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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168441/detection-of-hev-specific-antibodies-in-four-non-human-primate-species-including-great-apes-from-different-zoos-in-germany
#1
C Spahr, T Knauf-Witzens, L Dähnert, M Enders, M Müller, R Johne, R G Ulrich
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described in humans and various animal species in different regions of the world. However, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in non-human primates and the corresponding risk of zoonotic transmission is scarce. To determine whether primates in captivity are affected by HEV infection, we investigated 259 individual sera of clinically healthy non-human primates of 14 species from nine German zoos. Using a commercial double-antigen-sandwich ELISA and a commercial IgG ELISA, 10 animals (3·9%) reacted positive in at least one assay...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165867/applying-behavior-analytic-methodology-to-the-science-and-practice-of-environmental-enrichment-in-zoos-and-aquariums
#2
Christina A Alligood, Nicole R Dorey, Lindsay R Mehrkam, Katherine A Leighty
Environmental enrichment in zoos and aquariums is often evaluated at two overlapping levels: published research and day-to-day institutional record keeping. Several authors have discussed ongoing challenges with small sample sizes in between-groups zoological research and have cautioned against the inappropriate use of inferential statistics (Shepherdson, , International Zoo Yearbook, 38, 118-124; Shepherdson, Lewis, Carlstead, Bauman, & Perrin, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, 298-277; Swaisgood, , Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 139-162; Swaisgood & Shepherdson, , Zoo Biology, 24, 499-518)...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165866/assessing-enclosure-design-and-husbandry-practices-for-successful-keeping-and-breeding-of-the-burmese-brow-antlered-deer-eld-s-deer-rucervus-eldii-thamin-in-european-zoos
#3
Ellis L Wall, Matt Hartley
The endangered Burmese brow antlered deer (Rucervus eldii thamin) is a medium sized tropical cervid kept in a number of European zoos. Studbook data and anecdotal reports have suggested that this species suffers from poor reproductive success and relatively high neonatal mortality in captivity. Questionnaires were sent to 10 European zoos, holding 91 (20.71.0) deer, in order to record information on husbandry practices and enclosure design. Studbook analysis was performed to determine reproductive success and mortality values at each of the zoos participating in the study...
May 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163646/prevalence-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-in-captive-wildlife-species-of-india
#4
A A Prince Milton, R K Agarwal, G B Priya, M Saminathan, M Aravind, A Reddy, C K Athira, Anjay, T P Ramees, K Dhama, A K Sharma, A Kumar
Campylobacteriosis is an important zoonotic disease and the prevalence of Campylobacter is largely unknown in the wildlife of India. A total of 370 samples, comprising of 314 fresh faecal samples from apparently healthy captive wild animals and birds, 30 stool swabs from animal care takers and 26 samples of the animals' food and water were collected from G. B. Pant High Altitude Zoo, Nainital, Kanpur Zoo, Wildlife Park, IVRI and the Post Graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences (PGRIAS), Chennai, Tamilnadu from August 2014 to May 2015...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162162/a-preliminary-study-of-cross-amplified-microsatellite-loci-using-molted-feathers-from-a-near-threatened-painted-stork-mycteria-leucocephala-population-of-north-india-as-a-dna-source
#5
Bharat Bhushan Sharma, Basu Dev Banerjee, Abdul Jamil Urfi
OBJECTIVE: In continuation of an earlier study in which we reported the cross-amplification of Wood stork microsatellites on the DNA obtained from molted feathers of Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala), here we investigated the nature of cross-amplified microsatellites and the effect of non-invasive samples on cross-amplification success. In a limited manner, we also addressed the genetic diversity and differentiation in a north Indian population of the Painted Stork examined over three nesting seasons...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157134/the-paper-zoo-500-years-of-animals-in-art
#6
Florike Egmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149857/putative-progressive-and-abortive-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-outcomes-in-captive-jaguarundis-puma-yagouaroundi
#7
Claudia Filoni, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strain, and infectious challenge dose. Jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi) are small wild felids from South and Central America. We previously reported on FeLV infections in jaguarundis. We hypothesized here that the outcomes of FeLV infection in P. yagouaroundi mimic those observed in domestic cats...
November 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139337/do-people-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-benefit-from-making-errors-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-error-based-and-errorless-learning
#8
Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, Robyn Tate, Elizabeth Beadle, Janelle Griffin, Melissa Kendall, Julia Schmidt, Amanda Lane-Brown, Mathilde Chevignard, David H K Shum
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (ELL) and error-based learning (EBL) are commonly used approaches to rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether making errors is beneficial in the learning process to promote skills generalization after severe TBI. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of ELL and EBL for improving skills generalization, self-awareness, behavioral competency, and psychosocial functioning after severe TBI...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138744/multiple-myeloma-in-an-amur-tiger-panthera-tigris-altaica
#9
Alison M Lee, Naomi Guppy, John Bainbridge, Hanne Jahns
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138485/evaluating-the-impact-of-domestication-and-captivity-on-the-horse-gut-microbiome
#10
Jessica L Metcalf, Se Jin Song, James T Morton, Sophie Weiss, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Frédéric Joly, Claudia Feh, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Amnon Amir, Eske Willerslev, Rob Knight, Valerie McKenzie, Ludovic Orlando
The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134672/quantitative-aspects-of-the-ruminating-process-in-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-fed-with-different-diets
#11
Dominik Schüßler, Hartmut Greven
Giraffes are ruminants feeding on fresh browse and twigs in the wild, but in zoos, their diet is mainly based on alfalfa hay, grains, and pellets occasionally supplemented by twigs and foliage. These diets, which differ in composition and digestibility, affect the behavior of the animals, tooth wear patterns, and chewing efficiency. We quantified several parameters of the rumination process in ten zoo housed giraffes of different sexes and ages fed either with alfalfa hay, fresh browse, or a combination of both...
