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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792116/the-epistemic-culture-in-an-online-citizen-science-project-programs-antiprograms-and-epistemic-subjects
#1
Dick Kasperowski, Thomas Hillman
In the past decade, some areas of science have begun turning to masses of online volunteers through open calls for generating and classifying very large sets of data. The purpose of this study is to investigate the epistemic culture of a large-scale online citizen science project, the Galaxy Zoo, that turns to volunteers for the classification of images of galaxies. For this task, we chose to apply the concepts of programs and antiprograms to examine the 'essential tensions' that arise in relation to the mobilizing values of a citizen science project and the epistemic subjects and cultures that are enacted by its volunteers...
May 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786608/microscopic-aspects-of-wetting-using-classical-density-functional-theory
#2
Peter Yatsyshin, Miguel A Duran-Olivencia, Serafim Kalliadasis
Wetting is a rather efficient mechanism for nucleation of a phase (typically liquid) on the interface
 between two other phases (typically solid and gas). In many experimentally
 accessible cases of wetting, the interplay between the substrate structure,
 and the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular interactions brings
 about an entire ``zoo" of possible fluid configurations, such as liquid
 films with a thickness of a few nanometers, liquid nanodrops and liquid
 bridges...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778204/presence-of-helicobacter-and-campylobacter-species-in-faecal-samples-from-zoo-mammals
#3
C De Witte, C Lemmens, B Flahou, P De Laender, T Bouts, F Vercammen, R Ducatelle, A Smet, F Haesebrouck
Helicobacter and Campylobacter species (spp.) colonize the gastrointestinal tract of various domesticated animals. Apart from their pathogenic significance in animals, several species are of zoonotic importance as well. For most non-domesticated animal spp., however, little is known on the presence and importance of these agents. Therefore, we investigated the presence of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. in marine and terrestrial zoo mammals. Faecal samples of various marine and terrestrial zoo mammals were collected from 6 different zoos in Belgium...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777963/red-wolf-canis-rufus-sperm-quality-and-quantity-is-affected-by-semen-collection-method-extender-components-and-post-thaw-holding-temperature
#4
Ashley D Franklin, William T Waddell, Karen L Goodrowe
Cryopreserving genetic resources is becoming increasingly important for species management. In the zoo-based red wolf (Canis rufus) population, inbreeding continues to increase in the absence of new founders. Through banking sperm, we preserve genetic diversity and create the ability to decrease inbreeding accumulation in the future. The quality and quantity of banked sperm can be affected by cryopreservation media and semen collection methods. This study's objectives were to further optimize semen extender used for red wolf sperm cryopreservation, investigate effects of post-thaw holding temperature, and to determine if urethral catheterization is an effective method for semen collection in this species...
May 16, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776076/complex-network-view-of-evolving-manifolds
#5
Diamantino C da Silva, Ginestra Bianconi, Rui A da Costa, Sergey N Dorogovtsev, José F F Mendes
We study complex networks formed by triangulations and higher-dimensional simplicial complexes representing closed evolving manifolds. In particular, for triangulations, the set of possible transformations of these networks is restricted by the condition that at each step, all the faces must be triangles. Stochastic application of these operations leads to random networks with different architectures. We perform extensive numerical simulations and explore the geometries of growing and equilibrium complex networks generated by these transformations and their local structural properties...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774846/occupation-associated-fatal-limbic-encephalitis-caused-by-variegated-squirrel-bornavirus-1-germany-2013
#6
Dennis Tappe, Kore Schlottau, Daniel Cadar, Bernd Hoffmann, Lorenz Balke, Burkhard Bewig, Donata Hoffmann, Philip Eisermann, Helmut Fickenscher, Andi Krumbholz, Helmut Laufs, Monika Huhndorf, Maria Rosenthal, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer, Gabriele Ismer, Sven-Kevin Hotop, Mark Brönstrup, Anthonina Ott, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Martin Beer
Limbic encephalitis is commonly regarded as an autoimmune-mediated disease. However, after the recent detection of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 in a Prevost's squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii) in a zoo in northern Germany, we retrospectively investigated a fatal case in an autoantibody-seronegative animal caretaker who had worked at that zoo. The virus had been discovered in 2015 as the cause of a cluster of cases of fatal encephalitis among breeders of variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) in eastern Germany...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762728/atypical-myopathy-in-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-elaphurus-davidianus-associated-with-ingestion-of-hypoglycin-a
