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Protective behavior strategy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728529/islamic-influence-on-hiv-risk-and-protection-among-central-asian-male-migrant-workers-in-kazakhstan
#1
Stacey A Shaw, Tara McCrimmon, Gaukhar Mergenova, Alma Sultangaliyeva, Nabila El-Bassel
HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon...
August 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725404/age-dependent-male-mating-tactics-in-a-spider-mite-a-life-history-perspective
#2
Yukie Sato, Peter T Rühr, Helmut Schmitz, Martijn Egas, Alexander Blanke
Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714131/evaluating-a-push-pull-strategy-for-management-of-drosophila-suzukii-matsumura-in-red-raspberry
#3
Anna K Wallingford, Dong H Cha, Gregory M Loeb
BACKGROUND: Drosophilia suzukii Matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits that lays its eggs in growing fruit. Current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. Alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under investigation, such as attract-and-kill and the use of oviposition deterrents. Here we evaluated two behavioral control approaches in combination as a push-pull strategy using laboratory and field assays...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#4
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710800/dissociation-of-spatial-memory-systems-in-williams-syndrome
#5
Mathilde Bostelmann, Emilie Fragnière, Floriana Costanzo, Silvia Di Vara, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari, Pierre Lavenex, Pamela Banta Lavenex
Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic deletion syndrome, is characterized by severe visuospatial deficits affecting performance on both tabletop spatial tasks and on tasks which assess orientation and navigation. Nevertheless, previous studies of WS spatial capacities have ignored the fact that two different spatial memory systems are believed to contribute parallel spatial representations supporting navigation. The place learning system depends on the hippocampal formation and creates flexible relational representations of the environment, also known as cognitive maps...
July 15, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710024/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-attenuating-the-seizure-onset-via-p75r-caspase-pathway-in-the-experimental-epilepsy
#6
Jing'an Lei, Fang Feng, Yuanyuan Duan, Feng Xu, Zhiguang Liu, Lifei Lian, Qiming Liang, Na Zhang, Furong Wang
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) shows neuroprotection while it is hard to cross the blood-brain barrier due to its large molecular weight. Our study used intranasal delivery of NGF to treat the experimental epilepsy. METHODS: The seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazol (40mg/kg) into the rat. Based on the behavior performance, the successful models were randomized into control and NGF groups, given medium or NGF intranasally, respectively. The onset and duration of seizure were recorded...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704702/plant-architecture-auxin-homeostasis-and-phenol-content-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-grown-in-cadmium-and-zinc-enriched-media
#7
Adriano Sofo, Rocco Bochicchio, Mariana Amato, Nunzia Rendina, Antonella Vitti, Maria Nuzzaci, Maria Maddalena Altamura, Giuseppina Falasca, Federica Della Rovere, Antonio Scopa
A screening strategy using micropropagation glass tubes with a gradient of distances between germinating seeds and a metal-contaminated medium was used for studying alterations in root architecture and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) at the concentration of 10-20μM and 100-200μM, respectively. Metal concentrations in plant shoots and roots were measured by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After 21days from germination, all plants in the tubes were scanned at high resolution and the root systems analyzed...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703616/the-protective-behavioral-strategies-for-marijuana-scale-further-examination-using-item-response-theory
#8
Eric R Pedersen, Wenjing Huang, Robert D Dvorak, Mark A Prince, Justin F Hummer
Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States...
July 13, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703033/the-attitudes-about-parenting-strategies-for-anxiety-scale-a-measure-of-parenting-attitudes-about-protective-and-intrusive-behavior
#9
Elizabeth J Kiel, Keshia B Wagers, Aaron M Luebbe
Protective and intrusive parenting behaviors consistently relate to children's anxiety development. We present two studies describing the development of the Attitudes about Parenting Strategies for Anxiety (APSA) scale, which assesses parent distress about children's displays of anxiety and shyness as well as parent attitudes about the effectiveness of protective and intrusive responses across several domains. Study 1 included 594 parents who completed the APSA and additional measures online and established the factor structure, internal reliability, and validity of the measure...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699828/glioma-targeted-delivery-strategy-of-doxorubicin-loaded-liposomes-by-dual-ligand-modification
#10
Wei Han, Guangfu Yin, Ximing Pu, Xianchun Chen, Xiaoming Liao, Zhongbing Huang
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the protective parclose of brain safety, but it is also the main obstacle of the drug delivery to cerebral parenchyma, which hamper therapy for brain diseases. In this work, a glioma targeted drug delivery system was developed through loading doxorubicin into Angiopep-2 and TAT peptide dual-modified liposomes (DOX-TAT-Ang-LIP). Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) was one receptor overexpressed on both BBB and glioma cytomembranes. Angiopep-2, a specific ligand of LRP1, exhibited high LRP1 binding efficiency...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694710/modeling-ecodevelopmental-context-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-hiv-risk-and-protective-behaviors-among-african-american-adolescents
#11
Ya-Huei Li, Osaro Mgbere, Susan Abughosh, Hua Chen, Paula Cuccaro, Ekere James Essien
Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA) adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD)- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679332/beyond-risk-and-protective-factors-an-adaptation-based-approach-to-resilience
#12
Bruce J Ellis, JeanMarie Bianchi, Vladas Griskevicius, Willem E Frankenhuis
How does repeated or chronic childhood adversity shape social and cognitive abilities? According to the prevailing deficit model, children from high-stress backgrounds are at risk for impairments in learning and behavior, and the intervention goal is to prevent, reduce, or repair the damage. Missing from this deficit approach is an attempt to leverage the unique strengths and abilities that develop in response to high-stress environments. Evolutionary-developmental models emphasize the coherent, functional changes that occur in response to stress over the life course...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677385/minimal-nucleation-state-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-is-stabilized-by-dynamic-threonine-water-networks
#13
Tod D Romo, Andrew K Lewis, Anthony R Braun, Alan Grossfield, Jonathan N Sachs
The first structures of α-synuclein (αSyn) fibrils have recently been solved. Here, we use a unique combination of molecular dynamics simulation strategies to address the minimal nucleation size of the 11-amino acid NAC protofibril solved by X-ray and to interrogate the dynamic behavior of unexpected crystal waters in the steric zipper. We found that protofibrils of >8 chains are thermodynamically stabilized due to protection of the fibril core from solvent influx and ordering of the end strands by the fibril core...
