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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726600/age-and-sex-associated-differences-in-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#1
Pramod Nehete, Elizabeth Magden, Bharti Nehete, Lawrence Williams, Christian Abee, K Sastry
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity. Thesegenetic similarities prompted the belief that chimpanzees can serve as an ideal model for human disease conditions andvaccine development. However, in light of the recent NIH decision to phase out biomedical research in chimpanzees and retire NIH-supported chimpanzees, data from the present study will continue to provide value for the care of aged and sick chimpanzees located in zoos, sanctuaries, and primate centers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723719/clinical-application-of-a-transurethral-holmium-laser-excision-of-exposed-polypropylene-mesh-at-lower-urinary-tract-single-surgeon-experience-with-long-term-follow-up
#2
Chan Ho Lee, Ja Yoon Ku, Kyoung Lee, Jeong Zoo Lee, Dong Gil Shin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of a transurethral holmium laser excision of exposed polypropylene mesh as an effective minimally invasive surgical approach in patients with lower urinary tract mesh erosion following the transvaginal placement of polypropylene mesh. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the data of 22 patients with exposed polypropylene mesh in the lower urinary tract that was managed using the transurethral holmium laser technique...
July 19, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708513/interaction-of-extender-composition-and-freezing-method-for-effective-semen-cryopreservation-in-the-north-american-river-otter-lontra-canadensis
#3
Helen L Bateman, William F Swanson
Semen cryopreservation and storage in genome resource banks (GRBs), in combination with artificial insemination (AI), could be invaluable for genetic management and conservation of endangered otter species. For any applied conservation benefit, effective methods for otter sperm processing and cryopreservation first must be established. In this study, our objective was to develop an effective semen cryopreservation method for the North American river otter, evaluating the effect of extender composition (i.e...
June 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702756/creating-a-common-terminology-for-play-behavior-to-increase-cross-disciplinary-research
#4
Lance J Miller
Historically, play behavior has been difficult to define. This likely stems from the number of different species, types of play, and context under which it occurs. In 2016, the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo hosted the Psychonomic Society leading edge workshop on the evolutionary and psychological significance of play. Sixteen experts attended from the diverse fields of African ethnology, animal behavior, animal science, animal welfare, cognitive psychology, cognitive zoology, comparative psychology, cultural anthropology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, ethology, neuroscience, primatology, and zoology...
July 12, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700000/ticks-infesting-captive-and-free-roaming-wild-animal-species-at-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-zoo-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#5
Irys Hany Lima Gonzalez, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Paula Andrea Borges Salgado, Cauê Monticelli, Luan Henrique Morais, Amanda Alves de Moraes, Thatiane Cristina Antunes, Patrícia Locosque Ramos, Thiago Fernandes Martins
Ticks are ectoparasites of worldwide distribution that affect vertebrates and can transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The Zoological Park Foundation of São Paulo (FPZSP) is located in a Conservation Unit in one of the most important remaining fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil. The FPZSP houses more than 3,000 wild animals on exhibit, in breeding programs and in environmental education programs, and also attracts migratory birds and free-roaming wildlife. This study focused on identifying the diversity of tick species that infest captive and free-roaming animals at the FPZSP...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699307/new-surgical-instruction-method-for-homium-laser-enucleation-of-the-prostate-hand-grab-navigated-technique-to-shorten-the-learning-curve-the-results-of-multicenter-analysis
#6
Dong Gil Shin, Hyeon Woo Kim, Sung Woo Park, Chang Soo Park, Seong Choi, Tae Hee Oh, Dong Hwan Lee, Chang Yell Lee, Jung Man Kim, Jeong Zoo Lee
OBJECTIVES: To introduce a new surgical mentorship, the "hand-grab navigated technique," to shorten the learning curve for Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. METHODS: Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were managed at six institutions with Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. An analysis was done in the 200 of these patients (the set of first 20 patients treated with Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate by 10 surgeons) who were sorted into two groups depending on the surgeon's instructional group...