November 14, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121668/seasonal-recurrence-of-cowpox-virus-outbreaks-in-captive-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#12
Julia Stagegaard, Andreas Kurth, Daniel Stern, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Ann Pocknell, Andreas Nitsche, Livia Schrick
Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between August and October of the respective year. No other carnivores kept at the same institution nor the keepers taking care of the animals were clinically affected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121380/clinical-application-of-nasometry-in-patients-with-nasal-obstruction
#13
Georges Ziade, Maher Kasti, Doja Sarieddine, Zein Saadeddine, Abdul-Latif Hamdan
The purpose of this case-control study is to report on the clinical application of nasometry as a diagnostic tool in patients with the symptom of nasal obstruction compared with subjects with no history of nasal obstruction. Thirty-eight adult patients (mean age: 28.1 years) complaining of nasal obstruction were enrolled in the study, and another group of 38 adults (mean age: 25.9 years) with no history of nasal obstruction served as controls. Demographic data, including age and sex, were collected. Patients were asked to read three passages; the Zoo passage, the Rainbow passage, and nasal sentences...
October 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120094/visitor-effect-on-the-behavior-of-a-group-of-spider-monkeys-ateles-geoffroyi-maintained-at-an-island-in-lake-catemaco-veracruz-mexico
#14
Sergio Pérez-Galicia, Manuel Miranda-Anaya, Domingo Canales-Espinosa, Jairo Muñoz-Delgado
We analyzed the effect of human visitors on the behavior of a group of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept on a small tourist island. Although the spider monkey is a common species in zoos, there are very few specific studies on visitor effects on these monkeys. We conducted behavioral observations on the group of spider monkeys to evaluate the effect of visitors. We also used actimetry devices to measure the variations in the spider monkeys' locomotor activity associated with human presence. With regard to the effect on behavior, we found an increase in self-directed behaviors and a decrease in vocalization, both associated with human presence...
November 9, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116204/tuberculosis-in-swiss-captive-asian-elephants-microevolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-characterized-by-multilocus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-and-whole-genome-sequencing
#15
Giovanni Ghielmetti, Mireia Coscolla, Maja Ruetten, Ute Friedel, Chloé Loiseau, Julia Feldmann, Hanspeter W Steinmetz, David Stucki, Sebastien Gagneux
Zoonotic tuberculosis is a risk for human health, especially when animals are in close contact with humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from several organs, including lung tissue and gastric mucosa, of three captive elephants euthanized in a Swiss zoo. The elephants presented weight loss, weakness and exercise intolerance. Molecular characterization of the M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping revealed an identical profile, suggesting a single source of infection. Multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) elucidated two divergent populations of bacteria and mixed infection in one elephant, suggesting either different transmission chains or prolonged infection over time...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110012/a-look-at-the-density-functional-theory-zoo-with-the-advanced-gmtkn55-database-for-general-main-group-thermochemistry-kinetics-and-noncovalent-interactions
#16
Lars Goerigk, Andreas Hansen, Christoph Bauer, Stephan Ehrlich, Asim Najibi, Stefan Grimme
We present the GMTKN55 benchmark database for general main group thermochemistry, kinetics and noncovalent interactions. Compared to its popular predecessor GMTKN30 [Goerigk and Grimme J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2011, 7, 291], it allows assessment across a larger variety of chemical problems-with 13 new benchmark sets being presented for the first time-and it also provides reference values of significantly higher quality for most sets. GMTKN55 comprises 1505 relative energies based on 2462 single-point calculations and it is accessible to the user community via a dedicated website...
November 7, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105815/mate-choice-screening-in-captive-solitary-carnivores-the-role-of-male-behavior-and-cues-on-mate-preference-and-paternity-in-females-of-a-model-species-american-mink-neovison-vison
#17
Christina Lehmkuhl Noer, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Razvan Anistoroaei, Mikkel Stelvig, Torben Dabelsteen
Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production and zoo animals and thereby the sustainability of captive populations. Investigating mate preference via odor from potential mates before animal transfer is a proposed strategy for incorporating mate choice into breeding management...
November 5, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084226/how-familiar-are-our-doctors-towards-rabies-prophylaxis-a-study-from-coastal-south-india
#18
Ramesh Holla, Bhagawan Darshan, Astha Guliani, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Rekha Thapar, Prasanna Mithra, Nithin Kumar, Vaman Kulkarni, Avinash Kumar, Salman Anwar
BACKGROUND: Rabies, a 100% fatal disease claims more than 59,000 human lives every year globally. One human life is lost every 15 minutes due to this deadly preventable disease. Timely initiation of post exposure prophylaxis following an animal exposure can result in 100% preventability of this fatal disease. METHODOLOGY: This facility based study was conducted among clinical fraternities of teaching hospitals. A semi structured questionnaire was used for collection of data...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081475/sudden-death-of-an-indian-peafowl-pavo-cristatus-at-a-zoo-due-to-non-pigmented-serratia-marcescens-infection
#19
Seung-Hun Lee, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Kyoo-Tae Kim
A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080297/a-role-for-selective-contraception-of-individuals-in-conservation-management-programs
#20
REVIEW
Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception has an established role to play in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. We propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation management programs to increase the genetic and behavioural quality of the animals. In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, and preventing genetically suboptimal breeding, through the use of selective contraception...
October 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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