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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867075/sexually-dimorphic-traits-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-are-regulated-by-doublesex
#1
Jun Xu, Shuai Zhan, Shuqing Chen, Baosheng Zeng, Zhiqian Li, Anthony A James, Anjiang Tan, Yongping Huang
The DM domain genes, doublesex (dsx) in insects, or their structural homologs, male abnormal 3 (mab-3) in nematodes and Dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1) in mammals, are downstream regulators of the sex determination pathway that control sexually dimorphic development. Despite the functional importance of dsx and its potential applications in sterile insect technologies (SITs), the mechanisms by which it controls sexually dimorphic traits and the subsequent developmental gene networks in insects are poorly understood...
November 17, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866325/sexually-dimorphic-expression-of-reelin-in-the-brain-of-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#2
Giampiero Palladino, Vincenzina Nicolia, Gabor G Kovacs, Sonia Canterini, Viviana Ciraci, Andrea Fuso, Franco Mangia, Sigfrido Scarpa, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Recent evidence highlights the protective role of reelin against amyloid β (Aβ)-induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, exploiting TgCRND8 mice that overexpress a mutant form of amyloid β precursor protein (AβPP) and display an early onset of AD neuropathological signs, we addressed the question whether changes of reelin expression eventually precede the appearance of Aβ-plaques in a sex-dependent manner. We show that sex-associated and brain region-specific differences in reelin expression appear long before Aβ-plaque formation...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864499/project-no-rest-addressing-human-trafficking-in-north-carolina
#3
Dean F Duncan
Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking...
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858867/child-protection-medical-service-demonstration-centers-in-approaching-child-abuse-and-neglect-in-taiwan
#4
Yu-Ching Chang, Jing-Long Huang, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Kuang-Lin Lin, En-Pei Lee, I-Jun Chou, Yi-Chen Hsin, Fu-Song Lo, Chang-Teng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-fission-yeast-meiosis-alternative-splice-isoforms
#5
Zheng Kuang, Jef D Boeke, Stefan Canzar
Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14353 alternative splicing events in 17669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts...
November 17, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855724/biological-characterization-of-chemically-diverse-compounds-targeting-the-plasmodium-falciparum-coenzyme-a-synthesis-pathway
#6
Sabine Fletcher, Leonardo Lucantoni, Melissa L Sykes, Amy J Jones, John P Holleran, Kevin J Saliba, Vicky M Avery
BACKGROUND: In the fight against malaria, the discovery of chemical compounds with a novel mode of action and/or chemistry distinct from currently used drugs is vital to counteract the parasite's known ability to develop drug resistance. Another desirable aspect is efficacy against gametocytes, the sexual developmental stage of the parasite which enables the transmission through Anopheles vectors. Using a chemical rescue approach, we previously identified compounds targeting Plasmodium falciparum coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis or utilization, a promising target that has not yet been exploited in anti-malarial drug development...
November 17, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829365/comparative-genomics-provides-new-insights-into-the-diversity-physiology-and-sexuality-of-the-only-industrially-exploited-tremellomycete-phaffia-rhodozyma
#7
Nicolás Bellora, Martín Moliné, Márcia David-Palma, Marco A Coelho, Chris Todd Hittinger, José P Sampaio, Paula Gonçalves, Diego Libkind
BACKGROUND: The class Tremellomycete (Agaricomycotina) encompasses more than 380 fungi. Although there are a few edible Tremella spp., the only species with current biotechnological use is the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Cystofilobasidiales). Besides astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with potent antioxidant activity and great value for aquaculture and pharmaceutical industries, P. rhodozyma possesses multiple exceptional traits of fundamental and applied interest. The aim of this study was to obtain, and analyze two new genome sequences of representative strains from the northern (CBS 7918(T), the type strain) and southern hemispheres (CRUB 1149) and compre them to a previously published genome sequence (strain CBS 6938)...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828614/hiv-prevalence-in-children-and-youth-living-on-the-street-and-subject-to-commercial-sexual-exploitation-a-systematic-review
#8
Camilo Noreña-Herrera, Carlos Alberto Rojas, Lizeth Cruz-Jiménez
The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies' characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805042/functional-insights-into-the-testis-transcriptome-of-the-edible-sea-urchin-loxechinus-albus
#9
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roland Sánchez, Paulina Bruning, Leyla Cárdenas
The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797566/symptoms-and-beyond-self-concept-among-sexually-assaulted-women
#10
Hadar Keshet, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
Objective: The unique characteristics of sexual assault (SA)-a toxic mix of an interpersonal harm, a violent exploitation of one's body, and a transformation of an act of connectedness into an act of submission-are postulated to negatively affect the self-concept. We sought to deepen the understanding of self-concept impairments among sexually assaulted women with varying levels of posttraumatic distress. To this end, we compared women with a main trauma of SA to women with a main trauma of motor-vehicle accident (MVA) and to nontraumatized (NT) women on several self-concept aspects...
