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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#1
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551393/content-specificity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
A Zinchenko, M M Al-Amin, M M Alam, W Mahmud, N Kabir, H M Reza, T H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias to affective information and reduced cognitive control may maintain the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impair cognitive functioning. However, the role of content specificity of affective stimuli (e.g., trauma-related, emotional trauma-unrelated) in the observed attentional bias and cognitive control is less clear, as this has not been tested simultaneously before. Therefore, we examined the content specificity of attentional bias to threat in PTSD...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549279/control-adjustments-in-speaking-electrophysiology-of-the-gratton-effect-in-picture-naming
#3
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Accumulating evidence suggests that spoken word production requires different amounts of top-down control depending on the prevailing circumstances. For example, during Stroop-like tasks, the interference in response time (RT) is typically larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. This effect is called the Gratton effect, and has been taken to reflect top-down control adjustments based on the previous trial type. Such control adjustments have been studied extensively in Stroop and Eriksen flanker tasks (mostly using manual responses), but not in the picture-word interference (PWI) task, which is a workhorse of language production research...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539893/more-than-attentional-tuning-investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-practice-gains-and-preparation-in-task-switching
#4
Mike Wendt, Stina Klein, Tilo Strobach
In task switching, participants perform trials of task repetitions (i.e., the same task is executed in consecutive trials) and task switches (i.e., different tasks are executed in consecutive trials) and the longer reaction times in switch trials in comparison to these times in repetition trials are referred to as switch costs. These costs are reduced by lengthening of an interval following a cue that indicates the upcoming task; this effect demonstrated effective task preparation. To investigate the role of task switching practice for these preparation effects and task switch costs, we applied a task switching paradigm, involving two digit classification tasks, in six successive practice sessions and varied the length of the preparation interval...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501539/spatiotemporal-oscillatory-dynamics-of-visual-selective-attention-during-a-flanker-task
#5
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
The flanker task is a test of visual selective attention that has been widely used to probe error monitoring, response conflict, and related constructs. However, to date, few studies have focused on the selective attention component of this task and imaged the underlying oscillatory dynamics serving task performance. In this study, 21 healthy adults successfully completed an arrow-based version of the Eriksen flanker task during magnetoencephalography (MEG). All MEG data were pre-processed and transformed into the time-frequency domain...
May 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471731/efficacy-and-safety-of-ashwagandha-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-root-extract-in-improving-memory-and-cognitive-functions
#6
Dnyanraj Choudhary, Sauvik Bhattacharyya, Sekhar Bose
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline is often associated with the aging process. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) has long been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine to enhance memory and improve cognition. AIM: This pilot study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) in improving memory and cognitive functioning in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 50 adults...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432077/aerobic-exercise-promotes-executive-functions-and-impacts-functional-neural-activity-among-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#7
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Shirley Wang, Lara A Boyd, Gy Robin Hsiung, Michelle W Voss, Janice Jennifer Eng, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) results from cerebrovascular disease, and worldwide, it is the second most common type of cognitive dysfunction. While targeted aerobic training is a promising approach to delay the progression of VCI by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, few randomised controlled trials to date have specifically assessed the efficacy of aerobic training on cognitive and brain outcomes in this group at risk for functional decline. AIM: To examine the effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on executive functions and functional neural activity among older adults with mild subcortical ischaemic VCI (SIVCI)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410524/cognitive-control-in-young-heavy-drinkers-an-erp-study
#8
Ingmar H A Franken, Maartje Luijten, Frederik M van der Veen, Jan W van Strien
Substance use disorders have been frequently linked to an impaired cognitive control system. Whether this impaired control is also present in young adults who heavily drink alcohol is still subject to debate. The present study investigated possible impairments in cognitive control in heavy drinkers using behavioral and electrophysiological (EEG) measures. We studied behavioral performance on an inhibitory control and an error-processing task, using a GoNogo task and an Eriksen Flanker task respectively, while ERPs (Nogo-N2/P3 and ERN/Pe) were measured in a group of heavy alcohol drinkers (n=48) and a healthy control group of light drinkers (n=49)...
June 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165364/inhibitory-control-under-threat-the-role-of-spontaneous-eye-blinks-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Mikael Rubin, Denise A Hien, Dipanjana Das, Robert D Melara
This study is the first to explore spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR) in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the connection between the magnitude of flanker interference in PTSD participants and sEBR during performance on a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task. As a peripheral measure of cognitive control and dopaminergic function, sEBR may illuminate the relationship between PTSD and executive function. Findings revealed a positive relationship between sEBR and flanker interference in participants diagnosed with PTSD, to both threat-related and neutral stimuli, whereas this relationship was negative in participants exposed to trauma but without PTSD and in healthy controls...
