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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#1
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923570/recombinant-dna-vaccine-of-hantavirus-gn-and-lamp1-induced-long-term-immune-protection-in-mice
#2
Dong-Bo Jiang, Li-Juan Sun, Lin-Feng Cheng, Jin-Peng Zhang, Shao-Bo Xiao, Yuan-Jie Sun, Shu-Ya Yang, Jing Wang, Fang-Lin Zhang, Kun Yang
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis is widely adopted the best choice against Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantavirus. However, loss of memory immune response maintenance remains as major shortcoming in current HFRS vaccine. A recombinant DNA vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gn was previously proved efficient, requiring long-term evaluations. METHODS & RESULTS: Immune responses of Balb/c mice were assessed by specific and neutralizing antibodies, interferon-γ ELISpot assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay...
December 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#3
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921222/cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-brain-metastases-influences-on-caregiver-resilience-and-coping
#4
Marlon Garzo Saria, Natasia Courchesne, Lorraine Evangelista, Joshua Carter, Daniel A MacManus, Mary Kay Gorman, Adeline M Nyamathi, Linda R Phillips, David Piccioni, Santosh Kesari, Sally Maliski
PURPOSE: Neurologic deficits that may be manifested as cognitive impairment contribute to the challenges faced by caregivers of patients with brain metastases. To better address their needs, we examined how caregivers respond to these challenges and explore the relationship between the patient's cognitive impairment and caregiver resilience and coping. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study using self-reported data from 56 caregivers of patients with brain metastases...
December 5, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912013/sprouting-as-a-gardening-strategy-to-obtain-superior-supplementary-food-evidence-from-a-seed-caching-marine-worm
#5
Zhenchang Zhu, Jim van Belzen, Tao Hong, Tadao Kunihiro, Tom Ysebaert, Peter M J Herman, Tjeerd J Bouma
Only a handful of non-human animals are known to grow their own food by cultivating high-yield fungal or algal crops as staple food. Here we report an alternative strategy utilized by an omnivorous marine worm, Hediste diversicolor, to supplement its diet: gardening by sprouting seeds. In addition to having many other known feeding modes, we showed using video recordings and manipulative mesocosm experiments that this species can also behave like gardeners by deliberately burying cordgrass seeds in their burrows, which has been previously shown to reduce the loss of seeds to water...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907248/mycobacterium-ulcerans-toxin-mycolactone-may-enhance-host-seeking-and-oviposition-behavior-by-aedes-aegypti-l-diptera-culicidae
#6
M L Sanders, H R Jordan, C Serewis-Pond, L Zheng, M E Benbow, P L Small, J K Tomberlin
The ecological functions of many toxins continue to remain unknown for those produced by environmental pathogens. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease, Buruli ulcer, produces a cytotoxic macrolide, mycolactone, whose function(s) in the environment remains elusive. Through a series of dual-choice behavior assays, we show that mycolactone may be an interkingdom cue for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seeking blood-meals as well as oviposition sites. Results provide novel insight into the evolution between bacteria and potential vectors...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889875/development-of-an-educational-program-integrating-concepts-of-genetic-risk-and-preventive-strategies-for-children-with-a-family-history-of-melanoma
#7
Yelena P Wu, Lisa G Aspinwall, Elizabeth Nagelhout, Wendy Kohlmann, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Sheila Homburger, Ryan D Perkins, Douglas Grossman, Garrett Harding, Pamela Cassidy, Sancy A Leachman
Efforts to prevent melanoma, especially for those at elevated risk for the disease, should ideally begin during childhood. However, there are few preventive interventions targeting children who are at higher risk for melanoma due to a family history of the disease. Further, there are no educational interventions that aim to help these at-risk children understand their risk for melanoma and the ways in which preventive behaviors, such as sun protection, can mitigate their risk. The current paper describes a multidisciplinary team's process for creating a developmentally appropriate educational intervention about melanoma risk and prevention for children ages 8-17 years who have a family history of melanoma...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876690/-mommy-blogs-and-the-vaccination-exemption-narrative-results-from-a-machine-learning-approach-for-story-aggregation-on-parenting-social-media-sites
#8
Timothy R Tangherlini, Vwani Roychowdhury, Beth Glenn, Catherine M Crespi, Roja Bandari, Akshay Wadia, Misagh Falahi, Ehsan Ebrahimzadeh, Roshan Bastani
BACKGROUND: Social media offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore how people talk about health care at a very large scale. Numerous studies have shown the importance of websites with user forums for people seeking information related to health. Parents turn to some of these sites, colloquially referred to as "mommy blogs," to share concerns about children's health care, including vaccination. Although substantial work has considered the role of social media, particularly Twitter, in discussions of vaccination and other health care-related issues, there has been little work on describing the underlying structure of these discussions and the role of persuasive storytelling, particularly on sites with no limits on post length...
November 22, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876685/efficacy-of-mobile-serious-games-in-increasing-hiv-risk-perception-in-swaziland-a-randomized-control-trial-sgprev-trial-research-protocol
#9
Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Patou Musumari, Christina El-Saaidi, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S Pilar Suguimoto, Masako Ono Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed...
November 22, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871903/review-of-preclinical-studies-on-pediatric-general-anesthesia-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#10
Jennifer L Walters, Merle G Paule
Thousands of infants and children undergo complicated surgical procedures that require prolonged periods of anesthesia and/or sedation each year. A growing body of preclinical research suggests pediatric anesthetics are harmful to the developing brain; yet, the extent to which these effects generalize to the clinical setting remains unclear. As there will be a continuing need for surgical and other interventions requiring sedation and/or anesthesia during the neonatal period, it seems clear that research efforts should focus on determining the extent to which general anesthetics can affect the developing brain as well as determining strategies for preventing or ameliorating the adverse effects associated with exposure to such agents...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862570/communication-about-melanoma-and-risk-reduction-after-melanoma-diagnosis
#11
Vivian M Rodríguez, Marianne Berwick, Jennifer L Hay
BACKGROUND: Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. METHODS: Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening...
