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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792079/mentoring-relationship-quality-and-maltreated-children-s-coping
#1
Ashley A Chesmore, Lindsey M Weiler, Heather N Taussig
Coping strategies are believed to protect against the harmful effects of maltreatment on children's psychosocial outcomes. Caregivers are thought to be critical in helping children develop adaptive coping strategies, yet many maltreated children have poor and/or insecure relationships with their parents. A quality relationship with a caring, non-parental adult (e.g., a mentor), however, may be one strategy to promote healthy coping among maltreated children. Children (N = 154) in this study participated in a mentoring and skill-based program for maltreated preadolescents placed in foster care...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791674/release-from-prey-preservation-behavior-via-prey-switch-allowed-diversification-of-cuticular-hydrocarbon-profiles-in-digger-wasps
#2
Mareike Wurdack, Carlo Polidori, Alexander Keller, Heike Feldhaar, Thomas Schmitt
The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHCs), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species-specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile co-evolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the behavior to embalm prey stored in the nest with hydrocarbons is adaptive to protect larval food from fungi in those species hunting for Hymenoptera...
August 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791572/the-protective-role-of-parental-media-monitoring-style-from-early-to-late-adolescence
#3
Laura M Padilla-Walker, Sarah M Coyne, Savannah L Kroff, Madison K Memmott-Elison
The goal of the current study was to examine the protective role that maternal media monitoring might have for adolescents. This was done by considering whether styles of media monitoring either directly reduced media use, or whether they buffered the associations between aggressive media use and adolescents' prosocial behavior, aggression, and delinquency. Participants were 681 adolescents from two cities in the United States (51% female; 73% white), and their mothers, who provided data at two different time points, 2 years apart (when adolescents were roughly ages 13 and 15)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781934/signaling-in-parasitic-nematodes-physicochemical-communication-between-host-and-parasite-and-endogenous-molecular-transduction-pathways-governing-worm-development-and-survival
#4
James B Lok
Signaling or communication between host and parasite may occur over relatively long ranges to enable host finding and acquisition by infective parasitic nematode larvae. Innate behaviors in infective larvae transmitted from the soil that enhance the likelihood of host contact, such as negative geotaxis and hypermotility, are likely mediated by mechanoreception and neuromuscular signaling. Host cues such as vibration of the substratum, elevated temperature, exhaled CO2, and other volatile odorants are perceived by mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the amphidial complex...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780000/systemic-infusions-of-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-neutralizing-antibodies-reduce-short-term-brain-injury-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-ovine-fetus
#5
Xiaodi Chen, Virginia Hovanesian, Syed Naqvi, Yow-Pin Lim, Richard Tucker, John E Donahue, Edward G Stopa, Barbara S Stonestreet
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-related brain injury is a leading cause of neurologic morbidity and life-long disability in children. Infants exposed to I/R brain injury develop long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits, placing a large burden on parents and society. Therapeutic strategies are currently not available for infants with I/R brain damage, except for hypothermia, which can only be used in full term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Moreover, hypothermia is only partially protective...
August 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777884/state-dependent-behavior-alters-endocrine-energy-relationship-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#6
Brett R Jesmer, Jacob R Goheen, Kevin L Monteith, Matthew J Kauffman
Glucocorticoids (GC) and triiodothyronine (T3) are two endocrine markers commonly used to quantify resource limitation, yet the relationships between these markers and the energetic state of animals has been studied primarily in small-bodied species in captivity. Free-ranging animals, however, adjust energy intake in accordance with their energy reserves, a behavior known as state-dependent foraging. Further, links between life-history strategies and metabolic allometries cause energy intake and energy reserves to be more strongly coupled in small animals relative to large animals...