July 11, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698157/prevalence-molecular-epidemiology-and-zoonotic-potential-of-entamoeba-spp-in-nonhuman-primates-in-china
#7
Haiju Dong, Junqiang Li, Meng Qi, Rongjun Wang, Fuchang Yu, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Amebiasis is a major public-health concern. It has a global distribution, and is listed as the third leading parasitic cause of human mortality. To survey the prevalence and assess the potential zoonotic transmission of Entamoeba spp. in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in China, 2688 fresh fecal specimens were collected from NHPs reared in farms or zoos/parks or free ranging in 13 districts. The overall prevalence of Entamoeba spp. infection determined with microscopy analysis was 39.4% (1059/2688). Higher infection rates were detected in the free ranging group (41...
July 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696572/evaluation-of-electrical-impedance-spectroscopy-on-a-needle-as-a-novel-tool-to-determine-optimal-surgical-margin-in-partial-nephrectomy
#8
Hyeon Woo Kim, Joho Yun, Jeong Zoo Lee, Dong Gil Shin, Jong-Hyun Lee
A hypodermic needle has been introduced incorporating an electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensor, called micro-EIS-on-a-needle for depth profiling (μEoN-DP). The μEoN-DP can locate endophytic renal tumors as well as determine tumor margins by detecting the impedance difference between normal and cancer tissues. To evaluate the μEoN-DP as a novel tool to determine the optimal surgical margin during partial nephrectomy (PN), the electrical impedance differences between renal parenchymal tissues and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors are investigated with regard to the distance from the tumors...
July 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694831/molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-species-of-public-health-and-veterinary-importance-from-cattle-in-the-south-state-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#9
Adrian Zaragoza Bastida, Nallely Rivero Pérez, Benjamín Valladares Carranza, Keila Isaac-Olivé, Pablo Moreno Pérez, Horacio Sandoval Trujillo, Ninfa Ramírez Durán
Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about "nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)," which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692861/getting-to-the-elephants-gesture-and-preschoolers-comprehension-of-route-direction-information
#10
Elizabeth E Austin, Naomi Sweller
During early childhood, children find spatial tasks such as following novel route directions challenging. Spatial tasks place demands on multiple cognitive processes, including language comprehension and memory, at a time in development when resources are limited. As such, gestures accompanying route directions may aid comprehension and facilitate task performance by scaffolding cognitive processes, including language and memory processing. This study examined the effect of presenting gesture during encoding on spatial task performance during early childhood...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680731/lumbar-laminectomy-in-a-captive-adult-polar-bear-ursus-maritimus
#11
John F Morrison, Kunal Vakharia, Douglas B Moreland
BACKGROUND: Animals held in captivity tend to live longer than do their wild counterparts, and as such, are prone to developing age-related degenerative injuries. Here, we present a case of an adult female polar bear with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. There is a paucity of literature on large mammalian spine surgery, and anatomical differences between humans and other vertebrates must be taken into consideration. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 24-year-old female polar bear residing at the zoo was found to have decreased motor function in her hind legs...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677603/a-whole-zoo-of-hydrogen-bonds-in-one-crystal-structure-tris-isonicotinium-hydrogensulfate-sulfate-monohydrate
#12
Khai Nghi Truong, Niklas Lothmann, Ulli Englert
Depending on the reaction partner, the organic ditopic molecule isonicotinic acid (Hina) can act either as a Brønsted acid or base. With sulfuric acid, the pyridine ring is protonated to become a pyridinium cation. Crystallization from ethanol affords the title compound tris(4-carboxypyridinium) hydrogensulfate sulfate monohydrate, 3C6H6NO2(+)·HSO4(-)·SO4(2-)·H2O or [(H2ina)3(HSO4)(SO4)(H2O)]. This solid contains 11 classical hydrogen bonds of very different flavour and nonclassical C-H...O contacts. All N-H and O-H donors find at least one acceptor within a suitable distance range, with one of the three pyridinium H atoms engaged in bifurcated N-H...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659540/an-alert-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-of-rhesus-macaques-in-a-wild-zoo-in-china
#13
