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Herpes simplex virus and t cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677136/cytoplasmic-translocation-of-nucleolar-protein-nop53-promotes-viral-replication-by-suppressing-host-defense
#1
Wen Meng, Shi-Chong Han, Cui-Cui Li, Hui-Jun Dong, Jian-Yu Chang, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate)...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625473/corneal-epithelial-cells-exhibit-myeloid-characteristics-and-present-antigen-via-mhc-class-ii
#2
Derek J Royer, Michael H Elliott, Yun Z Le, Daniel J J Carr
Purpose: To explore the impact of ocular surface insults on the immunomodulatory capacity and phenotype of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) with a focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Corneas were harvested from mice 6 days following scratch injury, ragweed pollen-induced allergy, or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and compared to healthy tissue controls. Corneas were enzymatically digested and CECs phenotypically characterized using flow cytometry...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620508/increasing-antigen-presentation-on-hsv-1-infected-cells-increases-lesion-size-but-does-not-alter-neural-infection-or-latency
#3
Tiffany A Russell, Thilaga Velusamy, Yeu-Yang Tseng, David C Tscharke
CD8+ T cells have a role in the control of acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and may also be important in the maintenance of latency. In this study we have explored the consequences of boosting the efficacy of CD8+ T cells against HSV by increasing the amount of an MHC I-presented epitope on the surface of infected cells. To do this we used HSVs engineered to express an extra copy of the immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope in C57Bl/6 mice, namely gB498 (SSIEFARL). Despite greater presentation of gB498 on infected cells, CD8+ T cell responses to these viruses in mice were similar to those elicited by a control virus...
April 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599765/herpesviruses-in-the-activated-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Cohen
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. They present with lymphoproliferation and often have infections, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe virus infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599413/combinatorial-effects-of-vegfr-kinase-inhibitor-axitinib-and-oncolytic-virotherapy-in-mouse-and-human-glioblastoma-stem-like-cell-models
#5
Dipongkor Saha, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Cole W Peters, Slawomir J Antoszczyk, Samuel D Rabkin, Robert L Martuza
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM), a fatal brain cancer, contains a subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that contribute to resistance to current therapy. Angiogenesis also plays a key role in GBM progression. Therefore, we developed a strategy to target the complex GBM microenvironment, including GSCs and tumor vasculature. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of VEFGR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) axitinib in vitro and then tested anti-tumor efficacy of axitinib in combination with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) expressing anti-angiogenic cytokine murine IL12 (G47Δ-mIL12) in two orthotopic GSC-derived GBM models: patientderived recurrent MGG123 GSCs, forming vascular xenografts in immune-deficient mice, and mouse 005 GSCs, forming syngeneic tumors in immune-competent mice...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561296/potential-clinical-and-immunotherapeutic-utility-of-talimogene-laherparepvec-for-patients-with-melanoma-after-disease-progression-on-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-braf-inhibitors
#6
Jason Chesney, Yoannis Imbert-Fernandez, Sucheta Telang, Mary Baum, Smita Ranjan, Mostafa Fraig, Nicolas Batty
Talimogene laherparepvec is a genetically modified herpes simplex virus type 1-based oncolytic immunotherapy for the local treatment of unresectable subcutaneous and nodal tumors in patients with melanoma recurrent after initial surgery. We report on two patients with melanoma who, after progression on numerous systemic therapies, derived clinical benefit from talimogene laherparepvec in an expanded-access protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02147951). Intralesional talimogene laherparepvec (day 1, ≤4 ml 10 PFU/ml; after 3 weeks, ≤4 ml 10 PFU/ml every 2 weeks) was administered until complete response, no injectable tumors, progressive disease, or intolerance occurred...
