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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543867/an-age-dependent-fitness-cost-of-migration-old-trans-saharan-migrating-spoonbills-breed-later-than-those-staying-in-europe-and-late-breeders-have-lower-recruitment
#1
Tamar Lok, Linde Veldhoen, Otto Overdijk, Joost M Tinbergen, Theunis Piersma
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. On the basis of the considerable variation that exists between and within species, and even within populations, we may be able to infer the (age- and sex-specific) ecological trade-offs and constraints moulding migration systems from assessments of fitness associated with migration and wintering in different areas. During three consecutive breeding seasons, we compared the reproductive performance (timing of breeding, breeding success, chick body condition and post-fledging survival) of Eurasian spoonbills Platalea leucorodia that breed at a single breeding site in The Netherlands, but migrate different distances (ca...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524791/sagittal-craniosynostosis-a-utility-outcomes-study
#2
Victoria Kuta, P Daniel McNeely, Simon Walling, Michael Bezuhly
OBJECTIVE Sagittal craniosynostosis results in a characteristic scaphocephalic head shape that is typically corrected surgically during a child's 1st year of life. The authors' objective was to determine the potential impact of being born with sagittal craniosynostosis by using validated health state utility assessment measures. METHODS An online utility assessment was designed to generate health utility scores for scaphocephaly, monocular blindness, and binocular blindness using standardized utility assessment tools, namely the visual analog scale (VAS) and the standard gamble (SG) and time trade-off (TTO) tests...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506206/females-of-a-gift-giving-spider-do-not-trade-sex-for-food-gifts-a-consequence-of-male-deception
#3
Irene Pandulli-Alonso, Agustín Quaglia, Maria J Albo
BACKGROUND: Polyandry is commonly maintained by direct benefits in gift-giving species, so females may remate as an adaptive foraging strategy. However, the assumption of a direct benefit fades in mating systems where male gift-giving behaviour has evolved from offering nutritive to worthless (non-nutritive) items. In the spider Paratrechalea ornata, 70% of gifts in nature are worthless. We therefore predicted female receptivity to be independent of hunger in this species. We exposed poorly-fed and well-fed females to multiple males offering nutritive gifts and well-fed females to males offering worthless gifts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499282/can-social-network-analysis-help-address-the-high-rates-of-bacterial-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-saskatchewan
#4
Molly A Trecker, Jo-Anne R Dillon, Kathy Lloyd, Maurice Hennink, Ann Jolly, Cheryl Waldner
BACKGROUND: Saskatchewan has one of the highest rates of gonorrhea among the Canadian provinces-more than double the national rate. In light of these high rates, and the growing threat of untreatable infections, improved understanding of gonorrhea transmission dynamics in the province and evaluation of the current system and tools for disease control are important. METHODS: We extracted data from a cross-sectional sample of laboratory-confirmed gonorrhea cases between 2003 and 2012 from the notifiable disease files of the Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region...
June 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497849/differential-investment-in-body-girths-by-sex-evidence-from-3d-photonic-scanning-in-a-thai-cohort
#5
Meghan K Shirley, Tim J Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C K Wells
OBJECTIVES: Life history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492343/multi-level-risk-factors-associated-with-sex-trading-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-kazakhstan-a-neglected-key-population
#6
Alissa Davis, Tina Jiwatram-Negrón, Sholpan Primbetova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Yelena Bilokon, Lyubov Chubukova, Nabila El-Bassel
Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490601/optimizing-mating-encounters-by-sexually-dimorphic-movements
#7
Nobuaki Mizumoto, Masato S Abe, Shigeto Dobata
All organisms with sexual reproduction undergo a process of mating, which essentially involves the encounter of two individuals belonging to different sexes. During mate search, both sexes should mutually optimize their encounters, thus raising a question of how they achieve this. Here, we show that a population with sexually dimorphic movement patterns achieves the highest individual mating success under a limited lifespan. Extensive simulations found and analytical approximations corroborated the existence of conditions under which sexual dimorphism in the movement patterns (i...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#8
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470817/a-genetic-analysis-of-meat-compositions-in-japanese-black-cattle-genetic-parameters-and-sex-influence
#9
A Onogi, S Sasaki, M Kobayashi, A Ogino, T Nozaki, K Kurogi, T Yasumori, K Togashi, H Iwata
Meat composition in beef is related to eating quality and food functionality. Genetic parameters for several meat compositions including free amino acid, peptide and sugar, however, remain poorly described. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters for 51 meat components, including free amino acids, peptides, sugars and fatty acid compositions, and two carcase traits in 1,354 heifers and 1,797 steers of Japanese Black cattle. Heritability estimates were generally equivalent to or moderately greater than those in previous studies of this breed...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#10
