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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335238/selective-plasma-etching-of-polymeric-substrates-for-advanced-applications
#1
REVIEW
Harinarayanan Puliyalil, Uroš Cvelbar
In today's nanoworld, there is a strong need to manipulate and process materials on an atom-by-atom scale with new tools such as reactive plasma, which in some states enables high selectivity of interaction between plasma species and materials. These interactions first involve preferential interactions with precise bonds in materials and later cause etching. This typically occurs based on material stability, which leads to preferential etching of one material over other. This process is especially interesting for polymeric substrates with increasing complexity and a "zoo" of bonds, which are used in numerous applications...
June 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323863/discovery-of-genome-widesnps-by-rad-seqand-the-genetic-diversity-of-captive-hog-deer-axis-porcinus
#2
Wei Wang, Huijuan Yan, Jianqiu Yu, Jun Yi, Yu Qu, Maozhong Fu, Ang Chen, Hui Tang, Lili Niu
The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a small deer whose natural habitat is the wet or moist tall grasslands in South and Southeast Asia. Wild populations have dramatically decreased in recent decades. While wild hog deer were recently acknowledged to be extinct in China, a few captive populations have been maintained. In the present study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) technique to generate a genome-wide profile of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the captive population of hog deer from Chengdu Zoo, China (N = 11)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322210/mycolactone-producing-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-in-captive-hong-kong-warty-newts-and-pathological-evidence-of-impaired-host-immune-function
#3
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Fun-In Wang, Chen-Hsuan Liu, Ting-Yu Chen, Jun-Cheng Guo, Takayuki Wada, Chian-Ren Jeng
A mass mortality event of captive Hong Kong warty newts Paramesotriton hongkongensis with non-granulomatous necrotic lesions occurred in Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, in 2014. Clinically, the sick newts were lethargic and often covered with water mold Saprolegnia sp. on the skin of the body trunk or extremities. Predominant pathological findings were multifocal non-granulomatous necrotic lesions in the liver, spleen, and kidneys and severe skin infection with Saprolegnia sp., with deep invasion and involvement of underlying muscles...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320976/a-study-on-the-efficacy-of-the-recombinant-yersinia-adhesin-a-vaccine-against-yersiniosis-in-the-early-phase
#4
Kosuke Tsugo, Shin/Ichi Nakamura, Hiroko Yamanaka, Yumi Une
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. ptb) is a zoonotic pathogenic bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae and causes yersiniosis, an acute intestinal infection in humans and animals. Y. ptb is often implicated in lethal epidemics in zoo animals and reductions in the breeding population, but a valid prevention method has not been established. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a vaccine for yersiniosis control. The immunogenicity of one of the adhesion factors involved in pathogenic mechanisms of Y...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306740/metabolic-rate-of-the-red-panda-ailurus-fulgens-a-dietary-bamboo-specialist
#5
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301245/prevalence-of-taxa-of-pasteurellaceae-among-populations-of-healthy-captive-psittacine-birds
#6
M Bisgaard, Di Xin, M F Bertelsen, A M Bojesen, H Christensen
Sixty-two strains of Pasteurellaceae-like bacteria were isolated from the tracheas of 87 clinically healthy psittacine birds in two Danish zoos. The isolates were identified by a combination of rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight. Twenty-eight strains belonged to the genus Volucribacter or were related to this genus and to the unnamed taxon 34 of Bisgaard, and 28 strains were related to the unnamed taxon 44 of Bisgaard. Four strains were identified as Pasteurella multocida , two isolates were classified with the related taxon 45 of Bisgaard, and a single isolate was classified as Pasteurella sp...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295537/investigation-of-techniques-to-measure-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-in-coyote-hair
#7
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Long-term noninvasive sampling for endangered or elusive species is particularly difficult due to the challenge of collecting fecal samples before hormone metabolite desiccation, as well as the difficulty in collecting a large enough sample size from all individuals. Hair samples may provide an environmentally stable alternative that provides a long-term assessment of stress and reproductive hormone profiles for captive, zoo, and wild mammals. Here, we extracted and analyzed both cortisol and testosterone in coyote (Canis latrans) hair for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283615/systemic-failings-at-cumbrian-zoo
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274187/bioaugmentation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-by-dungs-of-herbivore-carnivore-and-omnivore-zoo-animals
#9
Javkhlan Ariunbaatar, Onur Ozcan, Robert Bair, Giovanni Esposito, Ray Ball, Piet N L Lens, Daniel H Yeh
The potential improvement of biomethanation of food waste (FW) by adding dung of herbivore (giraffe, llama, koala), carnivore (tiger) and omnivore (sloth bear) animals to anaerobic sludge (AnS) was investigated. Adding 30% giraffe, sloth bear or koala dung to the AnS inoculum yielded, respectively, a 11.17 (± 4.51), 10.10 (± 1.23), and 1.41 (± 0.56) % higher biomethane production, as compared to the control (FW with solely AnS). The highest biomethane production of 564.00 (± 3.88) ml CH4/gVSadded obtained with 30% giraffe dung and 70% AnS was attributed to a higher solubilization of proteins (6...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267758/whole-genome-analysis-of-mycobacteria-from-birds-at-the-san-diego-zoo
#10
Wayne Pfeiffer, Josephine Braun, Jennifer Burchell, Carmel L Witte, Bruce A Rideout
METHODS: Mycobacteria isolated from more than 100 birds diagnosed with avian mycobacteriosis at the San Diego Zoo and its Safari Park were cultured postmortem and had their whole genomes sequenced. Computational workflows were developed and applied to identify the mycobacterial species in each DNA sample, to find single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between samples of the same species, to further differentiate SNPs between as many as three different genotypes within a single sample, and to identify which samples are closely clustered genomically...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255045/charity-provides-desperately-needed-care-for-mosul-zoo-s-remaining-animals
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245067/conservation-genomics-of-the-endangered-burmese-roofed-turtle
#12
F Gözde Çilingir, Frank E Rheindt, Kritika M Garg, Kalyar Platt, Steven G Platt, David P Bickford
The Burmese roofed turtle (Batagur trivittata) is one of the world's most endangered turtles. Only one wild population remains in Myanmar. Based on field observations, wild breeders are thought to number around a dozen. Combined in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts for the species have raised >700 captive turtles over a decade predominantly from wild collected eggs. In one of the most comprehensive studies bridging genomic methodologies with active in-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts, we obtained ∼1500 unlinked genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from ∼40% of the turtles' remaining global population...
