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Protective behavior strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#1
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323504/protective-behavioral-strategies-mediate-the-relationship-between-behavioral-economic-risk-factors-and-alcohol-related-problems
#2
Andrew T Voss, Kathryn E Soltis, Ashley A Dennhardt, Matthew P Martens, James G Murphy
Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value and future orientation have received support as predictors of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and response to intervention. Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been shown to be a significant mediator between a variety of risk factors and alcohol-related problems. The current article examines direct and mediating associations between measures of alcohol reward value (proportionate substance-related activity participation and enjoyment) and future orientation, use of PBS, and alcohol-related problems...
January 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322276/integrating-direct-observation-and-gps-tracking-to-monitor-animal-behavior-for-resource-management
#3
Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung, Tim Kuhn, Todd Newburger
Monitoring the behavior of pack animals in protected areas informs management about use patterns and the potential associated negative impacts. However, systematic assessments of behavior are uncommon due to methodological and logistical constraints. This study integrated behavior mapping with GPS tracking, and applied behavior change point analysis, as an approach to monitor the behaviors of pack animals during overnight periods. The integrated approach identified multiple grazing patterns (i.e., locally intense grazing, ambulatory grazing) not feasible through a single methodology alone...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317272/social-influences-on-adolescents-dietary-behavior-in-catalonia-spain-a-qualitative-multiple-cases-study-from-the-perspective-of-social-capital
#5
Elena Carrillo-Álvarez, Jordi Riera-Romaní, Olga Canet-Vélez
Adolescence has been referred to as the last best chance to prevent adult non-communicable diseases. Gaining further evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health behaviors, particularly the impact of peers, social networks and media on diet, is necessary to develop appropriate preventive strategies. Based on a multiple-cases study, our aim was to discuss the social influences on adolescents' dietary behavior from a social capital perspective. Participants were reached through four high-schools in different Catalan rural-urban and socioeconomic contexts...
January 6, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313197/exploiting-rhizosphere-microbial-cooperation-for-developing-sustainable-agriculture-strategies
#6
Yoann Besset-Manzoni, Laura Rieusset, Pierre Joly, Gilles Comte, Claire Prigent-Combaret
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302849/low-vs-high-alcohol-central-benefits-vs-detriments
#7
REVIEW
Yousef Tizabi, Bruk Getachew, Clifford L Ferguson, Antonei B Csoka, Karl M Thompson, Alejandra Gomez-Paz, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Robert E Taylor
The dose-dependent effects of alcohol, where the initial euphoric and stimulant effects initiated by the exposure to low ethanol levels can quickly lead to a deadly consequence are well established. Thus, high blood alcohol concentration (BAC), as seen in alcoholics, can cause significant damage to various organs. At low concentrations (e.g., 10 mg% or lower), however, beneficial effects of alcohol, particularly on cardiovascular function have been reported. Although, the latter assertion has been challenged by recent epidemiological studies, protective effects of low alcohol concentrations in vitro and in vivo relevant to the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented...
January 4, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297762/healthy-china-2030-a-breakthrough-for-improving-health
#8
Xiaodong Tan, Yanan Zhang, Haiyan Shao
China has the largest population in the world, and its health levels have greatly affected the healthy development of the population of the world. Healthy China 2030 is a breakthrough for ensuring that the Chinese population have access to health, through advocating the whole society's participation in the concept of "Health for All, and All for Health." The plan puts forward five strategies such as popularizing healthy life, optimizing the health service, improving health protection, building a healthy environment, and developing healthy industry, from the perspectives of health effects of personal life and behavior, health care and security, production, and the living environment...
January 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295495/rethinking-the-combination-of-proton-exchanger-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Elisabetta Iessi, Mariantonia Logozzi, Davide Mizzoni, Rossella Di Raimo, Claudiu T Supuran, Stefano Fais
Microenvironmental acidity is becoming a key target for the new age of cancer treatment. In fact, while cancer is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, extracellular acidity is a common phenotype of almost all cancers. To survive and proliferate under acidic conditions, tumor cells up-regulate proton exchangers and transporters (mainly V-ATPase, Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and carbonic anhydrases (CAs)), that actively extrude excess protons, avoiding intracellular accumulation of toxic molecules, thus becoming a sort of survival option with many similarities compared with unicellular microorganisms...
