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Paul Nyirjesy, Jane R Schwebke
Secnidazole is a next-generation 5-nitroimidazole approved for more than three decades in Europe, Asia, South America and Africa and recently in the USA as a single-dose (2 g) treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Secnidazole is characterized by potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against BV-associated pathogens, as well as prolonged terminal elimination half-life and systemic exposure. These characteristics form the basis of effective and safe treatment of BV with a 2-g single-dose secnidazole regimen, which was recently confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted in the USA...
January 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
Peter Wardman
Nitroimidazoles have been extensively explored as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers but have had limited clinical success, with efficacy restricted by toxicity. However, they have proven clinically useful as probes for tumour hypoxia. Both applications, and probably much of the dose-limiting toxicities, reflect the dominant chemical property of electron affinity or ease of reduction, associated with the nitro substituent in an aromatic structure. This single dominant property affords unusual, indeed extraordinary flexibility in drug or probe design, suggesting further development is possible in spite of earlier limitations, in particular building on the benefit of hindsight and an appreciation of errors made in earlier studies...
January 5, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Andrew M Thompson, Muriel Bonnet, Ho H Lee, Scott G Franzblau, Baojie Wan, George S Wong, Christopher B Cooper, William A Denny
A published study of structural features associated with the aerobic and anaerobic activities of 4- and 5-nitroimidazoles had found that the 3-nitro isomer of pretomanid, 8, displayed interesting potencies, including against nitroreductase mutant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, recent nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of two trace byproducts, isolated from early process optimization studies toward a large-scale synthesis of pretomanid, raised structural assignment queries, particularly for 8, stimulating further investigation...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Wenting Zhang, Wei Fan, Zhengyuan Zhou, Jered Garrison
Tumor hypoxia has been widely explored over the years as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. Herein, we synthesized an alkyne functionalized version of evofosfamide, a hypoxia-selective prodrug. The purpose of this effort was to investigate if this novel 2-nitroimidazole phosphoramide nitrogen mustard (2-NIPAM) retained hypoxia selectivity and could be utilized in radiopharmaceutical development to significantly increase retention of conjugated agents in hypoxic cells. 2-NIPAM demonstrated good hypoxia selectivity with a 62- and 225-fold increase in cytotoxicity toward PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines, respectively, under hypoxic conditions...
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves Nunes, Zhengxing Zhang, Hsiou-Ting Kuo, Chengcheng Zhang, Julie Rousseau, Etienne Rousseau, Joseph Lau, Daniel Kwon, Ivone Carvalho, François Bénard, Kuo-Shyan Lin
2-Nitroimidazole-based hypoxia imaging tracers such as 18 F-FMISO are normally imaged at late time points (several hours post-injection) due to their slow clearance from background tissues. Here we investigated if a hydrophilic zwitterion-based ammoniomethyl-trifluoroborate derivative of 2-nitroimidazole, 18 F-AmBF3 -Bu-2NI, could have the potential to image tumor hypoxia at earlier time points. AmBF3 -Bu-2NI was prepared in four steps. 18 F labeling was conducted via 18 F-19 F isotope exchange reaction, and 18 F-AmBF3 -Bu-2NI was obtained in 14...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Nicola Thorley, Jonathan Ross
OBJECTIVES: Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Current guidance in the UK is to treat TV with a nitroimidazole antibiotic. The high prevalence of TV, high rate of antibiotic resistance and limited tolerability to nitroimidazoles suggest that alternative treatment regimens are needed. Intravaginal boric acid (BA) has been used safely for the treatment of candida vulvovaginitis and bacterial vaginosis, and in vitro studies suggest BA is active against TV...
