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nebulized antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#1
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904601/evaluation-effects-of-nebulized-gentamicin-in-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease
#2
Forogh Soltaninejad, Soleiman Kheiri, Roya Habibian, Arshia Amra, Shahin Asgari-Savadjani
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Exacerbation of COPD has negative effect on quality of life. Therapeutic effect of nebulized antibiotics in pulmonary infections has been reported previously. Hence, we evaluated the effect of nebulized gentamicin in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 86 hospitalized patients with AECOPD were divided into two groups for using nebulized gentamicin twice daily (case group) and placebo (control group) for 5 days in addition to standard treatment...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888909/topical-therapies-for-refractory-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#3
REVIEW
Akshay Sanan, Mindy Rabinowitz, Marc Rosen, Gurston Nyquist
Topical therapy has become an important tool in the otolaryngologist's armamentarium for refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Daily high-volume sinonasal saline irrigation and standard metered-dose topical nasal steroid therapy are supported by the most evidence. Nonstandard topical sinonasal steroid therapies are a potential option for refractory CRS. Current evidence recommends against the use of topical antifungal therapy and topical antibiotic therapy delivered using spray and nebulized techniques in routine cases of CRS...
February 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762515/a-cross-sectional-cohort-analyses-assessing-response-to-levosalbutamol-bronchodilatory-cough-formulations-in-outpatient-community-settings-of-india-bus-analyses
#4
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684296/determination-of-colistin-and-colistimethate-levels-in-human-plasma-and-urine-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Kevin Bihan, Qin Lu, Manon Enjalbert, Maxime Apparuit, Olivier Langeron, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Christian Funck-Brentano, Noël Zahr
BACKGROUND: Colistin is a polypeptide antibiotic from the polymyxin E group used for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. The main constituents, accounting for approximately 85% of this mixture, are colistin A (polymyxin E1) and colistin B (polymyxin E2). The aim of this study was to develop and validate new and fast methods of quantification of colistin A and B and its precursors [colistin methanesulfonate sodium (CMS) A and B] by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine with short pretreatment and run times...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676452/molecular-modeling-and-redesign-of-alginate-lyase-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-for-accelerating-crpa-biofilm-degradation
#6
Hoon Cho, Xiaoqin Huang, Yu Lan Piao, Da Eun Kim, So Yeon Lee, Eun Jeong Yoon, So Hee Park, Kyoung Lee, Chul Ho Jang, Chang-Guo Zhan
Administration of an efficient alginate lyase (AlgL) or AlgL mutant may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Nevertheless, the catalytic activity of wild-type AlgL is not sufficiently high. It is highly desired to design and discover an AlgL mutant with significantly improved catalytic efficiency against alginate substrates. For the purpose of identifying an AlgL mutant with significantly improved catalytic activity, in this study, we first constructed and validated a structural model of AlgL interacting with substrate, providing a better understanding of the interactions between AlgL and its substrate...
December 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639659/formulation-and-characterization-of-nanocluster-ceftazidime-for-the-treatment-of-acute-pulmonary-melioidosis
#7
Sara I Ruiz, Nashwa El-Gendy, Larry E Bowen, Cory Berkland, Mark M Bailey
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease is responsible for a high proportion of human pneumonia and fatal bacteremia in the endemic areas of the world and is highly resistant to most commonly available antibiotics. Studies have shown that prophylactic antibiotic treatment, when administered 24 h following bacterial challenge, can prevent infection in a murine model. Prophylactic treatment against this disease using a pulmonary antibiotic formulation has not previously been examined, but may reduce the number of treatments required, allow for the delivery of higher doses, eliminate the need for intravenous administration, and help to minimize systemic side effects...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612893/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-assay-in-differentiating-congestive-heart-failure-from-lung-disease-in-patients-presenting-with-dyspnea
#8
M A Islam, M S Bari, M N Islam, M A Bari, S R Siddique, M Z Islam, M S Begum, S U Ahammed, M A Rahman