February 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229260/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-dhea-s-sex-and-age-in-zoo-housed-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#13
Ashley N Edes
Among humans, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) declines with age and is hypothesized to be involved in somatic maintenance and healthy aging. Men have significantly higher DHEA-S than women, contradicting longer lifespans in the latter. Declines of DHEA-S with age also are observed in chimpanzees. In both chimpanzees and bonobos, males and females show no differences in DHEA-S production. Based on human and chimpanzee data, gorillas were predicted to show declining DHEA-S with age. Similar to chimpanzees and bonobos, it also was predicted DHEA-S would not be significantly different between males and females...
February 22, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229042/an-investigation-of-parasitic-infections-and-review-of-molecular-characterization-of-the-intestinal-protozoa-in-nonhuman-primates-in-china-from-2009-to-2015
#14
Junqiang Li, Haiju Dong, Rongjun Wang, Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Yankai Chang, Chenrong Wang, Meng Qi, Longxian Zhang
Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224883/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-zoo-and-domestic-animals-in-jiangxi-province-china
#15
Houqiang Luo, Kun Li, Hui Zhang, Ping Gan, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoxing Wu, Yanfang Lan, Jiaxiang Wang
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) (27%), 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger) (20%), 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) (17%), and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) (22%) were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus), wild geese (Anser cygnoides), and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222788/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genomic-rep-pcr-fingerprints-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-from-animals-on-the-background-of-the-global-population-structure
#16
Isa Serrano, Manuela Oliveira, José Pedro Santos, Florence Bilocq, Alexandre Leitão, Luis Tavares, Jean-Paul Pirnay, Daniel De Vos
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human opportunistic pathogen responsible for fatal nosocomial infections worldwide, and has emerged as a relevant animal pathogen. Treatment options are dramatically decreasing, due to antimicrobial resistance and the microorganism's large versatile genome. Antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotype frequency and genomic profile of unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates of veterinary origin (n = 73), including domesticated, farm, zoo and wild animals mainly from Portugal were studied...
February 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222719/descriptive-study-of-enteric-zoonoses-in-ontario-canada-from-2010-2012
#17
Yvonne Whitfield, Karen Johnson, Leigh Hobbs, Dean Middleton, Badal Dhar, Linda Vrbova
BACKGROUND: Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. METHODS: Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E...
February 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215867/seroepidemiology-and-risk-assessment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-captive-wild-birds-and-mammals-in-two-zoos-in-the-north-of-portugal
#18
Ana Tidy, Sara Fangueiro, Jitender P Dubey, Luís Cardoso, Ana Patrícia Lopes
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It can affect most warm-blooded animals but only felids are its definitive hosts. We determined seroprevalence and associated risk factors in birds and mammals kept in two zoological parks in northern Portugal. Sera from 77 birds and 42 mammals were assayed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off titre 20); 34.5% (41/119) were seropositive. All seropositive animals were apparently healthy except one seropostive mandarin (Aix galericulata) which had chorioretinitis...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212654/diversity-and-distribution-of-avian-malaria-and-related-haemosporidian-parasites-in-captive-birds-from-a-brazilian%C3%A2-megalopolis
#19
Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Lilian de Oliveira Guimarães, Eliana Ferreira Monteiro, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz Guida, Roseli França Simões, Priscila Thihara Rodrigues, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Karin Kirchgatter
BACKGROUND: The role of zoos in conservation programmes has increased significantly in last decades, and the health of captive animals is essential to guarantee success of such programmes. However, zoo birds suffer from parasitic infections, which often are caused by malaria parasites and related haemosporidians. Studies determining the occurrence and diversity of these parasites, aiming better understanding infection influence on fitness of captive birds, are limited. METHODS: In 2011-2015, the prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium spp...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206675/a-multi-zoo-investigation-of-nutrient-provision-for-captive-red-crested-turacos
#20
Alexander J Hulbert, Kerry A Hunt, Paul E Rose
Turacos (Musophagidae) are common zoo birds; the 14 species of Tauraco being most often exhibited. Turacos possess unique non-structural, copper-based feather pigments, and a specialized dietary strategy. Tauraco inhabit tropical woodlands, foraging for predominantly folivorous and/or frugivorous food items. Using a study population of 16 red-crested turacos (T. erythrolophus) at seven zoos in the United Kingdom, the nutrient composition of diets from diet sheets was calculated, using Zootrition v.2.6, Saint Louis Zoo, USA for analyses of important nutrients within each diet, and compared against an example of currently available literature...
February 16, 2017: Zoo Biology
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