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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340468/serosurvey-of-leptospira-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-rats-captured-from-two-zoos-in-southern-brazil
#1
Maysa Pellizzaro, Francisco de Oliveira Conrado, Camila Marinelli Martins, Sâmea Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Ferreira, Helio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo
INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321890/nature-versus-nurture-consequences-of-short-captivity-in-early-stages
#2
Jose L Horreo, America G Valiente, Alba Ardura, Aida Blanco, Claudia Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Biological changes occurring as a consequence of domestication and/or captivity are not still deeply known. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), endangered (Southern Europe) populations are enhanced by supportive breeding, which involves only 6 months of captive rearing following artificial spawning of wild-collected adults. In this work, we assess whether several fitness-correlated life-history traits (migratory behavior, straying rate, age at maturity, and growth) are affected by early exposure to the captive environment within a generation, before reproduction thus before genetic selection...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315790/a-work-for-food-enrichment-program-increases-exploration-and-decreases-stereotypies-in-four-species-of-bears
#3
Jason D Wagman, Kristen E Lukas, Patricia M Dennis, Mark A Willis, Joe Carroscia, Curt Gindlesperger, Mandi W Schook
Zoo-housed bears are prone to exhibiting stereotypic behaviors, generally considered indicators of negative welfare. We explored the effects of a variable-time feeding enrichment schedule on behavioral indicators of welfare in four bear species at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. We distributed the diets of eight bears in one of five enrichment items, for two consecutive days each, and monitored behavior throughout the day. In Experiment 1, we compared variable-time to fixed-time presentation of enrichment over two, 10-day periods...
January 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#4
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306150/ultrasonographic-assessment-of-the-male-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-reproductive-tract
#5
Rebecca Larkin, Chiara Palmieri, Motoharu Oishi, Lyndal Hulse, Stephen D Johnston
Studies documenting the application of ultrasonography to depict normal and pathological changes in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), especially in the male, are scarce. Sixty-two wild koalas were used in this study to define ultrasonographic protocols and features for the assessment of the male koala reproductive tract. Testis, epididymis and spermatic cord were examined using a hockey stick transducer. The normal koala testis showed a homogeneous echogenicity and an obvious hyper-echoic band corresponding to the tunica albuginea...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299937/assessment-of-environmental-enrichment-for-different-primate-species-under-low-budget-a-case-study
#6
R Costa, C Sousa, M Llorente
The 2011 European Union Zoo Inquiry presented evidence that most zoos fail to achieve adequate levels of nonhuman animal welfare. Appropriate environmental enrichment (EE) can play a role in the promotion of welfare. However, financial and staff constraints frequently make it challenging to implement EE on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to test how individuals of three different nonhuman primate species at the Maia Zoo in Portugal (white-handed gibbons, Hylobates lar; Mona monkeys, Cercopithecus mona; and brown lemurs, Eulemur fulvus) reacted to EE devices...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297833/journal-of-zoo-and-wildlife-medicine-editorial-guidelines-and-instructions-to-authors
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297824/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-rock-hyraxes-procavia-capensis-imported-from-south-africa
#8
Kim Fechner, Jenny Schäfer, Pia Münster, Kerstin Ternes, Susanne Döring, Inger Völkel, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, progressive, and consecutively fatal enteritis, especially in ruminants. MAP distribution among wildlife is not yet clear. In this study, three wild-born rock hyraxes ( Procavia capensis) had been imported from South Africa to a German zoological garden. During the quarantine period, four young animals were born. The wild-born animals showed symptoms of mild diarrhea shortly after their arrival in the zoological garden, but all routine parasitological and bacteriologic tests performed were negative...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297822/early-onset-of-the-reproductive-season-in-captive-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-veraecrucis-in-eastern-mexico
#9
Concepción Ahuja-Aguirre, Omar Pérez-Gutiérrez, Lorena López-deBuen, Susana Rojas-Maya, Felipe Montiel-Palacios
The white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabits a wide latitudinal range in the Americas. Deer species dwelling throughout wide latitudinal ranges have developed subspecies with variations in their reproductive seasonality. In northern subspecies of white-tailed deer, such as those from Canada and the United States, the breeding season occurs from October through December. Odocoileus virginianus veraecrucis is a subspecies that inhabits eastern Mexico, and because its reproductive season has not been studied, it is believed to be similar to that from northern subspecies...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297820/evaluation-of-health-parameters-in-cownose-rays-rhinoptera-bonasus-housed-in-a-seasonal-touch-pool-habitat-compared-with-an-off-exhibit-habitat
#10
James G Johnson, Lisa M Naples, William G Van Bonn, Angela D Kent, Mark A Mitchell, Matthew C Allender
Cownose rays ( Rhinoptera bonasus) are commonly displayed in zoo and aquarium touch pool exhibits; however, there is a gap in our understanding of how these practices might impact the health of these animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare selected health parameters in cownose rays housed in a seasonal outdoor exhibit touch pool system with abundant public contact and an indoor off-exhibit holding system with minimal human contact. All animals underwent physical examination, ultrasound, cloacal wash and cytology, and blood collection for complete blood counts, point-of-care blood analysis, plasma protein electrophoresis, and plasma cholesterol electrophoresis in May and October 2014...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297817/seasonal-dermatopathy-and-concurrent-reproductive-findings-in-captive-fossa-cryptoprocta-ferox
#11
Cameron Ratliff, Meg Sutherland-Smith
