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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103247/bombyx-mori-p-element-somatic-inhibitor-bmpsi-is-a-key-auxiliary-factor-for-silkworm-male-sex-determination
#1
Jun Xu, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072670/instruments-to-identify-commercially-sexually-exploited-children-feasibility-of-use-in-an-emergency-department-setting
#2
Stephanie Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: This review examines the screening instruments that are in existence today to identify commercially sexually exploited children. The instruments are compared and evaluated for their feasibility of use in an emergency department setting. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched to identify screening instruments that assessed solely for commercial sexual exploitation. Search terms included "commercially sexually exploited children," "CSEC," "domestic minor sex trafficking," "DMST," "juvenile sex trafficking," and "JST...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065969/survellience-system-for-child-abuse-bridging-the-gap-between-actual-and-hidden-cases
#3
Maryam Pyar Ali Lakhdir, Yasmin Parpio, Salima Farooq
The dynamics of child abuse have been recognised as a global emerging social issue which is highly associated with child humiliation. The Government of Pakistan has taken many initiatives for addressing issues regarding child abuse and neglect and has designed laws to protect children against exploitation, abuse and violence; however, most of them are not enforced at all or poorly implemented due to lack of proper definition of child abuse and related terms, and different ways of reporting child abuse cases...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031024/sex-trafficking-and-sexual-exploitation-in-settings-affected-by-armed-conflicts-in-africa-asia-and-the-middle-east-systematic-review
#4
Alys McAlpine, Mazeda Hossain, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters...
December 28, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001494/practitioner-perspectives-on-child-sexual-exploitation-rapport-building-with-young-people
#5
Elizabeth C Ahern, Leslie A Sadler, Michael E Lamb, Gianna M Gariglietti
Young people suspected of being sexually exploited are unlikely to have made prior disclosures before being approached by authorities, and this can make them especially uncomfortable when involved in investigations. Semistructured interviews were conducted with frontline social workers and law enforcement practitioners about their experiences interacting with youth during child sexual exploitation investigations. The findings provided some tentative insights into the processes by which practitioners sought to establish rapport with young people who have been exploited and establish themselves as trustworthy abuse disclosure recipients...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997232/human-trafficking-of-minors-and-childhood-adversity-in-florida
#6
Joan A Reid, Michael T Baglivio, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
OBJECTIVES: To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. METHODS: We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. RESULTS: ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997044/major-host-transitions-are-modulated-through-transcriptome-wide-reprograming-events-in-schistocephalus-solidus-a-threespine-stickleback-parasite
#7
François Olivier Hébert, Stephan Grambauer, Iain Barber, Christian R Landry, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Parasites with complex life cycles have developed numerous phenotypic strategies, closely associated with developmental events, to enable the exploitation of different ecological niches and facilitate transmission between hosts. How these environmental shifts are regulated from a metabolic and physiological standpoint, however, still remain to be fully elucidated. We examined the transcriptomic response of Schistocephalus solidus, a trophically-transmitted parasite with a complex life cycle, over the course of its development in an intermediate host, the threespine stickleback, and the final avian host...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981501/theoretical-implications-of-gender-power-and-sexual-scripts-for-hiv-prevention-programs-aimed-at-young-substance-using-african-american-women
#8
Mandy Hill, Misha Granado, Angela Stotts
HIV continues to be a major public health problem for African-American (AA) women, and the burden of new cases to our society is significant because each case is at risk of infecting others. Substance use worsens the risk of HIV transmission to AA women. We provide specific recommendations to move the concept of tailoring HIV prevention interventions for substance users forward by focusing on young, sexually active, substance-using AA women and applying a culturally relevant revision to existing theoretical frameworks to include the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Gender and Power...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867075/sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-are-regulated-by-doublesex
#9
Jun Xu, Shuai Zhan, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Zhiqian Li, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866325/sexually-dimorphic-expression-of-reelin-in-the-brain-of-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#10
Giampiero Palladino, Vincenzina Nicolia, Gabor G Kovacs, Sonia Canterini, Viviana Ciraci, Andrea Fuso, Franco Mangia, Sigfrido Scarpa, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Recent evidence highlights the protective role of reelin against amyloid β (Aβ)-induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, exploiting TgCRND8 mice that overexpress a mutant form of amyloid β precursor protein (AβPP) and display an early onset of AD neuropathological signs, we addressed the question whether changes of reelin expression eventually precede the appearance of Aβ-plaques in a sex-dependent manner. We show that sex-associated and brain region-specific differences in reelin expression appear long before Aβ-plaque formation...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864499/project-no-rest-addressing-human-trafficking-in-north-carolina
#11
Dean F Duncan
Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking...