December 9, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Aurélien Voissiere, Valérie Weber, Yvain Gerard, Françoise Rédini, Florian Raes, Jean-Michel Chezal, Françoise Degoul, Caroline Peyrode, Elisabeth Miot-Noirault
Due to its abundant chondrogenic matrix and hypoxic tissue, chondrosarcoma is chemo- and radio-resistant. Our group has developed a proteoglycan targeting strategy by using a quaternary ammonium (QA) function as a carrier of DNA alkylating agents to chondrosarcoma environment. Here, we assessed the relevance of this strategy applied to hypoxia-activated prodrugs, by conjugating a QA to 2-nitroimidazole phosphoramidate. This derivative, named as 8-QA, was evaluated respectively to its non-QA equivalent and to a QA-conjugated but non-hypoxia activated...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Dhanaraju Mandalapu, Bhavana Kushwaha, Sonal Gupta, Shagun Krishna, Nidhi Srivastava, Mahendra Shukla, Pratiksha Singh, Bhavana S Chauhan, Ravi Goyani, Jagdamba P Maikhuri, Koneni V Sashidhara, Brijesh Kumar, Renu Tripathi, Praveen K Shukla, Mohammad I Siddiqi, Jawahar Lal, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L Sharma
Sexually transmitted diseases like trichomoniasis along with opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are major global health burden in female reproductive health. In this context a novel non-nitroimidazole class of substituted carbamothioic amine-1-carbothioic thioanhydride series was designed, synthesized, evaluated for trichomonacidal and fungicidal activities, and was found to be more active than the standard drug Metronidazole (MTZ). Compounds were trichomonicidal in the MIC ranges of 4.77-294...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Andrew M Thompson, Andrew J Marshall, Louis Maes, Nigel Yarlett, Cyrus J Bacchi, Eric Gaukel, Stephen A Wring, Delphine Launay, Stephanie Braillard, Eric Chatelain, Charles E Mowbray, William A Denny
A 900 compound nitroimidazole-based library derived from our pretomanid backup program with TB Alliance was screened for utility against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative. Potent hits included 2-nitro-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazine 8-oxides, which surprisingly displayed good metabolic stability and excellent cell permeability. Following comprehensive mouse pharmacokinetic assessments on four hits and determination of the most active chiral form, a thiazine oxide counterpart of pretomanid (24) was identified as the best lead...
October 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Nícolas Luiz Feijó Silva, Camila Braz Menezes, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Denise Brentan Silva, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Alexandre José Macedo, Jaume Bastida, Tiana Tasca
The infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Treatment relies on one class of drugs, the 5-nitroimidazoles, but resistance is widespread. New drugs are urgently needed. We reported the effect of crude and purified saponin fractions of Manilkara rufula against Trichomonas vaginalis. The compound responsible for antitrichomonal activity was isolated and identified as an uncommon bidesmosic saponin, Mi-saponin C. This saponin eliminated parasite viability without toxicity against the human vaginal epithelial line (HMVII)...
2017: PloS One
Veenu Bala, Yashpal S Chhonker
Trichomonas vaginalis is a major non-viral sexually-transmitted infection resulted into serious obstetrical and gynecological troubles. The increasing resistance to nitroimidazole therapy and recurrence makes it crucial to develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Over the past few years, a large number of research articles highlighting the synthetic and natural product research to combat Trichomonas vaginalis have been published. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2006 through June 2017 for anti-Trichomonas activity potential of synthetic and natural products...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
David Leitsch
The 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole has remained the drug of choice in the treatment of anaerobic infections, parasitic as well as bacterial, ever since its development in 1959. In contrast to most other antimicrobials, it has a pleiotropic mode of action and reacts with a large number of molecules. Importantly, metronidazole, which is strictly speaking a prodrug, needs to be reduced at its nitro group in order to become toxic. Reduction of metronidazole, however, only takes place under very low concentrations of oxygen, explaining why metronidazole is exclusively toxic to microaerophilic and anaerobic microorganisms...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology
Victor Kande Betu Ku Mesu, Wilfried Mutombo Kalonji, Clélia Bardonneau, Olaf Valverde Mordt, Séverine Blesson, François Simon, Sophie Delhomme, Sonja Bernhard, Willy Kuziena, Jean-Pierre Fina Lubaki, Steven Lumeya Vuvu, Pathou Nganzobo Ngima, Hélène Mahenzi Mbembo, Médard Ilunga, Augustin Kasongo Bonama, Josué Amici Heradi, Jean Louis Lumaliza Solomo, Guylain Mandula, Lewis Kaninda Badibabi, Francis Regongbenga Dama, Papy Kavunga Lukula, Digas Ngolo Tete, Crispin Lumbala, Bruno Scherrer, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Antoine Tarral
BACKGROUND: Few therapeutic options are available to treat the late-stage of human African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (g-HAT). The firstline treatment is a combination therapy of oral nifurtimox and intravenous eflornithine that needs to be administered in a hospital setting by trained personnel, which is not optimal given that patients often live in remote areas with few health resources. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of an oral regimen of fexinidazole (a 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazole with proven trypanocidal activity) versus nifurtimox eflornithine combination therapy in patients with late-stage g-HAT...
