optimal venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis regimen in orthopaedic trauma leads to variability in regimens. We sought to delineate patient preferences towards cost, complication profile, and administration route (oral tablet vs. subcutaneous injection). DESIGN: Discrete choice experiment (DCE). SETTING: Level 1 trauma center in Baltimore, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 232 adult trauma patients (mean age 47...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791534/human-capital-accumulation-and-its-effect-on-agribusiness-performance-the-case-of-china
#4
Thomas Bilaliib Udimal, Zhuang Jincai, Emmanuel Caesar Ayamba, Patrick Boateng Sarpong
This study investigates the effect of accumulated human capital on the performance of agribusinesses in China. Four hundred fifty agribusiness owners were interviewed for the study. Growth in sales over the last 5 years was used as a measure of performance. The following variables were reviewed and captured as those constituting human capital: education, raised in the area, parents being entrepreneurs, attending business seminars/trade fairs, managerial experience, similar work experience, cooperative membership, and training...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781218/risk-factors-for-nocturnal-hypoglycemia-in-insulin-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-secondary-analysis-of-observational-data-derived-from-an-integrated-clinical-trial-database
#5
Jay P Bae, Ran Duan, Haoda Fu, Byron J Hoogwerf
PURPOSE: A trade-off exists in most diabetes therapies between the benefits of good glycemic control and the morbidity of hypoglycemia. Balancing these factors to achieve desired outcomes is a key consideration for personalized diabetes therapy. Hypoglycemia at night (nocturnal hypoglycemia [NH]) is a common but often under-reported problem in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. To better understand the risk for NH, we pooled data from multiple clinical trials of insulin treatment and specifically examined NH risk factors in relation to glycemic goals...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771863/sex-specific-compensatory-growth-in-the-larvae-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#6
Sanita Kecko, Anna Mihailova, Katariina Kangassalo, Didzis Elferts, Tatjana Krama, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J Rantala, Indrikis A Krams
Deficiency of food resources in ontogeny is known to prolong an organism's developmental time and affect body size in adulthood. Yet life history traits are plastic: an organism can increase its growth rate to compensate for a period of slow growth, a phenomenon known as 'compensatory growth'. We tested whether larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella can accelerate their growth after a fast of 12, 24 or 72 h. We found that a subgroup of female larvae showed compensatory growth when starved for 12 h...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766241/risky-trade-individual-and-neighborhood-level-socio-demographics-associated-with-transactional-sex-among-urban-african-american-msm
#7
Robin Stevens, Larry Icard, John B Jemmott, Ann O'Leary, Scott Rutledge, Janet Hsu, Alisa Stephens-Shields
There is a clear, persistent association between poverty and HIV risk and HIV infection. Low educational attainment, neighborhood disadvantage, and residential instability are ways in which poverty is instrumentally experienced in urban America. We investigated the role of lived poverty at both the individual and neighborhood levels in transactional sex behavior among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in urban neighborhoods. Using population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, we identified individual-level and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with exchanging sex for drugs and/or money...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764681/a-brief-trauma-informed-intervention-increases-safety-behavior-and-reduces-hiv-risk-for-drug-involved-women-who-trade-sex
#8
Michele R Decker, Catherine Tomko, Erin Wingo, Anne Sawyer, Sarah Peitzmeier, Nancy Glass, Susan G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are an important population for HIV acquisition and transmission. Their risks are shaped by behavioral, sexual network, and structural level factors. Violence is pervasive and associated with HIV risk behavior and infection, yet interventions to address the dual epidemics of violence and HIV among FSWs are limited. METHODS: We used participatory methods to develop a brief, trauma-informed intervention, INSPIRE (Integrating Safety Promotion with HIV Risk Reduction), to improve safety and reduce HIV risk for FSWs...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764585/sexual-transactions-between-long-distance-truck-drivers-and-female-sex-workers-in-south-africa
#9
Nosipho Faith Makhakhe, Tim Lane, James McIntyre, Helen Struthers
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) and long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) are considered key populations at high risk for HIV transmission due to high prevalence. The intersection of these mobile populations presents unique challenges in the fight against HIV and the movement towards reducing new infections. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of sex trade along a particular transport route. Sexual transactions and the vulnerabilities that exist between these two groups with regards to HIV/AIDS are described, with the purpose of furthering the agenda for targeted interventions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757356/flibanserin-from-bench-to-bedside
#10
REVIEW
Erin M Dooley, Melanie K Miller, Anita H Clayton
INTRODUCTION: The process of approval for flibanserin (trade name Addyi) has been associated with controversy since before its approval on August 18, 2015. This argument centered on challenges to the validity of the diagnosis of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women and the safety and efficacy of the drug. AIM: To explore the process of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for flibanserin and delve further into the research, concerns, and various roadblocks to its approval...