February 4, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941977/conflict-adaptation-and-cue-competition-during-learning-in-an-eriksen-flanker-task
#10
Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman, Ashley K Ramsey, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Two experiments investigated competition between cues that predicted the correct target response to a target stimulus in a response conflict procedure using a flanker task. Subjects received trials with five-character arrays with a central target character and distractor flanker characters that matched (compatible) or did not match (incompatible) the central target. Subjects' expectancies for compatible and incompatible trials were manipulated by presenting pre-trial cues that signaled the occurrence of compatible or incompatible trials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835807/acute-stress-impairs-frontocingulate-activation-during-error-monitoring-in-remitted-depression
#11
Alexis E Whitton, Ashlee Van't Veer, Pragya Kakani, Daniel G Dillon, Manon L Ironside, Anja Haile, David J Crowley, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in cognitive control are a hallmark characteristic of depression, however less is known about the degree to which they persist beyond symptom remission and might contribute to symptom recurrence in remitted individuals (rMDD). Evidence indicates that stress interferes with cognitive control, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress precipitates depression relapse. Therefore, this study examined whether stress exposure elicits deficits in error monitoring - a component of cognitive control thought to be particularly implicated in the ability to adaptively respond to negative feedback - in individuals with rMDD...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832732/learned-irrelevance-and-cue-competition-using-an-eriksen-flanker-task
#12
Melissa Tapia, Kirkwood Meyers, Rachel Richardson, Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman
Many studies have examined competition between cues for learning. Research examining cue competition has used cues that predict the occurrence of an outcome, or, in some rare cases, competition between cues that predict the absence of an outcome (predicting that an outcome explicitly will not occur). Alternatively, learned irrelevance occurs when a cue lacks the ability to predict the occurrence or absence of an outcome. Using an Eriksen flanker task, the present study evaluated competition among cues that do not have predictive value, that is, competition for learning that an outcome is unpredictable...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427535/food-addiction-is-associated-with-impaired-performance-monitoring
#13
Ingmar H A Franken, Ilse M T Nijs, Ashley Toes, Frederik M van der Veen
Currently, there is an ongoing debate about whether it is possible to be addicted to food. There are several indications pointing in this direction, but research is scarce. Up to this date it is not exactly known whether this "food addiction" shares common neurocognitive deficits observed in the more classical types of addictions such as substance use disorders (SUDs). One commonly observed finding in SUD patients is that there is an impaired cognitive control. One of the essential components of cognitive control is performance monitoring...
July 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338588/when-congruence-breeds-preference-the-influence-of-selective-attention-processes-on-evaluative-conditioning
#14
Katarina Blask, Eva Walther, Christian Frings
We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i...
June 24, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330977/neurophysiological-evidence-of-impaired-self-monitoring-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder-and-its-reversal-by-dopaminergic-antagonism
#15
Mireia Rabella, Eva Grasa, Iluminada Corripio, Sergio Romero, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Rosa M Antonijoan, Thomas F Münte, Víctor Pérez, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the error positivity (Pe)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315275/linking-theoretical-decision-making-mechanisms-in-the-simon-task-with-electrophysiological-data-a-model-based-neuroscience-study-in-humans
#16
Mathieu Servant, Corey White, Anna Montagnini, Borís Burle
A current challenge for decision-making research is in extending models of simple decisions to more complex and ecological choice situations. Conflict tasks (e.g., Simon, Stroop, Eriksen flanker) have been the focus of much interest, because they provide a decision-making context representative of everyday life experiences. Modeling efforts have led to an elaborated drift diffusion model for conflict tasks (DMC), which implements a superimposition of automatic and controlled decision activations. The DMC has proven to capture the diversity of behavioral conflict effects across various task contexts...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277662/event-related-potentials-reflecting-smoking-cue-reactivity-and-cognitive-control-as-predictors-of-smoking-relapse-and-resumption
#17
Maartje Luijten, Marloes Kleinjan, Ingmar H A Franken
RATIONALE: Given that most attempts to quit smoking fail, it is critical to increase knowledge about the mechanisms involved in smoking relapse and resumption (i.e., the increase in smoking over time after a quit attempt). Neurocognitive measures, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), may provide novel insights into smoking relapse and resumption. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to investigate the association between smoking relapse and resumption and ERPs reflecting smoking cue reactivity (i...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177649/location-specific-attentional-control-is-also-possible-in-the-simon-task
#18
Ronald Hübner, Shreyasi Mishra
Goal-directed behavior usually requires mental control that directs attention to task-relevant information and ignores irrelevant information. For investigating how flexible this mechanism is, researchers have varied the proportion of congruent trials depending on some context, such as stimulus location. The corresponding studies revealed that attentional control indeed adapts to location-specific demands. However, until now, this flexibility has only been demonstrated for the Eriksen flanker task and for the Stroop task but not for the Simon task...
December 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068574/rationale-and-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-effect-of-classroom-based-physical-activity-on-math-achievement
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mona Have, Jacob Have Nielsen, Anne Kær Gejl, Martin Thomsen Ernst, Kjeld Fredens, Jan Toftegaard Støckel, Niels Wedderkopp, Sidsel Louise Domazet, Claire Gudex, Anders Grøntved, Peter Lund Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. METHODS: The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013...
April 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045465/reach-tracking-reveals-dissociable-processes-underlying-cognitive-control
#20
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, David M Sobel, Joo-Hyun Song
The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial...
July 2016: Cognition
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