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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019161/assessing-the-use-of-a-feedback-module-to-model-eq-5d-5l-health-states-values-in-hong-kong
#1
Eliza L Y Wong, Juan Manuel Ramos-Goñi, Annie W L Cheung, Amy Y K Wong, Oliver Rivero-Arias
BACKGROUND: An international valuation protocol exists for obtaining societal values for each of the 3125 health states of the five-level EuroQol-five dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. A feedback module (FM) that can be related to theoretical models used in behavioral economics was recently included in this protocol. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the impact of using an FM to estimate an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong. METHODS: EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited using a composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and a discrete-choice (DC) experiment...
October 10, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993657/measuring-selection-for-genes-that-promote-long-life-in-a-historical-human-population
#2
Jacob A Moorad, Craig A Walling
The unusually long lifespans of humans and the persistence of post-reproductive lifespans in women represent evolutionary puzzles because natural selection cannot directly favour continued living in post-menopausal women or elderly men. Suggested sources of indirect selection require genetic correlations between fitness and survival or reproduction at younger ages, reproduction in the opposite sex, or late-life contributions to offspring or grandoffspring fitness. Here we apply quantitative genetic analyses to data from a historical human population to explicitly test these evolutionary genetic hypotheses...
October 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992103/maternal-programming-of-body-weight-in-syrian-hamsters
#3
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992053/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-approaches-to-understanding-trade-offs-food-sex-aggression-stress-and-longevity-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#4
Jill E Schneider, Pierre Deviche
Life history strategies are composed of multiple fitness components, each of which incurs costs and benefits. Consequently, organisms cannot maximize all fitness components simultaneously. This situation results in a dynamic array of trade-offs in which some fitness traits prevail at the expense of others, often depending on context. The identification of specific constraints and trade-offs has helped elucidate physiological mechanisms that underlie variation in behavioral and physiological life history strategies...
September 11, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985338/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-the-trade-off-between-reproductive-and-ingestive-behavior
#5
Jill E Schneider, Noah A Benton, Kim A Russo, Candice M Klingerman, Wilbur P Williams, Jessica Simberlund, Amir Abdulhay, Jeremy M Brozek, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Ingestive and sex behaviors are important for individual survival and reproductive success, but when environmental energy availability is limited, individuals of many different species make a trade-off, forfeiting sex for ingestive behavior. For example, food-deprived female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) forego vaginal scent marking and lordosis (sex behaviors) in favor of foraging, hoarding, and eating food (ingestive behavior). Reproductive processes tend to be energetically costly, and individual survival requires homeostasis in metabolic energy...
July 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985156/barriers-to-accessing-detox-facilities-substance-use-treatment-and-residential-services-among-women-impacted-by-commercial-sexual-exploitation-trafficking
#6
Lara B Gerassi
More than 50% of women entering substance use treatment in the U.S. reported having traded sex for money or drugs. Women's participation in addiction treatment and related services is essential to their recovery and increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. This paper's aim is to explore the barriers related to accessing detox facilities and essential services including substance use treatment and residential services for women impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). Data are drawn from a larger, community-based, grounded theory study...
October 6, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976046/positive-effects-of-refugee-presence-on-host-community-nutritional-status-in-turkana-county-kenya
#7
Rieti G Gengo, Rahul C Oka, Varalakshmi Vemuru, Mark Golitko, Lee T Gettler
OBJECTIVES: Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. METHODS: Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972839/prejudices-in-cultural-contexts-shared-stereotypes-gender-age-versus-variable-stereotypes-race-ethnicity-religion
#8
Susan T Fiske
Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938440/sex-differences-in-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-response-to-dietary-protein-dilution
#9
Karlton R Larson, Kimberly A Russo, Yanbin Fang, Niloufar Mohajerani, Michael L Goodson, Karen K Ryan
Consumption of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet induces a striking increase in circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and increased longevity. Increased lifespan during this dietary protein "dilution" has been explained by resource-mediated trade-offs between reproduction and survival, such that fecundity is optimized at a greater relative intake of proteins/carbohydrates. The magnitude of this trade-off is thought to be sex-dependent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic responses to dietary protein dilution are likewise dependent on sex...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938418/androgens-support-male-acrobatic-courtship-behavior-by-enhancing-muscle-speed-and-easing-the-severity-of-its-trade-off-with-force
#10
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921784/the-evolution-of-gonad-expenditure-and-gonadosomatic-index-gsi-in-male-and-female-broadcast-spawning-invertebrates
#11
Geoff A Parker, Steven A Ramm, Jussi Lehtonen, Jonathan M Henshaw
Sedentary broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, which release both eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization, are of special interest for sexual selection studies. They provide unique insight into the early stages of the evolutionary succession leading to the often-intense operation of both pre- and post-mating sexual selection in mobile gonochorists. Since they are sessile or only weakly mobile, adults can interact only to a limited extent with other adults and with their own fertilized offspring...