March 21, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543540/immunopathology-of-virus-induced-anterior-uveitis
#7
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535361/herpesviruses-possess-conserved-proteins-for-interaction-with-nedd4-family-ubiquitin-e3-ligases
#8
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Takahiro Kobayashi, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
Nedd4 is a family of ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate numerous cellular processes. In this report, we showed that alpha- and beta-herpesviruses have membrane proteins that regulate the function of the Nedd4 family members. Although the homology search score was quite low, UL56 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, ORF0 of varicella-zoster virus, UL42 of human cytomegalovirus, and U24 of human herpesvirus 6A, 6B, and 7 all possess at least one PPxY (PY) motif in their cytoplasmic domain, and are able to bind with Itch, a member of the Nedd4 family...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524615/identification-of-broadly-reactive-epitopes-targeting-major-glycoproteins-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-1-and-2-an-immunoinformatics-analysis
#9
Varun Chauhan, Kapil Goyal, Mini P Singh
Infections due to both HSV-1 and HSV-2 constitute an enormous health burden worldwide. Development of vaccine against herpes infections is a WHO supported public health priority. The viral glycoproteins have always been the major hotspots for vaccine designing. The present study was aimed to identify the conserved T and B cell epitopes in the major glycoproteins of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 via rigorous computational approaches. Identification of promiscuous T cell epitopes is of utmost importance in vaccine designing as such epitopes are capable of binding to several allelic forms of HLA and could generate effective immune response in the host...
March 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483113/the-amphibian-antimicrobial-peptide-temporin-b-inhibits-in-vitro-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection
#10
M E Marcocci, D Amatore, S Villa, B Casciaro, P Aimola, G Franci, P Grieco, M Galdiero, A T Palamara, M L Mangoni, L Nencioni
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is widespread in the population and in most cases its infection is asymptomatic. The currently available anti-HSV-1 drugs are acyclovir and its derivatives, although long-term therapy with these agents can lead to drug resistance. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-herpetic compounds deserves additional effort. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an interesting class of molecules with potential antiviral properties. To the best of our knowledge this work is the first demonstration of the in vitro anti-HSV-1 activity of Temporin B (TB), a short membrane-active amphibian AMP...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464765/delay-of-alternative-antiviral-therapy-and-poor-outcomes-of-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant
#11
Ella J Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly, Lokesh R Shahani, Ying Jang, Richard Champlin, Victor E Mulanovich
Acyclovir is commonly used to prevent and treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and only few reports have been published on acyclovir-resistant HSV in HCT recipients. We reviewed the medical records of patients with a microbiologic diagnosis of acyclovir-resistant HSV by plaque reduction test who received an HCT from 2002 through 2014. A total of 4028 HCTs were performed during the study period, and 18 of the recipients met the diagnostic criteria for acyclovir-resistant HSV...
February 21, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454196/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-immune-activation-among-hiv-infected-but-virally-suppressed-youth-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Tanya L Kowalczyk Mullins, Su X Li, James Bethel, Maureen M Goodenow, Stephanie Hudey, John W Sleasman
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation. OBJECTIVES: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and little is known about the impact of STIs on immune activation in HIV-infected youth, we conducted an exploratory study examining the association between STIs and systemic inflammation and immune activation among HIV-infected adolescents...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399408/oncolytic-viruses-sensitize-human-tumor-cells-for-ny-eso-1-tumor-antigen-recognition-by-cd4-effector-t-cells
#13
Tiphaine Delaunay, Mathilde Violland, Nicolas Boisgerault, Soizic Dutoit, Virginie Vignard, Christian Münz, Monique Gannage, Brigitte Dréno, Kristine Vaivode, Dace Pjanova, Nathalie Labarrière, Yaohe Wang, E Antonio Chiocca, Fabrice Le Boeuf, John C Bell, Philippe Erbs, Frédéric Tangy, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Oncolytic immunotherapy using oncolytic viruses (OV) has been shown to stimulate the antitumor immune response by inducing the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and danger signals from the dying infected tumor cells. In this study, we sought to determine if the lysis of tumor cells induced by different OV: measles virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex type I virus, adenovirus or enterovirus, has consequences on the capacity of tumor cells to present TAA, such as NY-ESO-1...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396398/mutant-torsina-in-the-heterozygous-dyt1-state-compromises-hsv-propagation-in-infected-neurons-and-fibroblasts
#14
Bence György, Lilian Cruz, David Yellen, Massimo Aufiero, Isabel Alland, Xuan Zhang, Maria Ericsson, Cornel Fraefel, Yu-Ching Li, Shuko Takeda, Bradley T Hyman, Xandra O Breakefield