December 23, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295013/poly-victimization-and-coping-profiles-relationship-with-externalizing-symptoms-in-adolescents
#10
Cristóbal Guerra, Noemí Pereda, Georgina Guilera
Externalizing symptoms correspond to a set of behavioral problems related to aggressiveness and the violation of norms. These disorders are common during adolescence, especially in poly-victimized populations. However, not much is known about the mechanism underlying the relationship between poly-victimization and symptoms or about the factors that could play a protective role in this relationship. It is necessary to understand the factors that influence the development of these disorders to prevent them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships among coping strategies, poly-victimization, and externalizing symptoms...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295005/conducting-anonymous-incentivized-online-surveys-with-sexual-and-gender-minority-adolescents-lessons-learned-from-a-national-polyvictimization-study
#11
Paul R Sterzing, Rachel E Gartner, Briana L McGeough
Sexual and gender minority adolescents represent an understudied and hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of mental and behavioral health problems in comparison to their cisgender, heterosexual peers. Online surveys and the proliferation of Internet-connected devices among adolescents offer an exciting opportunity for researchers to begin addressing research gaps and past methodological limitations with these hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to researchers who are designing and implementing anonymous, incentivized, online surveys by examining the following critical domains-(a) recruitment and engagement: means of leveraging social media and videos to recruit and engage a more nationally representative sample; (b) safety and protection: strategies for administering informed consent and protecting participant anonymity and well-being; and (c) data integrity: mechanisms to detect dishonest and repeat responders...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294864/beyond-yes-or-no-understanding-undergraduate-students-responses-as-bystanders-to-sexual-assault-risk-situations
#12
Jill C Hoxmeier, Sarah McMahon, Julia O'Connor
The White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault recommends bystander engagement programming as part of campus sexual assault prevention efforts. Measuring students' bystander behavior, and thus, assessing the effectiveness of such programming, is a challenging endeavor due to the range of risk situations students may witness, as well as the nuances in potential barriers students may face in these situations. Currently, many studies include dichotomous measures of bystander behavior without gathering further information about students' opportunities to intervene, barriers to intervening, and intervention strategies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291398/interventions-to-reduce-accidents-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Raquel S Barcelos, Bianca Del-Ponte, Iná S Santos
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on interventions planned to prevent the incidence of injuries in childhood. SOURCE OF DATA: The PubMed, Web of Science, and Bireme databases were searched by two independent reviewers, employing the single terms accidents, accident, injuries, injury, clinical trial, intervention, educational intervention, and multiple interventions, and their combinations, present in the article title or abstract, with no limits except period of publication (2006-2016) and studies in human subjects...
December 29, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288985/guilt-proneness-is-associated-with-the-use-of-protective-behavioral-strategies-during-episodes-of-alcohol-use
#14
Matt S Treeby, Simon M Rice, Fiona Cocker, Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno
INTRODUCTION: Shame and guilt are closely related emotions with diverging implications for the development, and potential treatment, of substance use disorders. Accumulating research indicates that a guilt-prone affect style buffers individuals against the development of problematic alcohol use, while shame-proneness appears to offer no protective function. However, little is known about the manner in which guilt-prone individuals avoid the experience of alcohol use-related harms. The present study aimed to extend the shame, guilt, and substance use literature by examining whether these two self-conscious affect styles are differentially related to the use of protective behavioral strategies which reduce the risk of harms during drinking episodes...