This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. After fulfilling the exclusion & inclusion criteria, B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were measured in a convenience sample of 100 predominantly male (94%) dyspnic patients who got admitted in Cardiology & Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014. The diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) was based on generally accepted Framingham criteria with corroborative information including hospital course (response to diuretics, vasodilators, inotropes or hemodynamic monitoring) and results of further cardiac testing, including echocardiography...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580323/an-outbreak-of-serratia-liquefaciens-at-a-rural-health-center-in-the-gambia
#9
Usman Nurudeen Ikumapayi, Abdoulie Kanteh, Jarra Manneh, Modou Lamin, Grant Austin Mackenzie
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are better documented in developed than in developing countries. There are emerging reports regarding the high frequency of HAIs in developing countries. We aimed to report an outbreak of an HAI caused by Serratia liquefaciens at a rural health center in The Gambia. METHODOLOGY: Following an abrupt increase in the isolation of S. liquefaciens in clinical samples, laboratory and clinical consumables, as well as staff, were screened for contamination with S...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516474/pharmacokinetics-of-high-dose-nebulized-amikacin-in-ventilated-critically-ill-patients
#10
A Petitcollin, P-F Dequin, F Darrouzain, L Vecellio, T Boulain, D Garot, G Paintaud, D Ternant, S Ehrmann
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic nebulization theoretically allows the delivery of high doses to the lungs together with limited systemic exposure and toxicity. This study aimed to describe amikacin pharmacokinetics, and especially its absorption, in patients treated with high-dose nebulized amikacin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty critically ill patients experiencing ventilator-associated pneumonia received a 20 mg/kg infusion of amikacin, followed by either three other infusions or three nebulizations of 60 mg/kg amikacin...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393775/chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Daniel L Hamilos
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is highly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and accounts for significant morbidity and contribution to CF lung disease. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene occur with increased prevalence in patients with CRS without CF, suggesting some contribution to CRS pathophysiology. Nasal polyps (NPs) occur with increased prevalence in patients with CF of all ages and have a more neutrophilic appearance with fewer eosinophils and increased submucosal glandular elements in comparison to NPs from patients without CF...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382817/peri-anesthesia-anaphylaxis-paa-we-still-have-not-started-post-paa-testing-for-inciting-anesthesia-related-allergens
#12
Taghreed Alshaeri, Deepak Gupta, Ananthamurthy Nagabhushana
Anaphylaxis during anesthesia is uncommon. Diagnosis of peri-anesthesia anaphylaxis (PAA) requires anesthesia providers' vigilance for prompt diagnosis and treatment. In this case report, we present a challenging case with suspected PAA including its perioperative management, intensive care unit (ICU) course, and post-discharge follow-up. A 44-year-old female (body mass index = 26) presented for elective abdominal panniculectomy. Post-intubation, severe bronchospasm occurred that was non-responsive to nebulized albuterol and intravenous epinephrine...
February 2016: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336220/inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#13
Susanna Esposito, Chiara Rosazza, Calogero Sathya Sciarrabba, Nicola Principi
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), primarily acute rhinopharyngitis, tonsillitis, adenoiditis, and rhinosinusitis (RS), are major causes of morbidity in both children and adults of any age. In addition to the frequent occurrence of related medical problems and the associated socioeconomic costs, URTIs have a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, and have placed an escalating financial burden on the global healthcare system. Most URTIs are caused by viruses and require only symptomatic treatment...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266281/-efficiency-of-nebulised-magnesium-sulphate-in-infective-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Şule Cömert, Esen Kıyan, Gülfer Okumuş, Orhan Arseven, Turhan Ece, Halim İşsever
INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results has been achieved in a small number of clinical studies evaluating the efficiency of magnesium sulphate (MS) in COPD exacerbations. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of nebulised MS in COPD exacerbations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients who met the study criteria were randomized into two groups. All patients were treated with O2, antibiotics and oral corticosteroids. Additionally one group received ipratropium bromide (IB) 500 µg together with MS 151 mg/dose, while the other group received IB together with placebo...
