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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911478/modulation-of-whistle-production-related-to-training-sessions-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-under-human-care
#1
Juliana Lopez Marulanda, Olivier Adam, Fabienne Delfour
Bottlenose dolphins are highly social cetaceans with an extensive sound production including clicks, burst-pulsed sounds, and whistles. Some whistles, known as signature whistles, are individually specific. These acoustic signatures are commonly described as being emitted in contexts of stress during forced isolation and as group cohesion calls. Interactions between humans and captive dolphins is largely based on positive reinforcement conditioning within several training/feeding sessions per day. Vocal behavior of dolphins during these interactions might vary...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#2
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894321/encephalomyocarditis-virus-infection-in-macaca-sylvanus-and-hystrix-cristata-from-an-italian-rescue-centre-for-wild-and-exotic-animals
#3
Giusy Cardeti, Valeria Mariano, Claudia Eleni, Marco Aloisi, Goffredo Grifoni, Stefania Sittinieri, Giampiero Dante, Valeria Antognetti, Efrem Alessandro Foglia, Antonella Cersini, Alberigo Nardi
BACKGROUND: The Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Cardiovirus, family Picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. It is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. The pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but EMCV occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. Until now, human cases have been very rare and the risk appears to be almost negligible in spite of human susceptibility to the infection...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888587/tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-orygis-in-dairy-cattle-and-captured-monkeys-in-bangladesh-a-new-scenario-of-tuberculosis-in-south-asia
#4
Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886331/effect-of-fragmentation-on-the-natural-genetic-diversity-of-theobroma-speciosum-willd-ex-spreng-populations
#5
T L Varella, A A B Rossi, J F E Dardengo, G F Silveira, M D A Souza, M L S Carvalho
Forest fragmentation reduces the effective size of natural populations, isolates individuals in the landscape, and, consequently, changes species' mating systems by increasing the degree of relatedness between individuals and inbreeding. Investigating the impact of habitat degradation on forest fragments helps to assess the genetic and ecological consequences of these changes, and allows the development of effective and sustainable conservation strategies to manage the genetic resources of species living in degraded landscapes...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881645/phylogenetic-diversity-of-koala-retrovirus-within-a-wild-koala-population
#6
K J Chappell, J C Brealey, A A Amarilla, D Watterson, L Hulse, C Palmieri, S D Johnston, E C Holmes, J Meers, P R Young
: Koala populations are in serious decline across many areas of mainland Australia, with infectious disease a contributing factor. Koala Retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus present in most wild Koala populations and captive colonies. Five subtypes of KoRV have been identified (A-E) based on amino acid sequence divergence in a hyper-variable region of the receptor binding domain of the envelope protein. However, analysis of viral genetic diversity has primarily been conducted on KoRV in captive koalas housed in zoos in Japan, the United States of America and Germany...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872723/a-human-reproductive-approach-to-the-study-of-infertility-in-chimpanzees-an-experience-at-leon-s-zoological-park-mexico
#7
Raul Eduardo Piña-Aguilar, Janet López-Saucedo, Lilia Ivone Ruiz-Galaz, José de Jesús Barroso-Padilla, Mayra Celina Gallegos-Rivas, Claudia González-Ortega, Antonio Martin Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#8
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866266/survey-of-baylisascaris-spp-in-captive-striped-skunks-mephitis-mephitis-in-some-european-areas
#9
D d'Ovidio, N Pantchev, E Noviello, L Del Prete, M P Maurelli, G Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
Skunks are popular carnivore species kept both in zoological institutions and in households where they are hand raised as exotic pets. These small carnivores are considered the main definitive hosts of the roundworm Baylisascaris columnaris. The purpose of this survey was to investigate the occurrence of Baylisascaris spp. in striped skunks kept as pets or in private zoo collections in some European areas. Copromicroscopic data from two laboratories, one in Italy and one in Germany, were used. A total of 60 cases positive to Baylisascaris spp...
November 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866159/pairing-animal-cartoon-characters-with-produce-stimulates-selection-among-child-zoo-visitors
#10
Allison Karpyn, Michael Allen, Samantha Marks, Nicole Filion, Debora Humphrey, Ai Ye, Henry May, Meryl P Gardner
In order to address the pervasive trend of underconsumption of fruits and vegetables among children, we examined the hypothesis that children would be more likely to select fruits (apple slices, bananas, and oranges) and vegetables (baby carrots) when paired with animal cartoon image than when available without the character image. Tested in a randomized experiment using counterbalancing, products were arranged on two tables at two separate family fun nights held at a local zoo. Animal character produce parings were manipulated by placing one of two animals (tamarin or iguana) next to two of the four fruit or vegetable selections at each table, and by changing when available without the image...
November 18, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864065/lateralization-of-splay-posture-in-reticulated-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-reticulate
#11
Joseph T Svoke
Motor laterality is quite often studied in non-human primates, but rarely has been investigated within ungulates. The aim of the study was to use the naturally occurring splay behavior in giraffe as a method to look for the presence of laterality. Four male giraffes housed at Zoo Atlanta were watched for three months, recording their first leg moved to begin the splay posture and the total number of leg movements to achieve a secure stance. All four giraffe significantly moved their left leg first to begin the stance, which suggests at least individual level laterality...
