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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#1
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206675/a-multi-zoo-investigation-of-nutrient-provision-for-captive-red-crested-turacos
#2
Alexander J Hulbert, Kerry A Hunt, Paul E Rose
Turacos (Musophagidae) are common zoo birds; the 14 species of Tauraco being most often exhibited. Turacos possess unique non-structural, copper-based feather pigments, and a specialized dietary strategy. Tauraco inhabit tropical woodlands, foraging for predominantly folivorous and/or frugivorous food items. Using a study population of 16 red-crested turacos (T. erythrolophus) at seven zoos in the United Kingdom, the nutrient composition of diets from diet sheets was calculated, using Zootrition v.2.6, Saint Louis Zoo, USA for analyses of important nutrients within each diet, and compared against an example of currently available literature...
February 16, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198195/novel-adenovirus-detected-in-kowari-dasyuroides-byrnei-with-pneumonia
#3
János Gál, Míra Mándoki, Endre Sós, Péter Kertész, Viktória Koroknai, Krisztián Bányai, Szilvia L Farkas
A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae...
February 15, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198143/demographics-of-polycystic-kidney-disease-and-captive-population-viability-in-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis
#4
Gabriella L Flacke, Joseph L Tomkins, Robert Black, Beatrice Steck
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was previously diagnosed at necropsy in several pygmy hippopotami (Choeropsis liberiensis) from the Smithsonian National Zoo and Zoo Basel, suggesting a threat to the long-term viability of the captive population. We determined the incidence and demographics of PKD in the captive population historically; we tested if the condition is linked to pedigree; we investigated mode of inheritance; we examined effects of PKD on longevity; we conducted survival analysis; and we examined long-term population viability...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198048/olfactory-enrichment-and-scent-cue-associative-learning-in-captive-birds-of-prey
#5
Melissa Nelson Slater, Mark E Hauber
As the use of enrichment in zoos has become a standardized husbandry practice, the continued improvement of enrichment programs should be concomitant with empirical validation of those practices. The role of scent as enrichment remains an unexplored avenue for many bird species. We conducted a multi-phase experiment to introduce wrapped food packages and scent cuing to indicate food presence into the exhibits of several birds of prey species at the Bronx Zoo, New York City, to assess if scent can function as enrichment in these species...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187776/mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-european-bison-bison-bonasus-raises-concerns-about-tuberculosis-in-brazilian-captive-wildlife-populations-a-case-report
#6
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Antônio Francisco de Souza Filho, Alexander Welker Biondo, João Henrique Perotta, Cristina Corsi Dib, Marcelo Bonat, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Ana Marcia Sa Guimaraes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important worldwide zoonosis and has been reported to cause clinical disease in several animal species, including captive wildlife. This report describes a case of M. bovis infection in a European bison from a Brazilian zoo and compiles a number of literature reports that raise concern regarding tuberculosis among captive wildlife in Brazil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13 year-old captive-born male bison (Bison bonasus) from a Brazilian zoo began presenting weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory symptoms, which inevitably led to his death...
February 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186700/retrospective-study-of-mortality-in-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica-in-the-european-breeding-population-between-2000-and-2014
#7
Olivia Metz, Jonathan Williams, Rikke Kruse Nielsen, Nic Masters
Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186699/activity-budget-and-social-interactions-in-semi-captive-gray-woolly-monkeys-lagothrix-lagotricha-cana-living-in-an-ex-situ-conservation-area-in-central-amazonia
#8
Bárbara Cartagena-Matos, Thierry Gasnier, Mariana Cravo-Mota, Bruna Martins Bezerra
Areas holding primates in semi-captivity conditions represent an excellent opportunity for collecting data on rare, little known, and endangered taxa, contributing with insightful information to help in their conservation. Here, we present information on the activity budget and social interactions of the elusive gray woolly monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha cana, in an ex situ conservation area in central Amazonia. We studied the behavior of 18 semi-captive individuals through instantaneous scan and focal animal samplings during 4 months in the wet season...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186698/added-dietary-vegetables-and-fruits-improved-coat-quality-of-capybara-in-seoul-zoo-republic-of-korea-a-case-study
#9
Hyungeun Shim, Ellen S Dierenfeld
Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier...