Most cases of early onset torsion dystonia (DYT1) are caused by a 3-base pair deletion in one allele of the TOR1A gene causing loss of a glutamate in torsinA, a luminal protein in the nuclear envelope. This dominantly inherited neurologic disease has reduced penetrance and no other medical manifestations. It has been challenging to understand the neuronal abnormalities as cells and mouse models which are heterozygous (Het) for the mutant allele are quite similar to wild-type (WT) controls. Here we found that patient fibroblasts and mouse neurons Het for this mutation showed significant differences from WT cells in several parameters revealed by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) which replicates in the nucleus and egresses out through the nuclear envelope...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371118/ankrd1-regulates-innate-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-1-a-potential-role-in-eczema-herpeticum
#15
Lianghua Bin, Xiaozhao Li, Brittany Richers, Joanne E Streib, Jack W Hu, Patricia Taylor, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease. A subset of AD is susceptible to disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, a complication termed as eczema herpeticum(ADEH+). The immune mechanisms causing ADEH+ remain elusive. Using RNA-sequencing, we recently found that ankyrin repeat domain 1 (ANKRD1) was significantly induced in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon HSV-1 stimulation; and its induction in ADEH+ was significantly reduced as compared to AD patients without a history of EH (ADEH-)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360750/proteomic-analysis-of-secretomes-of-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-infected-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#16
Shinya Tada, Masakazu Hamada, Yoshiaki Yura
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain RH2 induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) with the release and surface exposure of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) SCCVII cells. The supernatants of RH2-infected SCCVII cells also exhibited antitumor ability by intratumoral administration in SCCVII tumor-bearing mice. The supernatants of RH2-infected cells and mock-infected cells were concentrated to produce Med24 and MedC for proteomic analyses. In Med24, the up- and down-regulated proteins were observed...
January 23, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352387/current-perspectives-on-erythema-multiforme
#17
REVIEW
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Recognition and timely adequate treatment of erythema multiforme remain a major challenge. In this review, current diagnostic guidelines, potential pitfalls, and modern/novel treatment options are summarized with the aim to help clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The diagnosis of erythema multiforme, that has an acute, self-limiting course, is based on its typical clinical picture of targetoid erythematous lesions with predominant acral localization as well as histological findings...
February 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313728/the-potential-of-currently-unavailable-herpes-virus-vaccines
#18
Július Rajčáni, Ferenc Bánáti, Kálmán Szenthe, Susan Szathmary
Despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent Alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2) nor against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirus. Areas covered: Since the DNAs of both HSVs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than for prevention of primary infection. Here we describe the design of a purified subunit vaccine as well as the preparation and efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the gD ectodomain from our domestic attenuated HSV1 strain HSZP...
March 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306975/combination-of-mppa-pdt-and-hsv1-tk-gcv-gene-therapy-on-prostate-cancer
#19
Liming Liang, Wenxiang Bi, Weiwen Chen, Yani Lin, Yuanyuan Tian
We combined pyropheophorbide-a methyl ester, photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT), 670 ± 10 nm, 4 mW/cm2 , with herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV1-TK/GCV) to improve the therapeutic effect. We built HSV1-TK expression vector GV230-TK and we observed a bright green fluorescence under fluorescence microscope. It indicated the recombinant plasmid was transfected into PC-3M prostate cancer cells successfully. As the abundant glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) promoter in PC-3M cells can cause active expression of HSV1-TK, cell protein was collected for western blot to determine the expression of HSV1-TK...
February 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288515/third-generation-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-inhibits-the-growth-of-liver-tumors-in-mice
#20
Richi Nakatake, Masaki Kaibori, Yusuke Nakamura, Yoshito Tanaka, Hideyuki Matushima, Tadayoshi Okumura, Takashi Murakami, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo, Masanori Kon
Multimodality therapies are used to manage patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although advanced HCC is incurable. Oncolytic virus therapy is probably the next major breakthrough in cancer treatment. The third-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) T-01 kills tumor cells without damaging the surrounding normal tissues. Here we investigated the antitumor effects of T-01 on HCC and the host's immune response to HCC cells. The cytopathic activities of T-01 were tested in 14 human and 1 murine hepatoma cell line in vitro...
March 2018: Cancer Science
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