REVIEW
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: The Systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429742/crossing-lines-a-multidisciplinary-framework-for-assessing-connectivity-of-hammerhead-sharks-across-jurisdictional-boundaries
#11
A Chin, C A Simpfendorfer, W T White, G J Johnson, R B McAuley, M R Heupel
Conservation and management of migratory species can be complex and challenging. International agreements such as the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) provide policy frameworks, but assessments and management can be hampered by lack of data and tractable mechanisms to integrate disparate datasets. An assessment of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and great (Sphyrna mokarran) hammerhead population structure and connectivity across northern Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted to inform management responses to CMS and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species listings of these species...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#12
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398697/effects-of-targeting-lower-versus-higher-arterial-oxygen-saturations-on-death-or-disability-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Lisa M Askie, Brian A Darlow, Peter G Davis, Neil Finer, Ben Stenson, Maximo Vento, Robin Whyte
BACKGROUND: The use of supplemental oxygen in the care of extremely preterm infants has been common practice since the 1940s. Despite this, there is little agreement regarding which oxygen saturation (SpO₂) ranges to target to maximise short- or long-term growth and development, while minimising harms. There are two opposing concerns. Lower oxygen levels (targeting SpO₂ at 90% or less) may impair neurodevelopment or result in death. Higher oxygen levels (targeting SpO₂ greater than 90%) may increase severe retinopathy of prematurity or chronic lung disease...
April 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394412/population-density-and-structure-drive-differential-investment-in-pre-and-postmating-sexual-traits-in-frogs
#14
Stefan Lüpold, Long Jin, Wen Bo Liao
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade-off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions is currently scarce...
April 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379107/gender-and-sex-trading-among-active-methamphetamine-users-in-cape-town-south-africa
#15
Ryan R Lion, Melissa H Watt, Wendee M Wechsberg, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331582/lifetime-fitness-consequences-of-early-life-ecological-hardship-in-a-wild-mammal-population
#16
Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Francis Mwanguhya, Robert Businge, Solomon Kyabulima, Michelle C Hares, Emma Inzani, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kenneth Mwesige, Hazel J Nichols, Jennifer L Sanderson, Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant
Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286350/maternal-natal-environment-and-breeding-territory-predict-the-condition-and-sex-ratio-of-offspring
#17
E Keith Bowers, Charles F Thompson, Scott K Sakaluk
Females in a variety of taxa adjust offspring sex ratios to prevailing ecological conditions. However, little is known about whether conditions experienced during a female's early ontogeny influence the sex ratio of her offspring. We tested for past and present ecological predictors of offspring sex ratios among known-age females that were produced as offspring and bred as adults in a population of house wrens. The body condition of offspring that a female produced and the proportion of her offspring that were male were negatively correlated with the size of the brood in which she herself was reared...
March 2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284587/multiple-unintended-pregnancies-in-u-s-women-a-systematic-review
#18
E Angel Aztlan-James, Monica McLemore, Diana Taylor
BACKGROUND: Each year, nearly one-half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Risk factors of unintended pregnancy have been studied without attention to whether the pregnancy was the woman's first unintended pregnancy or whether she had had more than one. Little is known about the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for multiple unintended pregnancies. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the extant literature on the risk factors for multiple unintended pregnancies in women in the United States, and whether these factors are specific to multiple unintended pregnancies...
March 8, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240356/density-dependent-selection-on-mate-search-and-evolution-of-allee-effects
#19
Luděk Berec, Andrew M Kramer, Veronika Bernhauerová, John M Drake
Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high-density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239017/reducing-risky-sex-among-rural-african-american-cocaine-users-a-controlled-trial
#20
Katharine E Stewart, Patricia B Wright, Brooke E Montgomery, Donna Gullette, Leavonne Pulley, Songthip Ounpraseuth, Jeff Thostenson, Brenda Booth
Rural African American cocaine users experience high rates of STIs/HIV. This NIDA-funded trial tested an adapted evidence-based risk reduction program versus an active control condition. Participants were 251 African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas recruited from 2009-2011. Outcomes included condom use skills and self-efficacy, sexual negotiation skills, peer norms, and self-reported risk behavior. The intervention group experienced greater increases in condom use skills and overall effectiveness in sexual negotiation skills...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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