Six female intact fossa ( Cryptoprocta ferox) in the San Diego Zoo collection presented with episodic, seasonal alopecia and variable pruritus between the years 1984 and 2015. Presentation was often accompanied by findings such as prominent palpable uterus or cervix and thickened, enlarged uterus on ultrasound. Dermatologic testing has been consistently nondiagnostic for primary cause of alopecia. Both the alopecia and reproductive findings have a higher occurrence from midspring to midsummer. Hormonal changes associated with reproductive activity are proposed as a possible explanation for the dermal clinical signs seen in these six fossas...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297814/coagulation-assessment-underutilized-diagnostic-tools-in-zoo-and-aquatic-animal-medicine
#12
Trevor J Gerlach, Ashley Barratclough, Bobbi Conner
Veterinarians specializing in nondomestic species are faced with unique challenges regarding research and diagnostic capabilities given the wild and frequently dangerous nature of their patients. Standard diagnostic techniques used in small or large animal practice are not always possible due to anatomical constraints, size, tractability, or the inherent risk of anesthesia in highly valued, rare species. Diagnostic modalities that utilize simple, relatively noninvasive techniques show promise in evaluating nondomestic species and elucidating the pathophysiology behind poorly characterized disease processes in both wild and captive populations...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297811/fecal-cortisol-levels-in-scimitar-horned-oryx-oryx-dammah-reveals-differences-between-captive-environments
#13
Cassandra D Pauling, Scott E Lankford, Victoria L Jackson
Due to the intensive management of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, involving both captivity and reintroductions, understanding the stress associated with environmental situations this endangered species might experience would be particularly helpful. Fecal cortisol levels were measured across seasons, between captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states in animals held at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). A total of 72 samples were collected from FRWC and 69 samples were collected from KCZ...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297809/congenital-nutritional-myodegeneration-white-muscle-disease-in-a-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-calf
#14
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Marja J L Kik
It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280023/body-signals-used-during-social-play-in-captive-immature-western-lowland-gorillas
#15
Erin A Weigel, Carol M Berman
The play face is a well-established play signal in nonhuman primates that functions to invite play and convey a playful intent. However, recent evidence indicates that some species display repertoires of play signals that may have more specific meanings related to particular aspects of play. Furthermore, previous studies have inconsistently categorized gorilla behaviors as play signals versus actual play. Here we aim to identify behaviors displayed by two immature captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Buffalo Zoo that meet three necessary criteria to be considered play signals...
December 26, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278776/the-development-and-evolution-of-a-computerized-testing-system-for-primates-cognition-welfare-and-the-rumbaughx
#16
Bonnie M Perdue, Michael J Beran, David A Washburn
Innovations in apparatus technology come about for a variety of reasons such as the need to use the same methodology with various species, the opportunity to present dynamic and carefully controlled stimuli, the goal of using automation to make data collection more precise or efficient, and the need to control for and/or eliminate the presence of experimenters in the testing context. At the Language Research Center (LRC) of Georgia State University, a computer-based system has been developed and used extensively with nonhuman primate species...
December 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261025/free-ranging-synanthropic-birds-ardea-alba-and-columba-livia-domestica-as-carriers-of-salmonella-spp-and-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-the-vicinity-of-an-urban-zoo
#17
Mirela C V de Oliveira, Beatriz Q Camargo, Marcos P V Cunha, Andre Becker Saidenberg, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana P G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria I Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243311/husbandry-protocols-for-the-band-tailed-pigeon-patagioenas-fasciata-albilinea-at-the-wcs-bronx-zoo-for-future-conservation-management-programs
#18
David A Oehler, Ben J Novak, Susan C Schmid, Ken J Huth, Aniko I Totha, Tapan Audhya
From 2015 to 2016 we determined the husbandry protocols involved in the captive rearing of the Band-tailed Pigeon (BTPI), Patagioenas fascinate albilinea, for use as a tool in the future management of like extant and extinct avian taxa. Current and historical ex-situ conservation management of BTPIs and the closely related Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, is limited in scope and required further examination. Focus on the BTPI within zoos and private aviculture facilities is currently lacking. New pressures on the wild populations and future examination of the parameters involved in the possible restoration of the Passenger Pigeon may rely on a complete understanding of these conservation management techniques...
December 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236745/facultative-parthenogenesis-validated-by-dna-analyses-in-the-green-anaconda-eunectes-murinus
#19
Hiroki Shibata, Shuichi Sakata, Yuzo Hirano, Eiji Nitasaka, Ai Sakabe
In reptiles, the mode of reproduction is typically sexual. However, facultative parthenogenesis occurs in some Squamata, such as Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus). Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus). We found two fully developed female neonates and 17 undeveloped eggs in the oviduct of a female anaconda isolated from other individuals for eight years and two months at Ueno Zoo, Japan. To clarify the zygosity of the neonates, we analyzed 18 microsatellite markers of which 16 were informative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228225/identification-of-pathogenic-aspergillus-isolates-from-captive-birds-in-australia
#20
Jessica J Talbot, Paul Thompson, Larry Vogelnest, Vanessa R Barrs
Aspergillosis is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in birds. The prevalence of cryptic section Fumigati and other non-Aspergillus fumigatus species as causative agents is unknown. Species identity was determined in 30 isolates from affected birds from zoos, pet birds and poultry by PCR of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and partial β-tubulin genes. The most prevalent isolate was A. fumigatus sens. str. in 87% (26) cases. Other Aspergillus species were identified in 13% (4) cases, including A. restrictus (1), A...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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