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Oncolytic HSV

Alicia M Waters, Laura L Stafman, Evan F Garner, Smitha Mruthyunjayappa, Jerry E Stewart, Gregory K Friedman, Jennifer M Coleman, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Elizabeth A Beierle
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a tumor of skeletal muscle origin, is the most common sarcoma of childhood. Despite multidrug chemotherapy regimens, surgical intervention, and radiation treatment, outcomes remain poor, especially in advanced disease, and novel therapies are needed for the treatment of these aggressive malignancies. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV), are currently being explored as treatments for pediatric tumors. M002, an oncolytic HSV, has both copies of the γ134...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Chaolong Lin, Huanhuan Li, Mengru Hao, Dan Xiong, Yong Luo, Chenghao Huang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
Genetically modified HSV-1 viruses serve as promising vectors for tumour therapy and vaccine development. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is one of the most powerful tools for precise gene editing of the genomes of organisms. However, whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely and efficiently make gene replacements in the genome of HSV-1 remains essentially unknown. Here, we reported CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the HSV-1 genome in human cells, including the knockout and replacement of large genes. In established cells stably expressing CRISPR/Cas9, gRNA in coordination with Cas9 could direct a precise cleavage within a pre-defined target region, and foreign genes were successfully used to replace the target gene seamlessly by HDR-mediated gene replacement...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yu Okubo, Hiroaki Uchida, Aika Wakata, Takuma Suzuki, Tomoko Shibata, Hitomi Ikeda, Miki Yamaguchi, Justus B Cohen, Joseph C Glorioso, Mitsuo Tagaya, Hirofumi Hamada, Hideaki Tahara
: Membrane fusion, which is the key process for both initial cell entry and subsequent lateral spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV), requires the four envelope glycoproteins gB, gD, gH, and gL. Syncytial mutations, predominantly mapped to the gB and gK genes, confer hyperfusogenicity on HSV and cause multinucleated giant cells, termed syncytia. Here, we asked whether interaction of gD with a cognate entry receptor remains indispensable for initiating membrane fusion of syncytial strains...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
David F Bauer, Larisa Pereboeva, G Yancey Gillespie, Gretchen A Cloud, Osama Elzafarany, Catherine Langford, James M Markert, Lawrence S Lamb
We designed multimodal tumor vaccine that consists of irradiated tumor cells infected with the oncolytic IL-12-expressing HSV-1 virus, M002. This vaccine was tested against the syngeneic neuroblastoma mouse model Neuro 2a injected into the right caudate nucleus of the immunocompetent A/J mice. Mice were vaccinated via intramuscular injection of multimodal vaccine or uninfected irradiated tumor cells at seven and 14 days after tumor establishment. While there was no survival difference between groups vaccinated with cell-based vaccine applied following tumor injection, a premunition prime/boost vaccination strategy produced a significant survival advantage in both groups and sustained immune response to an intracranial rechallenge of the same tumor...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Dipongkor Saha, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Samuel D Rabkin
Oncolytic viruses (OVs), like oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), are genetically engineered to selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. Initial OV infection, cell death, and subsequent OV propagation within the tumor microenvironment leads to a cascade of host responses (innate and adaptive), reflective of natural anti-viral immune responses. These host-virus interactions are critical to the balance between OV activities, anti-viral immune responses limiting OV, and induction of anti-tumor immunity...
August 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo
Oncolytic virus therapy is perhaps the next major breakthrough in cancer treatment following the success in immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors. Oncolytic viruses are defined as genetically engineered or naturally occurring viruses that selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells without harming the normal tissues. T-Vec (talimogene laherparepvec), a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) armed with GM-CSF, was recently approved as the first oncolytic virus drug in the USA and Europe...
August 3, 2016: Cancer Science
Lorrie A Burnham, Dinesh Jaishankar, Jeffrey M Thompson, Kevin S Jones, Deepak Shukla, Vaibhav Tiwari
Cationic liposomes are widely used to facilitate introduction of genetic material into target cells during transfection. This study describes a non-receptor mediated herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry into the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells that naturally lack glycoprotein D (gD)-receptors using a commercially available cationic liposome: lipofectamine. Presence of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) increased the levels of viral entry indicating a potential role of HS in this mode of entry. Loss of viral entry in the presence of actin de-polymerizing or lysosomotropic agents suggests that this mode of entry results in the endocytosis of the lipofectamine-virus mixture...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ji Young Yoo, Alena C Jaime-Ramirez, Chelsea Bolyard, Hongsheng Dai, Tejaswini Nallanagulagari, Jeffrey Wojton, Brian Hurwitz, Theresa Relation, Jun-Ge Yu, Tae Jin Lee, Michael T Lotze, Jianying Zhang, Carlo M Croce, Jianhua Yu, Michael A Caligiuri, Matthew Old, Balveen Kaur
BACKGROUND: Both the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV) expressing GMCSF are currently FDA-approved. While proteasome blockade can increase oHSV replication, immunological consequences and consequent immunotherapy potential are unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of bortezomib combined with oHSV on tumor cell death and sensitivity to Natural Killier (NK) cell immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Western blot, flow cytometry, and caspase 3/7 activity assays were used to evaluate the induction of apoptosis/autophagy and/or necroptotic cell death...