#7
C Bunert, S Langer, D M Votion, F Boemer, A Müller, K Ternes, A Liesegang
From 2004 until 2016, 21 Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) have died for unknown reason at Zoo Duisburg. These deer, also known as milu, have succumbed from a myopathy that occurred seasonally in autumn and in spring. The clinical signs shown by the animals, closely resembles those of a disease called equine atypical myopathy (EAM), which is formerly known in horses. The cause for EAM in Europe was found in the ingestion of hypoglycin A, contained in samaras and seedlings of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761052/asymmetries-in-mother-infant-behaviour-in-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#8
Barbara Regaiolli, Caterina Spiezio, William Donald Hopkins
Asymmetries in the maternal behaviour and anatomy might play an important role in the development of primate manual lateralization. In particular, early life asymmetries in mother's and infant's behaviour have been suggested to be associated with the development of the hand preference of the offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of behavioural asymmetries in different behavioural categories of mother-infant dyads of zoo-living Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus ). The study subjects were 14 Barbary macaques involved in seven mother-infant dyads housed in Parco Natura Viva, Italy...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757518/mosquito-species-composition-and-phenology-diptera-culicidae-in-two-german-zoological-gardens-imply-different-risks-of-mosquito-borne-pathogen-transmission
#9
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Doreen Walther
Due to their large diversity of potential blood hosts, breeding habitats, and resting sites, zoological gardens represent highly interesting places to study mosquito ecology. In order to better assess the risk of mosquito-borne disease-agent transmission in zoos, potential vector species must be known, as well as the communities in which they occur. For this reason, species composition and dynamics were examined in 2016 in two zoological gardens in Germany. Using different methods for mosquito sampling, a total of 2,257 specimens belonging to 20 taxa were collected...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756650/stillbirth-rates-across-three-ape-species-in-accredited-american-zoos
#10
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746855/the-first-multi-zoo-application-of-an-allostatic-load-index-to-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#11
Ashley N Edes, Barbara A Wolfe, Douglas E Crews
Vertebrate stress responses are highly adaptive biological functions, maximizing survival probability in life-threatening situations. However, experiencing repeated and/or chronic stressors can generate physiological dysregulation and lead to disease. Because stress responses are multi-systemic and involve a wide range of physiological functions, identifying responses to stressors is best accomplished using integrated biomarker models. Allostatic load, defined as the physiological dysregulation that accumulates over the lifespan due to stressful experiences, is one such model...
May 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742000/haemoproteus-parahaemoproteus-spp-in-captive-bred-bobwhite-quail-colinus-virginianus-in-southern-utah-usa
#12
E Jane Kelly, Thomas J Baldwin, David D Frame, April L Childress, James F X Wellehan
A captive-bred Bobwhite Quail ( Colinus virginianus) ranch in southern Utah experienced high mortality rates in the late summer and fall of 2012. Nine juvenile birds were necropsied at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Gross lesions included pale skeletal muscle with multifocal hemorrhages and petechiae in the air sacs and serosal surfaces of most organs. Histologically there was moderate to severe, multifocal, degenerative myositis with intramyofiber schizonts and minimal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the proventriculus, ventriculus, heart, and skeletal muscle...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740857/genetic-diversity-and-sex-ratio-of-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-zoo-populations
#13
Linh M Chau, Amy M Groh, Emily C Anderson, Micaela O Alcala, Joseph R Mendelson, Stephanie B Slade, Kenton Kerns, Steve Sarro, Clinton Lusardi, Michael A D Goodisman
The naked mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, is a highly unusual mammal that displays a complex social system similar to that found in eusocial insects. Colonies of H. glaber are commonly maintained in zoo collections because they represent fascinating educational exhibits for the public. However, little is known about the genetic structure or sex ratio of captive populations of H. glaber. In this study, we developed a set of microsatellite markers to examine genetic variation in three captive zoo populations of H...
