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Protective behavior strategy

Julia E Gerson, Kathleen M Farmer, Natalie Henson, Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Mariana Carretero Murillo, Urmi Sengupta, Alan Barrett, Rakez Kayed
BACKGROUND: We have evaluated the efficacy of targeting the toxic, oligomeric form of tau protein by passive immunotherapy in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia are two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and are primarily characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. However, evidence shows that smaller, oligomeric aggregates are likely the most toxic form of the protein. Moreover, a large body of research suggests that α-synuclein interacts with tau in disease and may act in a synergistic mechanism, implicating tau oligomers as a potential therapeutic target...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Dawn M Holman, Helen Ding, Gery P Guy, Meg Watson, Anne M Hartman, Frank M Perna
Importance: Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. Objective: To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Li Yan-Wei, Hu He-Hua, He Zheng-Wen, Xu Zhao-Gang, Zhang Chun-Bin, Zhou Xiao-Shan, Li Yao, Liu Rong, Dong Hui-Fen, Zhao Qin-Ping
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of residents about schistosomiasis prevention and control in endemic areas of Jingzhou City, Hubei Province after the disease transmission being controlled, so as to provide the valuable information for formulating an efficient health education and intervention strategy. METHODS: The residents were selected by using the cluster sampling method and investigated with questionnaires in Jiangling County and Gong'an County, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province, and the data were analyzed by using the descriptive analysis method, Chi-square tests and logistic regression...
November 16, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Eder Gatti Fernandes, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez, Telma Regina M P Carvalhanas, Marcela Rodrigues, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes
BACKGROUND: A significant increase in pertussis incidence occurred in Brazil, from 2011 to 2014, despite high coverage of childhood immunization with whole-cell-pertussis (wP) containing vaccines. This study presents pertussis surveillance data from São Paulo state and discusses the challenges to interpret them considering pertussis cyclic epidemic behavior, the introduction of new diagnostic techniques and new vaccination strategies, and enhanced disease awareness during epidemics. METHODS: Observational study including pertussis cases reported to the Surveillance System in São Paulo state, from January 2001 to December 2015...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Cornelia M Weyand, Yi Shen, Jorg Goronzy
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of oxygen metabolism best known for their damaging potential, but recent evidence has exposed their role as secondary messengers, which regulate cell function through redox-activatable signaling systems. In immune cells, specifically in T cells, redox-sensitive signaling pathways have been implicated in controlling several functional domains; including cell cycle progression, T effector cell differentiation, tissue invasion and inflammatory behavior. T cells from patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have emerged as a valuable model system to examine the functional impact of ROS on T cell function...
March 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jinhong Kan, Lin An, Yao Wu, Jia Long, Liyang Song, Rongxiang Fang, Yantao Jia
During plant-pathogen interactions, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the sophisticated defense systems of host plants. Proline iminopeptidase (PIP) is essential to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) virulence, and conserved in many plant-associated bacteria, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that disrupting pip in Xcc enhanced its flagella-mediated bacterial motility by decreasing intracellular c-di-GMP levels, and overexpression of pip restricted bacterial motility by elevating c-di-GMP levels...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Khushbu Jain, Schweta Sharma, Samani Chaitanya Prajna, Viney Jain
Background: Increasing antisocial and violent behaviors in adolescents and young adults present serious challenges for public health. Children with persistent high levels of aggressiveness are often associated with developing conduct disorders later in life. Early detection of highly aggressive children and sociodemographic risk-modifying factors are important for developing effective preventive strategies. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess levels of aggressiveness for detecting highly aggressive children in sample populations of primary school children in an urban setting and determine significant biosociocultural risk-modifying factors in this scenario...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Denon Start
Trait variation can structure interactions between individuals, thus shaping selection. While anti-predator strategies are an important component of many aquatic systems, how multiple anti-predator traits interact to influence consumption and selection remains contentious. Here, I use a common larval dragonfly (Epitheca canis) and its predator (Anax junius) to test for the joint effects of activity rate and algal camouflage on predation and survival selection. I found that active and poorly camouflaged Epitheca were more likely to be consumed, and thus survival selection favored inactive and well camouflaged individuals...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jing Sun, Chong Qiu, Yiping Diao, Wei Wei, Hongwei Jin, Yi Zheng, Jiancheng Wang, Lihe Zhang, Zhenjun Yang
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been continuously explored for clinical applications. However, neither nanocarriers nor conjugates have been able to remove the obstacles. In this study, we employed a combined nanochemistry strategy to optimize its delivery dilemma, where different interactions and assembly modes were cooperatively introduced into the forming process of siRNA/lipids nanoplexes. In the nanoplexes, the 3',3″-bis-peptide-siRNA conjugate (pp-siRNA) and gemini-like cationic lipids (CLDs) were employed as dual regulators to improve their bio-behavior...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Maja H Fisker, Niels E Ebbehøj, Søren Grove Vejlstrup, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Per Winkel, Jens Peter Bonde, Tove Agner
Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema, with follow-up after one year...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Yiliang Wang, ZhiPeng Li, Yuanyuan Li, Jingyu Wang, Xiu Liu, TianYou Song, Xiaomei Yang, Jianwei Hao
Alginates (nickel alginate: NiA, copper alginate: CuA or zinc alginate: ZnA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were alternately deposited on magnesium hydroxide (MH) surface by spray drying assisted layer-by-layer assembly technique, fabricating some efficient and environmentally benign flame retardants (M-FR, including Ni-FR, Cu-FR and Zn-FR). The morphology, chemical compositions and structures of M-FR were investigated. With 50 wt% loading, compared with EVA28+MH, the peak heat release rate, smoke production rate and CO production rate of EVA28+Ni-FR decreased by 50...