September 18, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904381/sexual-size-dimorphism-modulates-the-trade-off-between-exploiting-food-and-wind-resources-in-a-large-avian-scavenger
#12
Pablo A E Alarcón, Juan M Morales, José A Donázar, José A Sánchez-Zapata, Fernando Hiraldo, Sergio A Lambertucci
Animals are expected to synchronize activity routines with the temporal patterns at which resources appear in nature. Accordingly, species that depend on resources showing temporally mismatched patterns should be expected to schedule routines that balance the chances of exploiting each of them. Large avian scavengers depend on carcasses which are more likely available early in the morning, but they also depend on wind resources (i.e. uplifts) to subside flight which are stronger in afternoon hours. To understand how these birds deal with this potential trade-off, we studied the daily routines of GPS-tagged individuals of the world's largest terrestrial soaring scavenger, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus)...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900296/the-causes-and-ecological-correlates-of-head-scale-asymmetry-and-fragmentation-in-a-tropical-snake
#13
Gregory P Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey, Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890218/serum-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-cardiometabolic-consequences-in-adolescents-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-disaster-and-a-matched-comparison-group
#14
Tony T Koshy, Teresa M Attina, Akhgar Ghassabian, Joseph Gilbert, Lauren K Burdine, Michael Marmor, Masato Honda, Dinh Binh Chu, Xiaoxia Han, Yongzhao Shao, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Elaine M Urbina, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: Large amounts of various chemical contaminants, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), were released at the time of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Thousands of children who lived and/or attended school near the disaster site were exposed to these substances but few studies have examined the possible consequences related to these exposures. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of PFASs serum levels with cardiometabolic profile in children and adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) and a matched comparison group...
September 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876499/the-short-term-impact-of-the-alcohol-act-on-alcohol-related-deaths-and-hospital-admissions-in-scotland-a-natural-experiment
#15
Mark Robinson, Janet Bouttell, James Lewsey, Daniel Mackay, Gerry McCartney, Clare Beeston
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland on 1 October 2011, which included a ban on multi-buy promotions, was probably associated with a fall in off-trade alcohol sales in the year after its implementation. The aim of this study was to test if the same legislation was associated with reduced levels of alcohol-related deaths and hospital admissions in the 3-year period after its introduction. DESIGN: A natural experiment design using time-series data to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act legislation in Scotland...
September 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875435/client-and-partner-violence-among-urban-female-exotic-dancers-and-intentions-for-seeking-support-and-justice
#16
Michele R Decker, Jennifer E Nail, Sahnah Lim, Katherine Footer, Wendy Davis, Susan G Sherman
Urban female exotic dancers are thought to experience unique risk for violence and barriers to care, though limited research has focused on this aspect of urban sex industries. We characterize recent client-perpetrated and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their correlates, and describe women's intentions for violence-related help-seeking, among venue-based exotic dancers in a high-risk urban environment. We conducted a cross-sectional study with new female exotic dancers (n = 117) in Baltimore, MD. Over one third (36%) reported intimate partner violence (IPV), and 16% reported client physical or sexual violence, in the six months prior to the survey...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872418/pregnancy-planning-preferences-among-people-and-couples-affected-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-piloting-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#17
Mona Loutfy, V Logan Kennedy, Morvarid Sanandaji, Fatimatou Barry, Fanta Ongoiba, Marvelous Muchenje, Wangari Tharao, Dean A Regier
Decision-making related to pregnancy planning is complex and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may further complicate the process. With increasing rates of pregnancy among individuals affected by HIV, the need to understand decision-making is imperative. The primary objectives of this pilot study were to confirm the feasibility of using discrete choice experimentation (DCE) to elicit an understanding of this process and to determine the acceptability of the choice factors that were included in two novel DCEs, while gathering a preliminary understanding of preference...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862527/agency-lapse-in-condom-use-and-relationship-intimacy-among-female-sex-workers-in-jamaica
#18
Althea E Bailey, John Peter Figueroa
This paper explores barriers to consistent condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica in a qualitative study using grounded theory. Multiple perspectives were sought through 44 in-depth interviews conducted with female sex workers, clients, the partners of sex workers and facilitators of sex work. Poverty and lack of education or skills, severely limited support systems as well as childhood abuse served to push the majority of participants into sex work and created vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. Despite these constraints, women found ways to exercise agency, ensure condom use, adopt protective measures and gain economic advantage in various aspects of the Jamaican sex trade...
September 1, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858981/individualizing-treatment-choices-in-the-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial
#19
João Pedro Ferreira, John Gregson, Kévin Duarte, François Gueyffier, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad, Stuart Pocock
BACKGROUND: Any treatment decision should be tailored to the individual patients' characteristics. A personalized approach aims to help better selecting the patients who are likely to benefit most from a treatment decision. In the systolic blood pressure intervention trial, intensive treatment reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events, but increased the rate of serious adverse events (SAEs). OBJECTIVES: To assess the trade-off between efficacy and safety to simultaneously quantify an individual patient's absolute benefit and absolute harm, helping clinicians making better therapeutic choices in daily practice...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838030/digest-a-replication-of-sexual-dimorphisms-in-size-and-longevity-in-a-simulated-baboon-population
#20
Drew M Altschul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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