Wenping Gong, Yourong Yang, Yi Luo, Ning Li, Xuejuan Bai, Yinping Liu, Junxian Zhang, Ming Chen, Chenglin Zhang, Xueqiong Wu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB), is becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal chronic illnesses in China. In this study, we report an infectious disease among 84 rhesus macaques at a Chinese zoo. Their clinical signs and symptoms were very similar with the manifestations of TB in humans. To determine the potential pathogens of this outbreak, many methods were used. First, tuberculin skin tests showed that none of the monkeys displayed significant skin reactions...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647267/relationship-between-nutrients-and-plankton-biomass-in-the-turbidity-maximum-zone-of-the-pearl-river-estuary
#14
Zhen Shi, Jie Xu, Xiaoping Huang, Xia Zhang, Zhijian Jiang, Feng Ye, Ximei Liang
Nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and plankton (bacterio-, phyto- and zoo-) were compared in the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and adjacent areas (non-TMZ) in the Pearl River estuary. Our results showed that high levels of suspended substances had marked effect on dynamics of nutrients and plankton in the TMZ. Based on the cluster analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations, all stations were divided into two groups, TMZ with average TSS of 171mg/L and non-TMZ of 45mg/L. Suspended substances adsorbed PO4(3-) and dissolved organic carbon, resulting in higher particulate phosphorus and organic carbon (POC) and lower PO4(3-) and DOC in the TMZ, compared to the non-TMZ...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646559/pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-infection-associated-with-respiratory-signs-in-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus
#15
N C Boedeker, M I Nelson, M L Killian, M K Torchetti, T Barthel, S Murray
In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds...
June 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639408/quantifying-long-term-impact-of-zoo-and-aquarium-visits-on-biodiversity-related-learning-outcomes
#16
Eric A Jensen, Andrew Moss, Markus Gusset
Zoos and aquariums aim to achieve lasting impact on their public audiences' awareness of biodiversity, its value, and the steps they can take to conserve it. Here, we evaluate the long-term educational impact of visits to zoos and aquariums on biodiversity understanding and knowledge of actions to help protect biodiversity. A minimum of two years after completing a repeated-measures survey before and after visiting a zoo or aquarium, the same participants were invited to take part in a follow-up online survey...
June 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638674/role-of-personality-in-behavioral-responses-to-new-environments-in-captive-asiatic-lions-panthera-leo-persica
#17
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Anna Viau, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Daniele Vigo, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Richard Preziosi
Studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. Asiatic lions at London Zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species' response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. This project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. Lion personality questionnaires completed by keepers and direct focal animal observations were used to create personality profiles...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627010/a-turtle-cognition-research-demonstration-enhances-visitor-engagement-and-keeper-animal-relationships
#18
Andrew C Alba, Katherine A Leighty, Victoria L Pittman Courte, Alison P Grand, Tamara L Bettinger
Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom(®) impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged...
June 18, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626619/african-penguins-follow-the-gaze-direction-of-conspecifics
#19
Christian Nawroth, Egle Trincas, Livio Favaro
Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for hunting and predator avoidance may occur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620152/cryptosporidium-meleagridis-and-c-baileyi-apicomplexa-in-domestic-and-wild-birds-in-algeria
#20
Abd Elkarim Laatamna, Nikola Holubova, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kvac
A total of 345 faecal samples were collected from domestic, captive and wild birds in rural areas, urban areas and a Zoo in Algeria. Samples were screened for the presence of parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 by microscopy and PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU), actin and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 31 samples. Sequence analysis of SSU and actin genes revealed the presence of C. baileyi Current, Upton et Haynes, 1986 in domestic chicken broilers (n = 12), captive ostriches (n = 4) and a wild mallard (n = 1), and C...
June 13, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
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