January 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182656/multi-locus-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-captive-asiatic-black-bears-in-southwestern-china-high-genetic-diversity-broad-host-range-and-zoonotic-potential
#10
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Chao Gong, Xuefeng Cao, Yuan Song, Wuyou Wang, Xiangming Huang, Xuehan Liu, Yanchun Hu, Hualin Fu, Min He, Ya Wang, Yue Zhang, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161098/peracute-bacterial-meningitis-due-to-infection-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-captive-bred-ruffed-lemurs-varecia-variegate
#11
E Sasaki, T Tokiwa, K Tsugo, Y Higashi, H Hori, Y Une
We describe the development of neurological signs in four juvenile black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate), housed at a petting zoo in Japan. The clinical course was severe, with three lemurs dying within 1 day of the appearance of clinical signs. The other lemur was treated and survived. Pathological analyses demonstrated meningitis and the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum, cerebellum, palatine tonsil and liver. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the brain of all of the dead lemurs...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154465/escherichia-coli-isolated-from-feces-of-brown-bears-ursus-arctos-have-a-lower-prevalence-of-human-extraintestinal-pathogenic-e-coli-virulence-associated-genes
#12
Maruša Vadnov, Damjana Barbič, Darja Žgur-Bertok, Marjanca Starčič Erjavec
Eighty-six Escherichia coli strains from feces of either wild brown bears or those living in a zoo were screened for phylogenetic groups using the revisited Clermont phylotyping method and the prevalence of 24 virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Our results showed that most strains of E. coli in bears belonged to phylogenetic groups III/IV/V (29%) and B1 (26%). Only half of the tested VAGs were found in the E. coli bear strains, with fimH present in 72%, ompT in 63%, and kpsMT in 43% of the strains...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150428/individual-differences-in-zoo-housed-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-sciureus-reactions-to-visitors-research-participation-and-personality-ratings
#13
Zita Polgár, Lara Wood, Marie J Haskell
Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144903/meeting-the-aichi-targets-pushing-for-zero-extinction-conservation
#14
REVIEW
Stephan M Funk, Dalia Conde, John Lamoreux, John E Fa
Effective protection of the ~19 000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets T11 (protected areas) and T12 (preventing species extinctions). AZE taxa have small, single-site populations that are especially vulnerable to human-induced extinctions, particularly for the many amphibians...
January 31, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140633/effects-of-various-diets-on-the-calcium-and-phosphorus-composition-of-mealworms-tenebrio-molitor-larvae-and-superworms-zophobas-morio-larvae
#15
La'Toya V Latney, Barbara D Toddes, Nicole R Wyre, Dorothy C Brown, Kathryn E Michel, Johanna A Briscoe
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138777/first-complete-genome-sequence-of-parainfluenza-virus-5-isolated-from-lesser-panda
#16
Jun-Qiong Zhai, Shao-Lun Zhai, Tao Lin, Jian-Kui Liu, He-Xing Wang, Bing Li, He Zhang, Shu-Zhan Zou, Xia Zhou, Meng-Fan Wu, Wu Chen, Man-Lin Luo
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea...
January 30, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131379/encephalitozoon-cuniculi-in-rabbits-serological-screening-and-histopathological-findings
#17
Giovanni Maestrini, Emanuele Ricci, Carlo Cantile, Riccardo Mannella, Francesca Mancianti, Gisella Paci, Carlo D'Ascenzi, Stefania Perrucci
Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117031/novel-reassortant-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-virus-in-zoos-india
#18
Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Manoj Kumar, Harshad V Murugkar, Sushil Tripathi, Shweta Shukla, Sonam Agarwal, Garima Dubey, Raunaq Singh Nagi, Vijendra Pal Singh, Chakradhar Tosh
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in India in October 2016. Both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of H5N8 viruses isolated in May 2016 from wild birds in the Russian Federation and China, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114737/a-comparison-of-fecal-steroid-metabolite-concentrations-between-harem-and-bachelor-stallions-in-a-free-ranging-population-of-przewalski-s-horses-equus-ferus-przewalskii
#19
Maureen D'Souza-Anjo, Bruce W Christensen, Kristin Brabender, Waltraut Zimmermann, Philip H Kass, Franz Schwarzenberger
The aim of this study was to determine whether concentrations of reproductive steroid hormone metabolites significantly differed between harem stallions and bachelor stallions in the free ranging group of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) at the Hortobágy National Park in Hungary. Throughout the study, fecal samples were collected from 21 harem stallions and 15 bachelor stallions and analyzed for immunoreactive estrogen and androgen metabolites. Harem stallions demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of estrogen (P < 0...
January 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111821/digestibility-of-a-new-diet-for-captive-short-beaked-echidnas-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#20
Hayley J Stannard, Jamie M Bekkers, Julie M Old, Bronwyn M McAllan, Michelle E Shaw
Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are myrmecophages, or ant and termite insectivore specialists, and replicating their exact diet in captivity is problematic. Diets for captive animals often incorporate raw meat, eggs and cat food mixed together with water, and vitamin and mineral supplements. These diets have promoted a number of health problems in captive echidnas, such as gastritis, cystitis, gut impaction, obesity, and diarrhea. A manufactured diet was designed and three echidnas from two zoos were transitioned onto this diet to assess the acceptability and digestibility of this diet for echidnas...
January 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
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