August 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777771/longitudinal-change-in-parent-and-child-functioning-after-internet-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chronic-pain
#7
Emily F Law, Emma Fisher, Waylon J Howard, Rona Levy, Lee Ritterband, Tonya M Palermo
Theoretical models of pediatric chronic pain propose longitudinal associations between children's pain experiences and parent and family factors. A large body of cross-sectional research supports these models, demonstrating that greater parent distress and maladaptive parenting behaviors are associated with greater child disability. Family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions have been developed for youth with chronic pain which aim to improve child disability and reduce maladaptive parenting behaviors...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773055/phenolic-modified-ceramic-coating-on-biodegradable-mg-alloy-the-improved-corrosion-resistance-and-osteoblast-like-cell-activity
#8
Hung-Pang Lee, Da-Jun Lin, Ming-Long Yeh
Magnesium alloys have great potential for developing orthopedic implants due to their biodegradability and mechanical properties, but the rapid corrosion rate of the currently-available alloys limits their clinical applications. To increase the corrosion resistance of the substrate, a protective ceramic coating is constructed by a micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process on ZK60 magnesium alloy. The porous ceramic coating is mainly composed of magnesium oxide and magnesium silicate, and the results from cell cultures show it can stimulate osteoblastic cell growth and proliferation...
June 25, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771793/infant-sleep-problems-the-sleep-characteristics-of-the-don-t-know-response
#9
Shao-Yu Tsai, Chien-Chang Lee, Li-Chiou Chen, Yi-Ching Tung
AIMS: To examine the sleep characteristics of infants with parentally reported sleep problems, with parentally reported no sleep problems and with parentally reported uncertain sleep conditions. BACKGROUND: Infant sleep problems are recognized as a major health issue worldwide. However, in our daily clinical practices it is not uncommon for parents not to know whether their infant sleep is problematic. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted between 2012 - 2015 where 219 parents completed questionnaires and infants wore an actigraph monitor for 7 days...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771698/molecular-and-functional-genetics-of-the-proopiomelanocortin-gene-food-intake-regulation-and-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low
During the last decade, the obesity pandemia has skyrocketed, and the spectre is threatening children, adolescents and lower income families worldwide. Although driven by an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed edibles of poor nutritional value, the obesogenic changes in contemporary human lifestyle affect people differently, revealing that some individuals are more prone to developing increased adiposity. During the last years, we performed a variety of genetic, evolutionary, biochemical and behavioral experiments that allowed us to understand how a group of neurons present in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate the expression of the proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene and induce satiety...
August 3, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758355/the-role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-cancer-associated-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-phenomenon
#11
REVIEW
George Tzanakakis, Rafaela-Maria Kavasi, Kallirroi Voudouri, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Ioanna Spyridaki, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Dragana Nikitovic
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is a crucial component in the processes of morphogenesis and embryonic development. The transition of epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is associated to numerous structural and functional changes, including loss of cell polarity and tight cell- cell junctions, the acquisition of invasive abilities and the expression of mesenchymal proteins. The switch between the two phenotypes is involved in human pathology and is crucial for cancer progression. Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are multi-component networks that surround cells in tissues...
July 30, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755288/neuroprotective-effect-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-on-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Wei Wu, Wei Wei, Min Lu, Xiaoyun Zhu, Ning Liu, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yuxiang Li, Jianqiang Yu
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality and permanent neurological disability worldwide and the effective treatment strategies are not yet available. It has been demonstrated that Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) exerts protective effect in vitro ischemic brain injury. However, no information is available on possible effects of COS on neonatal HIBD. To investigate the hypothesis of the potential neuroprotective effect of COS on the brain injury due to HIBD, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen (balanced with nitrogen) for 2...
July 28, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752923/lp-211-a-selective-5-ht7-receptor-agonist-increases-novelty-preference-and-promotes-risk-prone-behavior-in-rats
#13
G Beaudet, E Paizanis, F Zoratto, E Lacivita, M Leopoldo, T Freret, G Laviola, M Boulouard, W Adriani
Gambling disorder is associated to an increased impulsivity, a high level of novelty-seeking and a dysregulation of the forebrain neurotransmission systems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of this addictive disorder are not fully understood and no valid pharmacological approach has yet been approved. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) stimulation with a brain penetrant and selective agonist, LP-211 (0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg i.p.) during post-experience consolidation, i) acutely in a novelty-preference test (Exp...
July 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750834/protective-effect-of-atorvastatin-on-d-galactose-induced-aging-model-in-mice
#14
Elham Kaviani, Mohammadreza Rahmani, Ayat Kaeidi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Mohamad Allahtavakoli, Nazanin Mozafari, Iman Fatemi
Atorvastatin (Ator), competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, is a cholesterol lowering drug. Ator has been shown to have neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties making that a potential candidate for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Here we assessed the effect of Ator on the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging in mice. For this purpose, Ator (0.1 and 1mg/kg/p.o.), was administrated daily in d-gal-received (500mg/kg/p.o.) mice model of aging for six weeks...