July 7, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Susanne G Warner, Dana Haddad, Joyce Au, Joshua S Carson, Michael P O'Leary, Christina Lewis, Sebastien Monette, Yuman Fong
Stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, and can be identified by sphere-formation and tumorigenicity assays. Oncolytic viruses infect, replicate in, and kill a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we seek proof of principle that TICs are susceptible to viral infection. HCT8 human colon cancer cells were subjected to serum-free culture to generate TIC tumorspheres. Parent cells and TICs were infected with HSV-1 subtype NV1066. Cytotoxicity, viral replication, and Akt1 expression were assessed...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Shigenori Kakutani, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yukio Homma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Kaitlyn J Kelly, Joyce Wong, Mithat Gönen, Peter Allen, Murray Brennan, Daniel Coit, Yuman Fong
INTRODUCTION: Patients with peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not benefit from surgical resection, but radiologic and cytologic detection of peritoneal cancer lack sensitivity. This trial sought to determine if an oncolytic virus may be used as a diagnostic agent to detect peritoneal cancer. METHODS: Peritoneal washings from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were incubated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) NV1066...
May 2016: EBioMedicine
Daxa M Patel, Paul M Foreman, L Burt Nabors, Kristen O Riley, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert
M032 is a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) that selectively replicates in tumor cells. M032 kills tumor cells directly through oncolytic replication and then proceeds to infect tumor cells in proximity, continuing the process of tumor destruction. In addition to this direct oncolytic activity, the virus carries a therapeutic payload-thus acting as a gene therapy vector-and causes the tumor cell to synthesize and secrete the immunity-stimulating protein interleukin-12 (IL-12) before cell death...
June 2016: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Daxa Patel, Paul Foreman, Burt Nabors, Kristen Riley, Yancey Gillespie, James Markert
M032 is a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) that selectively replicates in tumor cells. M032 kills tumor cells directly through oncolytic replication then proceeds to infect tumor cells in proximity, continuing the process of tumor destruction. In addition to this direct oncolytic activity, the virus carries a therapeutic payload-thus acting as a gene therapy vector-and causes the tumor cell to synthesize and secrete the immunity-stimulating protein interleukin-12 (IL-12) prior to cell death...
May 27, 2016: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Shinichi Esaki, Samuel D Rabkin, Robert L Martuza, Hiroaki Wakimoto
Short-term nutritional restriction (fasting) has been shown to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy by sensitizing cancer cells and protecting normal cells in a variety of cancer models, including glioblastoma (GBM). Cancer cells, unlike normal cells, respond to fasting by promoting oncogenic signaling and protein synthesis. We hypothesized that fasting would increase the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) in GBM. Patient-derived GBM cell lines were fasted by growth in glucose and fetal calf serum restricted culture medium...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Aldo Pourchet, Steven R Fuhrmann, Karsten A Pilones, Sandra Demaria, Alan B Frey, Matthew Mulvey, Ian Mohr
Although counteracting innate defenses allows oncolytic viruses (OVs) to better replicate and spread within tumors, CD8(+) T-cells restrict their capacity to trigger systemic anti-tumor immune responses. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) evades CD8(+) T-cells by producing ICP47, which limits immune recognition of infected cells by inhibiting the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Surprisingly, removing ICP47 was assumed to benefit OV immuno-therapy, but the impact of inhibiting TAP remains unknown because human HSV-1 ICP47 is not effective in rodents...
March 2016: EBioMedicine
Zahid M Delwar, Guoyu Liu, Yvonne Kuo, Cleo Lee, Luke Bu, Paul S Rennie, William W Jia
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV-1) therapy is an emerging treatment modality that selectively destroys cancer. Here we report use of a glioma specific HSV-1 amplicon virus (SU4-124 HSV-1) to selectively target tumour cells. To achieve transcriptional regulation of the SU4-124 HSV-1 virus, the promoter for the essential HSV-1 gene ICP4 was replaced with a tumour specific survivin promoter. Translational regulation was achieved by incorporating 5 copies of microRNA 124 target sequences into the 3'UTR of the ICP4 gene...
May 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Lumin Zhang, Tsurumi Tatsuya, Yukihiro Nishiyama
The high level of manipulability of viral genome has set up HSV-1 to be an ideal viral vector for oncolytic virotherapy. In the past two decades, several oncolytic HSV-1 viruses have been successfully developed and assessed in animal studies. Accumulated evidences show that oncolytic HSV- 1 can efficiently infect many tumor cells and augment anti-tumor effect by induction of systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Inspiring results have been accomplished in several phase I clinical trials for glioma, head and neck squeous cells carcinoma and Melanoma using oncolytic HSV- 1 viruses...
2016: Current Gene Therapy
Steve H Thorne
The identification of STING as a key cytoplasmic innate recognition molecule for DNA viruses whose function is lost in a variety of cancers has coincided with the approval of IMLYGIC for metastatic melanoma. This represents the first replication competent viral therapy approved for the treatment of any cancer in the US. The role of STING pathway in the selectivity of HSV has been addressed for the first time in Xia et al (1).
February 1, 2016: Trends in Cancer
Yong Luo, Dan Xiong, Huan-Huan Li, Sheng-Ping Qiu, Chao-Long Lin, Qin Chen, Cheng-Hao Huang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ning-Shao Xia
BACKGROUND: Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. RESULTS: In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples...
2016: Virology Journal
A Takasu, A Masui, M Hamada, T Imai, S Iwai, Y Yura
Molecules essential for the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) are called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The effects of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on the production of DAMPs were examined in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. The cytopathic effects of HSV-1 RH2 were observed in mouse SCCVII cells infected at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the amounts of viable cells were decreased. After being infected with RH2, ATP and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were released extracellulary, while calreticulin (CRT) translocated to the cell membrane...
April 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
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