July 27, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744878/explaining-sex-differences-in-lifespan-in-terms-of-optimal-energy-allocation-in-the-baboon
#11
Annette M King, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Daryl P Shanley
We provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that sex role specialisation may account for sex differences in lifespan in baboons if such specialisation causes the dependency of fitness upon longevity, and consequently the optimal resolution to an energetic trade-off between somatic maintenance and other physiological functions, to differ between males and females. We present a model in which females provide all offspring care and males compete for access to reproductive females and in which the partitioning of available energy between the competing fitness-enhancing functions of growth, maintenance and reproduction is modelled as a dynamic behavioural game, with the optimal decision for each individual depending upon his/her state and the behaviour of other members of the population...
July 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725435/biogeophysical-and-physiological-processes-drive-movement-patterns-in-a-marine-predator
#12
Lucy A Howey, Bradley M Wetherbee, Emily R Tolentino, Mahmood S Shivji
BACKGROUND: Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) are among the most abundant and widely distributed of oceanic elasmobranchs. Millions are taken annually in pelagic longline fisheries and comprise the highest component of auctioned fin weight in the international shark fin trade. Though studies of blue sharks outnumber those of other large pelagic sharks, the species' complicated and sexually segregated life history still confound current understanding of Atlantic movement patterns. Lack of detailed information regarding movement and vertical behavior continues to limit management efforts that require such data for stock assessment and sustainable catch modeling...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720021/ricky-and-lucy-gender-stereotyping-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-deep-south-and-the-implications-for-hiv-risk-in-a-severely-affected-population
#13
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Emma Sophia Kay, Ian Klinger, Matt G Mutchler
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707221/modelling-the-evolution-of-traits-in-a-two-sex-population-with-an-application-to-grandmothering
#14
Matthew H Chan, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
We present a mathematical simplification for the evolutionary dynamics of a heritable trait within a two-sex population. This trait is assumed to control the timing of sex-specific life-history events, such as the age of sexual maturity and end of female fertility, and each sex has a distinct fitness trade-off associated with the trait. We provide a formula for the fitness landscape of the population and show a natural extension of the result to an arbitrary number of heritable traits. Our method can be viewed as a dynamical systems generalisation of the Price equation to include two sexes, age structure and multiple traits...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689710/colder-is-better-the-differential-effects-of-thermal-acclimation-on-life-history-parameters-in-a-parasitoid-fly
#15
Jorge Zamorano, Francisco Bozinovic, Claudio Veloso
In this article, we assessed the effect of the rearing temperature on life history traits of the poorly known fly Phasmovora phasmophagae (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of Agathemera crassa (Phasmatodea: Agathemeridae) in order to: i) test the effect of ambient temperature on life history traits and ii) assess the potential trade-off between reproduction and survival. Parasitoids were obtained from a population of hosts located in the Andes range of central Chile. Upon emergence from the host parasitoids were randomly allocated to three thermal treatments (15°C, 22...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686079/experimental-manipulation-of-corticosterone-does-not-influence-the-clearance-rate-of-plasma-testosterone-in-birds
#16
Pierre Deviche, Stève Desaivre, Mathieu Giraudeau
In vertebrates, exposure to acute stressors stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids such as corticosterone, and in some situations this hormone plays an important role in orchestrating the trade-off that exists between reproduction and self-maintenance. Stressful conditions often lead to a decrease in plasma levels of sex steroids such as testosterone in males, and it has been hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to this decrease. Generally supporting this proposition, glucocorticoids can inhibit the reproductive axis activity at multiple levels, including direct effects on testicular endocrine function...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681167/education-gains-attributable-to-fertility-decline-patterns-by-gender-period-and-country-in-latin-america-and-asia
#17
Jing Li, William H Dow, Luis Rosero-Bixby
We investigate the heterogeneity across countries and time in the relationship between mother's fertility and children's educational attainment-the quantity-quality (Q-Q) trade-off-by using census data from 17 countries in Asia and Latin America, with data from each country spanning multiple census years. For each country-year, we estimate micro-level instrumental variables models predicting secondary school attainment using number of siblings of the child, instrumented by the sex composition of the first two births in the family...
August 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678904/viral-hepatitis-in-female-sex-workers-using-the-respondent-driven-sampling
#18
Marcos André de Matos, Divânia Dias da Silva França, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Raquel Silva Pinheiro, Lyriane Apolinário de Araújo, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Marcia Alves Dias de Matos, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Sheila Araújo Teles
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses...
June 26, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675768/experimental-evolution-reveals-differences-between-phenotypic-and-evolutionary-responses-to-population-density
#19
Kathryn B McNamara, Leigh W Simmons
Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660545/further-mathematical-modelling-of-mating-sex-ratios-male-strategies-with-special-relevance-to-human-life-history
#20
Sara L Loo, Matthew H Chan, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Influential models of male reproductive strategies have often ignored the importance of mate guarding, focusing instead on trade-offs between fitness gained through care for dependants in a pair bond versus fitness from continued competition for additional mates. Here we follow suggestions that mate guarding is a distinct alternative strategy that plays a crucial role, with special relevance to the evolution of our own lineage. Human pair bonding may have evolved in concert with the evolution of our grandmothering life history, which entails a shift to male-biased sex ratios in the fertile ages...
June 28, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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