November 4, 2017: Lancet
Juan Sun, Han-Yu Liu, Ruo-Fei Xu, Hai-Liang Zhu
Recent progress in the development of small molecular skeleton-derived polo-like kinase (PLK1) catalytic domain (KD) inhibitors has led to the synthesis of multiple ligands with high binding affinity. However, few systematic analyses have been conducted to identify key PLK1-PBD domain and characterize their interactions with potent PLK1 inhibitors. Therefore, we designed a series of PLK1-PBD inhibitors with an in silico scaffold modification strategy. A docking simulation combined with a primary screen in vitro were performed to filter for the lead compound, which was then substituted, synthesized and evaluated by a variety of bioassays...
October 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
F Kossoski, M T do N Varella
The efficient decomposition of nitroimidazoles (NIs) by low energy electrons is believed to underlie their radiosensitizing properties. Recent dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements showed that methylation at the N1 site unexpectedly suppresses the electron-induced reactions in 4(5)-NI. We report theoretical results that provide a clear interpretation of that astounding finding. Around 1.5 eV, DEA reactions into several fragments are initiated by a π(*) resonance, not considered in previous studies...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhen-Zhen Li, Lavanya Gopala, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Wei-Wei Gao, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of nitroimidazole enols as new bacterial DNA-targeting agents were for the first time designed, synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and HRMS spectra. The antimicrobial screening revealed that 2-methoxyphenyl nitroimidazole enol 3i possessed stronger anti-P. aeruginosa efficacy (MIC = 0.10 μmol/mL) than reference drugs Norfloxacin and Metronidazole. Time-kill kinetic assay manifested that the active molecule 3i could rapidly kill the tested strains. Molecular docking indicated that the interactions between compound 3i and topoisomerase II were driven by hydrogen bonds...
October 25, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Simon A Dingsdag, Neil Hunter
Metronidazole, a nitroimidazole, remains a front-line choice for treatment of infections related to inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including colitis linked to Clostridium difficile. Despite >60 years of research, the metabolism of metronidazole and associated cytotoxicity is not definitively characterized. Nitroimidazoles are prodrugs that are reductively activated (the nitro group is reduced) under low oxygen tension, leading to imidazole fragmentation and cytotoxicity. It remains unclear if nitroimidazole reduction (activation) contributes to the cytotoxicity profile, or whether subsequent fragmentation of the imidazole ring and formed metabolites alone mediate cytotoxicity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Maykel Hernández-Mesa, Laura Carbonell-Rozas, Carmen Cruces-Blanco, Ana M García-Campaña
A novel salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) method has been developed for the extraction of eight 5-NDZ antibiotics from milk samples prior to their analysis by UHPLC. An exhaustive study of the parameters involved in the SALLE procedure has been carried out, optimizing the extraction solvent volume, the amount of the salt agent, and the centrifugation and vortex timing by an experimental design. After sample treatment, the obtained extract was reconstituted in the mobile phase (6:94 (v/v) acetonitrile/water containing 0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Maria V Papadopoulou, William D Bloomer, Howard S Rosenzweig
Twenty three 3-nitrotriazole- and five nitroimidazole-based compounds, mostly amides, were screened for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb H37Rv) under aerobic or low oxygen conditions, intracellular activity in murine J774 macrophages or THP-1 cells, activity against resistant Mtb strains as well as cytotoxicity in normal cells. Compounds with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) less than 10μM and 10-50μM were characterized as active and moderately active, respectively, whereas compounds with a MIC >50μM were characterized inactive...
November 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Fang Liu, Junzhe Lou, Dimitre Hristov
Remotely and locally triggered release of therapeutic species by X-ray irradiation is highly desired to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, the development of such X-ray responsive nanosystems remains a challenge, especially in response to high energy clinically relevant X-ray radiation. Herein, we report novel nitroimidazole ligated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that synergistically function to release nitrite, an important precursor for nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species that sensitize cancer cells, upon radiation with clinically used 6 MeV X-rays, while no release was detected without radiation...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
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