November 15, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862255/fourteen-tail-feathers-an-autosomal-recessive-trait-in-california-condors-gymnogyps-californianus
#12
Devon Lang Pryor, Katherine Ralls
Eight pairs of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) have produced 12 chicks with 14 tail feathers instead of the normal 12. The 14 tail feather trait appears to follow an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and is not known to be deleterious. The putative allele for the trait was present in at least seven of the 13 founders of the population. The 14 tail feather allele is the second recessive allele discovered in the condor population. Due to the founder effect, which changes the frequency of many formerly rare recessive alleles, and genetic management to minimize mean kinship, which reduces the expression of recessive traits, it is likely that this population carries other recessive alleles that have not yet been detected...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#13
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862242/seasonal-mortality-in-zoo-ruminants
#14
Lea Carisch, Dennis W H Müller, Jean-Michel Hatt, Laurie Bingaman Lackey, E Eberhard Rensch, Marcus Clauss, Philipp Zerbe
While seasonality has often been investigated with respect to reproduction, seasonality of mortality has received less attention. We investigated whether a seasonal signal of mortality exists in wild ruminants kept in zoos, using data from 60,591 individuals of 88 species. We quantified the mortality in the 3 consecutive months with the highest above-baseline mortality (3 MM). 3 MM was not related to relative life expectancy of species, indicating that seasonal mortality does not necessarily impact husbandry success...
November 15, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860371/epidemiological-and-molecular-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4-in-a-german-zoo-effective-disease-control-with-minimal-culling
#15
A Globig, E Starick, T Homeier, A Pohlmann, C Grund, P Wolf, A Zimmermann, C Wolf, D Heim, H Schlößer, S Zander, M Beer, F J Conraths, T C Harder
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4, were first reported in January 2014 from South Korea. These viruses spread rapidly to Europe and the North American continent during autumn 2014 and caused, in Germany, five outbreaks in poultry holdings until February 2015. In addition, birds kept in a zoo in north-eastern Germany were affected. Only a few individual white storks (Ciconia ciconia) showed clinical symptoms and eventually died in the course of the infection, although subsequent in-depth diagnostic investigations showed that other birds kept in the same compound of the white storks were acutely positive for or had undergone asymptomatic infection with HPAIV H5N8...
November 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859293/taphonomic-analysis-of-rodentia-and-lagomorpha-bone-gnawing-based-upon-incisor-size
#16
James T Pokines, Rachel Sussman, Megan Gough, Claira Ralston, Elizabeth McLeod, Karen Brun, Aisling Kearns, Tara L Moore
Rodent and lagomorph species have a worldwide distribution and have the potential to alter remains from forensic cases by gnawing soft tissue and bones and through dispersal. The present research compiled metric data on the incisors widths of all rodent and lagomorph species whose ranges include Massachusetts, U.S.A., to compare their sizes to gnawing damage found on 17 cases of human remains from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA. Data on gnawing maximum striation widths also were collected from live laboratory, zoo, and wild specimens...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855564/adenomatous-hyperplasia-of-the-mucous-glands-in-captive-archey-s-frogs-leiopelma-archeyi
#17
S D Shaw, L Berger, C Harvey, M R Alley, P J Bishop, R Speare
AIMS: To describe the gross and light microscopic characteristics of skin lesions observed on the ventral skin of captive Archey's frogs (Leiopelma archeyi) between 2000 and 2012, and to investigate their occurrence, possible aetiology and association with survival. METHODS: Postmortem skin samples were obtained for histological evaluation from 37 frogs, with and without skin lesions, that died while in captivity at Auckland Zoo between 2000 and 2012. Four frogs with skin lesions were biopsied under general anaesthesia and samples used for both light and transmission electron microscopy...
November 30, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842799/safe-handling-of-snakes-in-an-ed-setting
#18
Melanie Cockrell, Kristofer Swanson, April Sanders, Samuel Prater, Toni von Wenckstern, JoAnn Mick
: Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED. METHODS: A local snake consultation vendor and zoo Herpetologist assisted with development of a process for snake identification and disposal...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826361/viral-metagenomics-of-fecal-samples-from-non-human-primates-revealed-human-astrovirus-in-a-chimpanzee-china
#19
Xiaochun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Shixing Yang, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Dunwu Qi
BACKGROUND: Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are commonly identified worldwide as important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. More and more evidences challenged the paradigm that AstV infections are species-specific. Yet to date, AstVs associated with human infections have not been detected in any animal hosts. RESULTS: Viral metagenomics methods were used to detect viral nucleic acids in fecal samples from 69 captive non-human primates (NHPs) from three zoos in China...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819303/comparative-analyses-of-longevity-and-senescence-reveal-variable-survival-benefits-of-living-in-zoos-across-mammals
#20
Morgane Tidière, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Vérane Berger, Dennis W H Müller, Laurie Bingaman Lackey, Olivier Gimenez, Marcus Clauss, Jean-François Lemaître
While it is commonly believed that animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, this assumption has rarely been tested. We compared four survival metrics (longevity, baseline mortality, onset of senescence and rate of senescence) between both sexes of free-ranging and zoo populations of more than 50 mammal species. We found that mammals from zoo populations generally lived longer than their wild counterparts (84% of species). The effect was most notable in species with a faster pace of life (i.e. a short life span, high reproductive rate and high mortality in the wild) because zoos evidently offer protection against a number of relevant conditions like predation, intraspecific competition and diseases...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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