October 31, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788340/alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-context-how-demography-ecology-and-behavior-affect-male-mating-success
#11
John T Rotenberry, Marlene Zuk
Exploitation of sexual signals by predators or parasites increases costs to signalers, creating opportunities for establishment of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). In field crickets, males calling may attract acoustically orienting parasitoid flies. Alternatively, males behaving as satellites forgo calling and attempt to intercept females attracted to callers. We modeled the contribution of calling versus satellite behavior to male reproductive success in the larger context of variation in ecology (parasitism rate, background mortality), demography (density, sex ratio), and female behavior (phonotaxis, mating choosiness)...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783753/-concepts-in-women-trafficking-for-sexual-exploitation-a-survey-with-institutional-representatives-in-brazil-and-portugal
#12
Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764133/intra-and-interspecific-interactions-as-proximate-determinants-of-sexual-dimorphism-and-allometric-trajectories-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-cetacea-odontoceti-delphinidae
#13
Maria Carla de Francesco, Anna Loy
Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764066/a-multidisciplinary-response-to-commercial-sexual-exploitation-of-children
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749932/can-social-protection-improve-sustainable-development-goals-for-adolescent-health
#15
Lucie D Cluver, F Mark Orkin, Franziska Meinck, Mark E Boyes, Alexa R Yakubovich, Lorraine Sherr
BACKGROUND: The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739929/elder-mistreatment-in-underserved-populations-opportunities-and-challenges-to-developing-a-contemporary-program-of-research
#16
Lori L Jervis, Sherry Hamby, Scott R Beach, Mary L Williams, Valerie Maholmes, Dorothy M Castille
This article provides an overview of the status of research on elder mistreatment among underserved populations in the United States, including gaps in our current knowledge base, scientific and structural barriers to growing research on the exploitation, neglect, and abuse of older people from diverse and disadvantaged ethnic/racial, geographic, sexual identity, and socioeconomic groups. High priority areas in need of new elder mistreatment research with underserved populations are identified, and suggestions are given for how this research can be facilitated by researchers, university institutional review boards, and funding agencies...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736874/eco-evolutionary-model-of-rapid-phenotypic-diversification-in-species-rich-communities
#17
Paula Villa Martín, Jorge Hidalgo, Rafael Rubio de Casas, Miguel A Muñoz
Evolutionary and ecosystem dynamics are often treated as different processes -operating at separate timescales- even if evidence reveals that rapid evolutionary changes can feed back into ecological interactions. A recent long-term field experiment has explicitly shown that communities of competing plant species can experience very fast phenotypic diversification, and that this gives rise to enhanced complementarity in resource exploitation and to enlarged ecosystem-level productivity. Here, we build on progress made in recent years in the integration of eco-evolutionary dynamics, and present a computational approach aimed at describing these empirical findings in detail...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708593/sexual-aggression-victimization-and-perpetration-among-male-and-female-college-students-in-chile
#18
Isabell Schuster, Barbara Krahé, Paola Ilabaca Baeza, José A Muñoz-Reyes
Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684495/discourses-of-masculinity-femininity-and-sexuality-in-uganda-s-stand-proud-get-circumcised-campaign
#19
Sarah Rudrum, John L Oliffe, Cecilia Benoit
This paper analyses discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Stand Proud, Get Circumcised, a public health campaign promoting circumcision as an HIV-prevention strategy in Uganda. The campaign includes posters highlighting the positive reactions of women to circumcised men, and is intended to support the national rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision. We offer a critical discourse analysis of representations of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in relation to HIV prevention. The campaign materials have a playful feel and, in contrast to ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Use condoms) campaigns, acknowledge the potential for pre-marital and extra-marital sex...
August 11, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683049/a-multidisciplinary-response-to-commercial-sexual-exploitation-of-children
#20
Pamela T Avila
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.
September 27, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
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