July 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746975/breeding-habitat-selection-across-spatial-scales-is-grass-always-greener-on-the-other-side
#15
Paul Acker, Aurélien Besnard, Jean-Yves Monnat, Emmanuelle Cam
Habitat selection theory predicts that natural selection should favor mechanisms allowing individuals to choose habitats associated with the highest fitness prospects. However, identifying sources of information on habitat quality that individuals use to choose their breeding habitat has proved to be difficult. It has also proven difficult to identify dispersal costs that prevent individuals from joining the highest-quality sites. A synthesis that integrates dispersal costs and habitat selection mechanisms across space has remained elusive...
July 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746760/de-extinction-and-conservation-genetics-in-the-anthropocene
#16
Ronald Sandler
One interesting feature of de-extinction-particularly with respect to long-extinct species such as the passenger pigeon, thylacine, and mammoth-is that it does not fit neatly into the primary rationales for adopting novel ecosystem-management and species-conservation technologies and strategies: efficiency and necessity. The efficiency rationale is that the new technology or strategy enables conservation biologists to do what they already do more effectively. Why should researchers embrace novel information technologies? Because they allow scientists to better track, monitor, map, aggregate, and analyze species behaviors, biological systems, and human-environment interactions...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745101/acidosis-counteracts-itch-tachyphylaxis-to-consecutive-pruritogen-exposure-dependent-on-acid-sensing-ion-channel-3
#17
Yi-Ming Jiang, Chen Huang, Zhong Peng, Shao-Ling Han, Wei-Guang Li, Michael Xi Zhu, Tian-Le Xu
Tachyphylaxis of itch refers to a markedly reduced scratching response to consecutive exposures of a pruritogen, a process thought to protect against tissue damage by incessant scratching and to become disrupted in chronic itch. Here, we report that a strong stimulation of the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11 by its agonist, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SL-NH2) or bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide, via subcutaneous injection in mice induces tachyphylaxis to the subsequent application of SL-NH2 to the same site...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741801/attitudes-toward-suicidal-behavior-and-associated-factors-among-nursing-professionals-a-quantitative-study
#18
Kelly Graziani Giacchero Vedana, Daniel Fernando Magrini, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti, Adriana Inocenti Miasso, Tatiana Longo Borges, Manoel Antônio Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: The attitudes toward suicide of emergency nurses may affect the care provided. However, the factors associated with these attitudes remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate attitudes toward suicidal behavior and associated factors among nursing professionals working in emergency settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study including 28 nurses and 118 were nursing assistants employed at two emergency services in Brazil was conducted...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736528/linking-ventilator-injury-induced-leak-across-the-blood-gas-barrier-to-derangements-in-murine-lung-function
#19
Bradford J Smith, Elizabeth Bartolak-Suki, Bela Suki, Gregory S Roy, Katharine L Hamlington, Chantel M Charlebois, Jason H T Bates
Mechanical ventilation is vital to the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but it frequently leads to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of VILI is an essential prerequisite for improving lung-protective ventilation strategies. The goal of this study was to relate the amount and nature of material accumulated in the airspaces to biomarkers of injury and the derecruitment behavior of the lung in VILI. Forty-nine BALB/c mice were mechanically ventilated with combinations of tidal volume and end-expiratory pressures to produce varying degrees of overdistension and atelectasis while lung function was periodically assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734089/dementia-risk-and-prevention-by-targeting-modifiable-vascular-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Sana Tariq, Philip A Barber
The incidence of dementia is expected to double in the next 20 years and will contribute to heavy social and economic burden. Dementia is caused by neuronal loss that leads to brain atrophy years before symptoms manifest. Currently, no cure exists and extensive efforts are being made to mitigate cognitive impairment in late life in order to reduce the burden on patients, caregivers, and society. The most common type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) often co-exists in the brain and shares common, modifiable risk factors, which are targeted in numerous secondary prevention trials...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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