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858867/child-protection-medical-service-demonstration-centers-in-approaching-child-abuse-and-neglect-in-taiwan
#12
Yu-Ching Chang, Jing-Long Huang, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Kuang-Lin Lin, En-Pei Lee, I-Jun Chou, Yi-Chen Hsin, Fu-Song Lo, Chang-Teng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-fission-yeast-meiosis-alternative-splice-isoforms
#13
Zheng Kuang, Jef D Boeke, Stefan Canzar
Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here, we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14,353 alternative splicing events in 17,669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855724/biological-characterization-of-chemically-diverse-compounds-targeting-the-plasmodium-falciparum-coenzyme-a-synthesis-pathway
#14
Sabine Fletcher, Leonardo Lucantoni, Melissa L Sykes, Amy J Jones, John P Holleran, Kevin J Saliba, Vicky M Avery
BACKGROUND: In the fight against malaria, the discovery of chemical compounds with a novel mode of action and/or chemistry distinct from currently used drugs is vital to counteract the parasite's known ability to develop drug resistance. Another desirable aspect is efficacy against gametocytes, the sexual developmental stage of the parasite which enables the transmission through Anopheles vectors. Using a chemical rescue approach, we previously identified compounds targeting Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis or utilization, a promising target that has not yet been exploited in anti-malarial drug development...
November 17, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829365/comparative-genomics-provides-new-insights-into-the-diversity-physiology-and-sexuality-of-the-only-industrially-exploited-tremellomycete-phaffia-rhodozyma
#15
Nicolás Bellora, Martín Moliné, Márcia David-Palma, Marco A Coelho, Chris Todd Hittinger, José P Sampaio, Paula Gonçalves, Diego Libkind
BACKGROUND: The class Tremellomycete (Agaricomycotina) encompasses more than 380 fungi. Although there are a few edible Tremella spp., the only species with current biotechnological use is the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Cystofilobasidiales). Besides astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with potent antioxidant activity and great value for aquaculture and pharmaceutical industries, P. rhodozyma possesses multiple exceptional traits of fundamental and applied interest. The aim of this study was to obtain, and analyze two new genome sequences of representative strains from the northern (CBS 7918(T), the type strain) and southern hemispheres (CRUB 1149) and compre them to a previously published genome sequence (strain CBS 6938)...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828614/hiv-prevalence-in-children-and-youth-living-on-the-street-and-subject-to-commercial-sexual-exploitation-a-systematic-review
#16
Camilo Noreña-Herrera, Carlos Alberto Rojas, Lizeth Cruz-Jiménez
The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies' characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805042/functional-insights-into-the-testis-transcriptome-of-the-edible-sea-urchin-loxechinus-albus
#17
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roland Sánchez, Paulina Bruning, Leyla Cárdenas
The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797566/symptoms-and-beyond-self-concept-among-sexually-assaulted-women
#18
Hadar Keshet, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
Objective: The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects...
October 31, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788340/alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-context-how-demography-ecology-and-behavior-affect-male-mating-success
#19
John T Rotenberry, Marlene Zuk
Exploitation of sexual signals by predators or parasites increases costs to signalers, creating opportunities for establishment of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). In field crickets, males calling may attract acoustically orienting parasitoid flies. Alternatively, males behaving as satellites forgo calling and attempt to intercept females attracted to callers. We modeled the contribution of calling versus satellite behavior to male reproductive success in the larger context of variation in ecology (parasitism rate, background mortality), demography (density, sex ratio), and female behavior (phonotaxis, mating choosiness)...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783753/-concepts-in-women-trafficking-for-sexual-exploitation-a-survey-with-institutional-representatives-in-brazil-and-portugal
#20
Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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