May 8, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729716/diffuse-type-gastric-mucinous-and-signet-ring-cell-adenocarcinoma-in-a-captive-california-king-snake-lampropeltis-getula-californiae
#14
C-S Hsueh, W-T Li, C-R Jeng, V F Pang, H-W Chang
An adult female California king snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) housed in Taipei Zoo was presented with a 2-week history of anorexia, fatigue and abdominal swelling. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a gastric mass with two circular perforations and multiple mottled white to beige protuberances along the mucosal surface. Histologically, the gastric mass showed an invasive, transmural growth of epithelial cells arranged in nests, lobules, acini and sheets in the mucosa and submucosa that progressively transformed into signet ring cells in the muscularis externa and subserosa...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729286/serological-and-molecular-investigation-for-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-in-captive-non-human-primates-italy
#15
Irene Melegari, Federica Di Profio, Fulvio Marsilio, Vittorio Sarchese, Andrea Palombieri, Klaus Gunther Friedrich, Federico Coccia, Barbara Di Martino
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of human enterically-transmitted viral hepatitis occurring around the world both as outbreaks and as sporadic cases. Non-human primates (NHPs) have been experimentally infected with HEV, but few studies have been reported about natural infection in wild-living and zoo monkeys. In order to provide a more complete picture on the epidemiology of HEV in NHPs living in controlled environment, we investigated the presence of HEV by screening serologically and molecularly a historical collection of 86 sera from seven different species of primates housed at the Zoological Garden (Bioparco) of Rome, Italy...
May 2, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722644/oceanisphaera-avium-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-gut-of-the-cinereous-vulture-aegypius-monachus
#16
Hojun Sung, Hyun Sik Kim, June-Young Lee, Woorim Kang, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Euon Jung Tak, Mi-Ja Jung, Ji-Hyun Yun, Min-Soo Kim, Na-Ri Shin, Tae Woong Whon, Jeong Rae Rho, Sun Duk Park, Hyung Eun Shim, Jin-Woo Bae
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped, flagellated bacterial strain, designated AMac2203T , was isolated from the gut of the cinereous vulture, Aegypiusmonachus, collected from the Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Republic of Korea. Strain AMac2203T grew optimally at 15-25 °C, pH 7-8 and in the presence of 3-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 97.4-97.9 % and 96.9-97.3 % sequence similarities of the 16S rRNA genes to its counterparts in Oceanisphaera profunda SM1222T and Oceanisphaera ostreae T-w6T , respectively...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718104/exact-bayesian-inference-for-phylogenetic-birth-death-models
#17
K V Parag, O G Pybus
Motivation: Inferring the rates of change of a population from a reconstructed phylogeny of genetic sequences is a central problem in macro-evolutionary biology, epidemiology, and many other disciplines. A popular solution involves estimating the parameters of a birth-death process (BDP), which links the shape of the phylogeny to its birth and death rates. Modern BDP estimators rely on random Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling to infer these rates. Such methods, while powerful and scalable, cannot be guaranteed to converge, leading to results that may be hard to replicate or difficult to validate...
April 26, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708299/arsenic-trioxide-induces-growth-inhibition-and-death-in-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-accompanied-by-mitochondrial-o2%C3%A2-increase-and-gsh-depletion
#18
Woo Hyun Park, Bo Ran Han, Hyun Kyung Park, Sung Zoo Kim
Arsenic trioxide (ATO; As2 O3 ) induces cell death in various cells via oxidative stress. Expose to chronic arsenic is involved in the development of vascular diseases. However, little is known about the cytotoxic effects of ATO on human normal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Thus, in this study, we investigated the effects of ATO on cell growth and death in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle (HPASM) cells in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels. ATO treatment decreased the growth of HPASM cells with an IC50 of ∼30-50 μM at 24 h, and ATO induced HPASM cell death via apoptosis or necrosis dependent on the doses of it at this time...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704067/microbial-community-and-diversity-in-the-feces-of-sichuan-takin-budorcas-taxicolor-tibetana-as-revealed-by-illumina-miseq-sequencing-and-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#19
Hui Zhu, Dong Zeng, Ning Wang, Li-Li Niu, Yi Zhou, Yan Zeng, Xue-Qin Ni
The Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) is a rare and endangered ruminant distributed in the eastern Himalayas. However, little information is available regarding the intestinal microbiota of the takin. In this study, Illumina Miseq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA was employed to characterize microbial community and diversity in the feces of wild (n = 6) and captive takins (n = 6). The takin exhibited an intestinal microbiota dominated by three phyla: Firmicutes (57.4%), Bacteroidetes (24...
April 27, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697802/so-you-want-to-share-your-science%C3%A2-connecting-to-the-world-of-informal-science-learning
#20
Carol Lynn Alpert
Scientists can reap personal rewards through collaborations with science and natural history museums, zoos, botanical gardens, aquaria, parks, and nature preserves, and, while doing so, help to advance science literacy and broaden participation in the natural sciences. Beyond volunteer opportunities, which allow scientists to contribute their knowledge and passion within the context of existing programs and activities, there are also opportunities for scientists to bring their knowledge and resources to the design and implementation of new learning experiences for visitors to these informal science learning organizations (ISLOs)...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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