February 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yun-Peng An, Jing Yang, Hao-Cheng Yang, Ming-Bang Wu, Zhi-Kang Xu
Oil-water separation, especially for those surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions, is urgent to protect our ecological environment free from destruction. Janus membranes with a function of deemulsification appear as a kind of efficient materials for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions due to a precise adjustment of the surface nature for the hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers. However, existing strategies of membrane preparation suffer from complicated multi-steps, leading to uncontrolled thickness of the hydrophilic deemulsification layer...
February 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Suzanne C Wilkens, Jonathan Lans, Claudia A Bargon, David Ring, Neal C Chen
BACKGROUND: Prior research documents that greater psychologic distress (anxiety/depression) and less effective coping strategies (catastrophic thinking, kinesophobia) are associated with greater pain intensity and greater limitations. Recognition and acknowledgment of verbal and nonverbal indicators of psychologic factors might raise opportunities for improved psychologic health. There is evidence that specific patient words and phrases indicate greater catastrophic thinking. This study tested proposed nonverbal indicators (such as flexion of the wrist during attempted finger flexion or extension of uninjured fingers as the stiff and painful finger is flexed) for their association with catastrophic thinking...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Charles Herbert Lea Iii, Theodore K Gideonse, Nina T Harawa
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use secondary data from qualitative interviews that examined the sexual behaviors, HIV attitudes, and condom use of 17 gay, bisexual, and transgender women housed in a protective custody unit in the Los Angeles County Jail (Harawa et al., 2010), to develop a better understanding of the consensual sexual behaviors of male prisoners. Design/methodology/approach Study eligibility included: report anal or oral sex with another male in the prior six months; speak and understand English; and incarcerated in the unit for at least two weeks...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Paul D Loprinzi, Emily Frith, Pamela Ponce
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disease influencing a multitude of outcomes, including memory function. Recent work suggests that memory may be influenced by exercise ("memorcise"), even among those with AD. The present narrative review details 1) the underlying mechanisms of AD; 2) whether exercise has a protective effect in preventing AD; 3) the mechanisms through which exercise may help to prevent AD; 4) the mechanisms through which exercise may help attenuate the progression of AD severity among those with existing AD; 5) the effects and mechanisms through which exercise is associated with memory among those with existing AD; and 6) exercise recommendations for those with existing AD...
February 26, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Katelyn M Godin, Ashok Chaurasia, David Hammond, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Alberta and Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Cindy F Yang, Jack L Feldman
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a compact medullary region essential for generating normal breathing rhythm and pattern, is the kernel of the breathing central pattern generator (CPG). Excitatory preBötC neurons in rats project to major breathing-related brainstem regions. Here, we provide a brainstem connectivity map in mice for both excitatory and inhibitory preBötC neurons. Using a genetic strategy to label preBötC neurons, we confirmed extensive projections of preBötC excitatory neurons within the brainstem breathing CPG including the contralateral preBötC, Bötzinger Complex (BötC), ventral respiratory group (VRG), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), parahypoglossal nucleus, parafacial region (RTN/pFRG or alternatively, pFL /pFV ), parabrachial and Kölliker-Füse nuclei, as well as major projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yan Sun, Fuhong Lin, Nan Zhang
Fog computing is a distributed computing paradigm at the edge of the network and requires cooperation of users and sharing of resources. When users in fog computing open their resources, their devices are easily intercepted and attacked because they are accessed through wireless network and present an extensive geographical distribution. In this study, a credible third party was introduced to supervise the behavior of users and protect the security of user cooperation. A fog computing security mechanism based on human nervous system is proposed, and the strategy for a stable system evolution is calculated...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Elizabeth Radcliff, Elizabeth Crouch, Melissa Strompolis
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur in a child's life between birth and 18 years. Exposure to one or more ACE has been linked to participation in risky health behaviors and the experience of chronic health conditions in adulthood. The risk for poor outcomes increases as the number of ACEs experienced increases. This research investigates rural-urban differences in exposure to ACEs using a sample from a representative southern US state, South Carolina...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Tracey A Garcia, Anne M Fairlie, Dana M Litt, Katja A Waldron, Melissa A Lewis
Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use...
February 15, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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