November 15, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860250/transcription-factor-proteomics-tools-applications-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Jovan Simicevic, Bart Deplancke
Transcription factors (TFs) are a family of DNA-binding proteins whose gene regulatory capabilities are of vital importance in defining the molecular state of a cell. Despite their biological significance, our understanding of TF behavior and function is still limited. This is because we have so far mostly relied on gene expression data to approximate TF protein levels given that the latter information has been notoriously difficult to obtain due to the relatively low expression levels of many TFs. However, significant advances in mass spectrometry technologies combined with the development of sensitive methodologies aimed at detecting TFs are now allowing a transition from a predominantly qualitative to a quantitative protein landscape...
November 18, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860013/behavioral-responses-of-anopheles-species-culicidae-diptera-with-varying-surface-exposure-to-pyrethroid-treated-netting-in-an-excito-repellency-test-system
#13
Krajana Tainchum, Jirod Nararak, Wasana Boonyuan, Michael J Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap
Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) with insecticides has been a procedure used for decades to protect humans from biting mosquitoes and potential vectors of pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of three wild-caught species of malaria vectors exposed to pyrethroids of three different surface coverage percents using an excito-repellency test box. Each species was exposed to three insecticide-treated surfaces at varying exposure levels (full coverage, 50%, and 25% of the maximum allowable by the test system) to a single standard field dose of either lambda-cyhalothrin or alpha-cypermethrin...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856755/controlling-dna-nanoparticle-serum-interactions
#14
Kyryl Zagorovsky, Leo Y T Chou, Warren C W Chan
Understanding the interaction of molecularly assembled nanoparticles with physiological fluids is critical to their use for in vivo delivery of drugs and contrast agents. Here, we systematically investigated the factors and mechanisms that govern the degradation of DNA on the nanoparticle surface in serum. We discovered that a higher DNA density, shorter oligonucleotides, and thicker PEG layer increased protection of DNA against serum degradation. Oligonucleotides on the surface of nanoparticles were highly resistant to DNase I endonucleases, and degradation was carried out exclusively by protein-mediated exonuclease cleavage and full-strand desorption...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834888/children-s-exposure-to-environmental-contaminants-an-editorial-reflection-of-articles-in-the-ijerph-special-issue-entitled-children-s-exposure-to-environmental-contaminants
#15
EDITORIAL
Alesia Ferguson, Helena Solo-Gabriele
Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826273/clark-s-nutcrackers-nucifraga-columbiana-flexibly-adapt-caching-behavior-to-a-cooperative-context
#16
Dawson Clary, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816964/therapeutic-effects-of-umbilical-cord-blood-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Jongman Yoo, Han-Soo Kim, Jin-Ju Seo, Jang-Hyoun Eom, Seong-Mi Choi, Sanghyun Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Dong-Youn Hwang
Umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-PL) contains various cytokines, growth factors, and immune modulatory factors that regulate the proliferation and function of immune cells and adult stem cells. Despite its therapeutic potential, the effects of UCB-PL treatment in conditions of ischemic brain injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that both behavioral and structural impairments resulting from ischemic brain injury were significantly prevented/reversed after intravenous administration of UCB-PL relative to the vehicle control...
October 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816046/is-the-deliberate-self-induction-of-alcohol-tolerance-associated-with-negative-alcohol-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Angela M Haeny, Cameron C Weaver, Julia A Martinez, Douglas Steinley, Kenneth J Sher
Research indicates 10% of college student drinkers report deliberately training to increase alcohol tolerance (a diagnostic criterion for alcohol use disorder) to avoid passing out early or to keep up with peers. Given that tolerance training may be considered a harm reduction technique designed to reduce acute aversive consequences, we examined the associations between tolerance training and the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) more generally. A cross-sectional survey of 1080 lifetime drinkers was conducted at a large Midwestern university...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814772/-manganese-induced-neurotoxicity-a-review-of-its-behavioral-consequences-and-neuroprotective-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Tanara V Peres, Maria Rosa C Schettinger, Pan Chen, Fabiano Carvalho, Daiana S Avila, Aaron B Bowman, Michael Aschner
Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal. However, Mn's nutritional aspects are paralleled by its role as a neurotoxicant upon excessive exposure. In this review, we covered recent advances in identifying mechanisms of Mn uptake and its molecular actions in the brain as well as promising neuroprotective strategies. The authors focused on reporting findings regarding Mn transport mechanisms, Mn effects on cholinergic system, behavioral alterations induced by Mn exposure and studies of neuroprotective strategies against Mn intoxication...
November 4, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813329/evaluation-of-hollow-golden-icosahedrons-bonding-and-spherical-aromatic-properties-of-au11e-3-superatoms-e-se-and-te-from-relativistic-dft-calculations-persistent-structures
#20
Alvaro Rafael Muñoz-Castro
Two novel clusters were proposed according to the superatom model involving a favorable inclusion of Se and Te into an Au12 cage leading to [Au11E]3- clusters. Such structures retain a hollow gold-based icosahedron with a spherical aromatic character, according to the eighteen valence electron rule. Interestingly, it is shown that despite of the favorable electronic structure and aromatic behavior, the titled structure is further found to be a local minimum in the potential surface, which exhibits a planar isomer as plausible candidate for the lowest energy structure...
November 3, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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