December 0: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192209/evaluation-of-the-interaction-between-the-poincianella-pyramidalis-tul-lp-queiroz-extract-and-antimicrobials-using-biological-and-analytical-models
#15
Thiago P Chaves, Felipe Hugo A Fernandes, Cleildo P Santana, Jocimar S Santos, Francinalva D Medeiros, Délcio C Felismino, Vanda L Santos, Raïssa Mayer R Catão, Henrique Douglas M Coutinho, Ana Cláudia D Medeiros
Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) LP Queiroz (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of northeastern Brazil, occurring mainly in the Caatinga. Its medicinal use is widespread and is an important therapeutic option against diarrhea, dysentery, and respiratory and urinary infections, among other diseases. In this study we determined the chemical marker and evaluated the interaction between P. pyramidalis extract and a commercial antimicrobial through the use of biological and analytical models. To obtain the extract, an ethanol-water mixture (50:50 v/v) was used as solvent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090889/nanoaerosols-reduce-required-effective-dose-of-liposomal-levofloxacin-against-pulmonary-murine-francisella-tularensis-subsp-novicida-infection
#16
Crystal N Propst, Albert O Nwabueze, Igor L Kanev, Rachel E Pepin, Bradford W Gutting, Victor N Morozov, Monique L van Hoek
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics in Moscow recently developed a new nanoaerosol generator. This study evaluated this novel technology, which has the potential to enhance therapeutic delivery, with the goal of using the generator to treat pulmonary Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (F. novicida) infections in BALB/c mice. RESULTS: First, the analysis of quantum dots distribution in cryosections of murine lungs demonstrated that nanoaerosols penetrate the alveoli and spread more homogenously in the lungs than upon intranasal delivery...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090532/characteristics-of-an-ideal-nebulized-antibiotic-for-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-the-intubated-patient
#17
REVIEW
Matteo Bassetti, Charles-Edouard Luyt, David P Nicolau, Jérôme Pugin
Gram-negative pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher healthcare costs compared with those who do not have the disease. Intravenous antibiotics are currently the standard of care for pneumonia; however, increasing rates of multidrug resistance and limited penetration of some classes of antimicrobials into the lungs reduce the effectiveness of this treatment option, and current clinical cure rates are variable, while recurrence rates remain high...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062958/air-dispersed-essential-oils-combined-with-standard-sanitization-procedures-for-environmental-microbiota-control-in-nosocomial-hospitalization-rooms
#18
Fabrizio Gelmini, Luciano Belotti, Sara Vecchi, Cristian Testa, Giangiacomo Beretta
OBJECTIVE: Environmental bacterial contaminant microorganisms are an ongoing problem in hospitals. Essential oil vapours (EO) may help reducing this type of contamination. Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized selected essential oils (EO) in reducing the microbial contamination in residential health care house rooms. DESIGN: The study was carried out in a two-story 112-bed tertiary care structure (approximately 1060 m(2)). Contamination in rooms and corridors was monitored for a total of n=5 months, including a starting baseline sampling and one end-study point, and without combined treatment (standard sanitization alone)...
April 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010300/sinusitis-bronchiectasis-and-flatus-in-a-sumatran-orangutan-pongo-abelii-could-this-be-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Elizabeth Stringer, Cindy Cossaboon, Sushan Han, Jennifer L Taylor-Cousar
A 31-yr-old male Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) presented with 14 yr of chronic purulent nasal drainage and cough with intermittent exacerbation of symptoms requiring systemic antibiotic treatment. He was diagnosed with a cystic fibrosis (CF)-like condition. Evaluation consisted of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, culture, and computed tomography scanning of the sinuses and chest. Although the presence of low fecal elastase activity increased the suspicion for a diagnosis of CF, pilocarpine iontophoresis with sweat collection and analysis ("sweat testing") was inconclusive...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957647/intratracheal-administration-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-an-international-survey-on-delivery-practices-and-safety
#20
Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean Chastre, Garyfallia Poulakou, Lucy B Palmer, Stijn Blot, Tim Felton, Matteo Bassetti, Charles-Eduard Luyt, Joao Manuel Pereira, Jordi Riera, Tobias Welte, Jason A Roberts, Jordi Rello
BACKGROUND: Intratracheal antibiotic administration is increasingly used for treating respiratory infections. Limited information is available on delivery devices, techniques, and safety. METHODS: An online survey on intratracheal administration of anti-infective agents in mechanically ventilated adults was answered by health-care workers from 192 ICUs to assess the most commonly used devices, current delivery practices, and safety issues. We investigated whether ICU usage experience (≥3 y) impacted its performance...
August 2016: Respiratory Care
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