December 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288553/paired-methods-to-measure-biofilm-killing-and-removal-a-case-study-with-penicillin-g-treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#15
Dominik Ausbacher, Lindsey Lorenz, Betsey Pitts, Philip S Stewart, Darla M Goeres
Biofilms are microbial aggregates that show high tolerance to antibiotic treatments in vitro and in vivo. Killing and removal are both important in biofilm control, therefore methods that measure these two mechanisms were evaluated in a parallel experimental design. Kill was measured using the single tube method (ASTM method E2871) and removal was determined by video microscopy and image analysis using a new treatment flow cell. The advantage of the parallel test design is that both methods used biofilm covered coupons harvested from a CDC biofilm reactor, a well-established and standardized biofilm growth method...
December 30, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282864/sun-protective-behaviors-at-an-outdoor-entertainment-event-in-australia
#16
Fiona Barrett, Kim Usher, Cindy Woods, Simone L Harrison, Jane Nikles, Jane Conway
An observational study was conducted to examine the use of sun protective hats, clothing, and sunglasses of people attending an outdoor entertainment event in an area of high-to-extreme ultraviolet radiation in New South Wales, Australia. Armidale is unique, as it is a highly-elevated area, almost 1000 m above sea level, and temperatures are often mild with very high-to-extreme levels of ultraviolet radiation. Four trained data collectors observed attendees as they entered the event, and recorded their use of sun protective hats, clothing, and sunglasses...
December 28, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279995/type-a-and-b-monoamine-oxidases-distinctly-modulate-signal-transduction-pathway-and-gene-expression-to-regulate-brain-function-and-survival-of-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai
Type A and B monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, -B) mediate and modulate intracellular signal pathways for survival or death of neuronal cells. MAO-A is associated with development of neuronal architecture, synaptic activity, and onset of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and antisocial aggressive impulsive behaviors. MAO-B produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a vital role in neuronal loss of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review presents a novel role of MAO-A and B, their substrates and inhibitors, and hydrogen peroxide in brain function and neuronal survival and death...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277114/developing-a-falls-prevention-program-for-community-dwelling-stroke-survivors-in-singapore-client-and-caregiver-perspectives
#18
Tianma Xu, Kate O'Loughlin, Lindy Clemson, Natasha A Lannin, Catherine Dean, Gerald Koh
PURPOSE: Drawing on the perspectives of stroke survivors, family members and domestic helpers, this study explores participants' experiences of self-perceived fall risk factors after stroke, common fall prevention strategies used, and challenges to community participation after a fall. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Singapore with community-dwelling stroke survivors with a previous fall (n = 9), family caregivers (n = 4), and domestic helpers (n = 4) who have cared for a stroke survivor with a previous fall...
December 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261329/the-impact-of-stepfamily-relationship-quality-on-emerging-adult-non-medical-use-of-prescription-drugs
#19
Kaitlin P Ward, Cory B Dennis, Gordon E Limb
BACKGROUND: Emerging adults aged 18 to 25 are most at-risk for non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). While the literature dedicated to emerging-adult NMUPD has explored risk and protective factors at an individual level, much less is known regarding how interpersonal and familial factors relate to NMUPD. Because interpersonal bonds can have a significant impact on behavior, familial factors may be important predictors of NMUPD among emerging adults. OBJECTIVES: Inasmuch as growing up in a stepfamily is increasingly common for children, this study aimed to determine whether perceived stepfamily quality within three stepfamily subsystems - child-biological parent, child-stepparent, and child-stepsibling - decreased the likelihood of NMUPD in emerging adulthood...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260852/targeting-the-prion-like-aggregation-of-mutant-p53-to-combat-cancer
#20
Jerson L Silva, Elio A Cino, Iaci N Soares, Vitor F Ferreira, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Prion-like behavior of several amyloidogenic proteins has been demonstrated in recent years. Despite having functional roles in some cases, irregular aggregation can have devastating consequences. The most commonly known amyloid diseases are Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). The pathophysiology of prion-like diseases involves the structural transformation of wild-type (wt) proteins to transmissible forms that can convert healthy proteins, generating aggregates. The mutant form of tumor suppressor protein, p53, has recently been shown to exhibit prion-like properties...
December 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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