July 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677123/the-influence-of-chinese-culture-on-family-caregivers-of-stroke-survivors-a-qualitative-study
#14
Olivia Xichenhui Qiu, Janet W H Sit, Fung Kuen Koo
BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that culture can have a significant impact on the stroke caregiving experience. Moreover, scant research exists on stroke caregivers' experience within the Chinese culture. AIMS: The present study aims to explore and describe the caregiving experiences of Chinese stroke caregivers. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was used. METHODS: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 family caregivers of stroke survivors...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675134/overview-of-the-infant-and-young-child-feeding-policy-environment-in-pakistan-federal-sindh-and-punjab-context
#15
Hana Mahmood, Yasmeen Suleman, Tabish Hazir, Durre Samin Akram, Shahadat Uddin, Michael J Dibley, Saleem Abassi, Amara Shakeel, Narjis Kazmi, Anne Marie Thow
BACKGROUND: Appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have been identified as important for appropriate child growth and development. (Ministry of Planning and Development, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination (2012)) Children in Pakistan still experience high rates of malnutrition, indicating a likely need for stronger IYCF policy. The purpose of this study was to identify major stakeholders who shape the IYCF policy environment and analyze which policies protect, promote and support IYCF practices, either directly or indirectly...
June 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674434/distribution-and-uv-protection-strategies-of-zooplankton-in-clear-and-glacier-fed-alpine-lakes
#16
Barbara Tartarotti, Florian Trattner, Daniel Remias, Nadine Saul, Christian E W Steinberg, Ruben Sommaruga
Zooplankton, a group of aquatic animals important as trophic link in the food web, are exposed to high levels of UV radiation (UVR) in clear alpine lakes, while in turbid glacier-fed lakes they are more protected. To study the interplay between behavioral and physiological protection responses in zooplankton from those lakes, we sampled six lakes of different UVR transparency and glacial turbidity. Copepods were absent in the upper water layers of the clearest lake, while in glacier-fed lakes they were more evenly distributed in the water column...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672997/anticonvulsant-effect-of-exogenous-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-on-kainic-acid-induced-epilepsy
#17
Jianping Si, Shaohui Wang, Ning Liu, Xiaofei Yang, Ying Wang, Ling Li, Jiwen Wang, Xin Lv
The present study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in a kainic acid (KA)-induced rat seizure model. The concentrations of BHB and glucose were detected in the blood prior to exogenous BHB administration. Three different doses of BHB (2, 4 and 8 mmol/kg) were then injected into male Wistar rats intraperitoneally, and the concentrations of BHB and glucose in the blood were detected. Rats received 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally at a dose of 4 ml/kg as a control...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667793/physiological-mechanisms-through-which-heat-stress-compromises-reproduction-in-pigs
#18
REVIEW
Jason W Ross, Benjamin J Hale, Jacob T Seibert, Matthew R Romoser, Malavika K Adur, Aileen F Keating, Lance H Baumgard
Seasonal variations in environmental temperatures impose added stress on domestic species bred for economically important production traits. These heat-mediated stressors vary on a seasonal, daily, or spatial scale, and negatively impact behavior and reduce feed intake and growth rate, which inevitably lead to reduced herd productivity. The seasonal infertility observed in domestic swine is primarily characterized by depressed reproductive performance, which manifests as delayed puberty onset, reduced farrowing rates, and extended weaning-to-estrus intervals...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652943/diverse-habitat-use-during-two-life-stages-of-the-critically-endangered-bahama-oriole-icterus-northropi-community-structure-foraging-and-social-interactions
#19
Melissa R Price, William K Hayes
Our ability to prevent extinction in declining populations often depends on effective management of habitats that are disturbed through wildfire, logging, agriculture, or development. In these disturbed landscapes, the juxtaposition of multiple habitat types can be especially important to fledglings and young birds, which may leave breeding grounds in human-altered habitat for different habitats nearby that provide increased foraging opportunities, reduced competition, and higher protection from predators. In this study, we evaluated the importance of three habitat types to two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi), a synanthropic songbird endemic to Andros, The Bahamas...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652226/a-hybrid-web-based-and-in-person-self-management-intervention-to-prevent-acute-to-chronic-pain-transition-after-major-lower-extremity-trauma-ipact-e-trauma-protocol-for-a-pilot-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Mélanie Bérubé, Céline Gélinas, Géraldine Martorella, José Côté, Nancy Feeley, George-Yves Laflamme, Dominique Rouleau, Manon Choinière
BACKGROUND: Acute pain frequently transitions to chronic pain after major lower extremity trauma (ET). Several modifiable psychological risk and protective factors have been found to contribute to, or prevent, chronic pain development. Some empirical evidence has shown that interventions, including cognitive and behavioral strategies that promote pain self-management, could prevent chronic pain. However, the efficacy of such interventions has never been demonstrated in ET patients. We have designed a self-management intervention to prevent acute to chronic pain transition after major lower extremity trauma (iPACT-E-Trauma)...
June 26, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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