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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835807/acute-stress-impairs-frontocingulate-activation-during-error-monitoring-in-remitted-depression
#1
Alexis E Whitton, Ashlee Van't Veer, Pragya Kakani, Daniel G Dillon, Manon L Ironside, Anja Haile, David J Crowley, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in cognitive control are a hallmark characteristic of depression, however less is known about the degree to which they persist beyond symptom remission and might contribute to symptom recurrence in remitted individuals (rMDD). Evidence indicates that stress interferes with cognitive control, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress precipitates depression relapse. Therefore, this study examined whether stress exposure elicits deficits in error monitoring - a component of cognitive control thought to be particularly implicated in the ability to adaptively respond to negative feedback - in individuals with rMDD...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832732/learned-irrelevance-and-cue-competition-using-an-eriksen-flanker-task
#2
Melissa Tapia, Kirkwood Meyers, Rachel Richardson, Rodica Ghinescu, Todd R Schachtman
Many studies have examined competition between cues for learning. Research examining cue competition has used cues that predict the occurrence of an outcome, or, in some rare cases, competition between cues that predict the absence of an outcome (predicting that an outcome explicitly will not occur). Alternatively, learned irrelevance occurs when a cue lacks the ability to predict the occurrence or absence of an outcome. Using an Eriksen flanker task, the present study evaluated competition among cues that do not have predictive value, that is, competition for learning that an outcome is unpredictable...
September 2016: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427535/food-addiction-is-associated-with-impaired-performance-monitoring
#3
Ingmar H A Franken, Ilse M T Nijs, Ashley Toes, Frederik M van der Veen
Currently, there is an ongoing debate about whether it is possible to be addicted to food. There are several indications pointing in this direction, but research is scarce. Up to this date it is not exactly known whether this "food addiction" shares common neurocognitive deficits observed in the more classical types of addictions such as substance use disorders (SUDs). One commonly observed finding in SUD patients is that there is an impaired cognitive control. One of the essential components of cognitive control is performance monitoring...
July 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338588/when-congruence-breeds-preference-the-influence-of-selective-attention-processes-on-evaluative-conditioning
#4
Katarina Blask, Eva Walther, Christian Frings
We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i...
June 24, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330977/neurophysiological-evidence-of-impaired-self-monitoring-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder-and-its-reversal-by-dopaminergic-antagonism
#5
Mireia Rabella, Eva Grasa, Iluminada Corripio, Sergio Romero, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Rosa M Antonijoan, Thomas F Münte, Víctor Pérez, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder characterized by odd or bizarre behavior, strange speech, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and social anhedonia. Schizophrenia proper has been associated with anomalies in dopaminergic neurotransmission and deficits in neurophysiological markers of self-monitoring, such as low amplitude in cognitive event-related brain potentials (ERPs) like the error-related negativity (ERN), and the error positivity (Pe)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315275/linking-theoretical-decision-making-mechanisms-in-the-simon-task-with-electrophysiological-data-a-model-based-neuroscience-study-in-humans
#6
Mathieu Servant, Corey White, Anna Montagnini, Borís Burle
A current challenge for decision-making research is in extending models of simple decisions to more complex and ecological choice situations. Conflict tasks (e.g., Simon, Stroop, Eriksen flanker) have been the focus of much interest, because they provide a decision-making context representative of everyday life experiences. Modeling efforts have led to an elaborated drift diffusion model for conflict tasks (DMC), which implements a superimposition of automatic and controlled decision activations. The DMC has proven to capture the diversity of behavioral conflict effects across various task contexts...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277662/event-related-potentials-reflecting-smoking-cue-reactivity-and-cognitive-control-as-predictors-of-smoking-relapse-and-resumption
#7
Maartje Luijten, Marloes Kleinjan, Ingmar H A Franken
RATIONALE: Given that most attempts to quit smoking fail, it is critical to increase knowledge about the mechanisms involved in smoking relapse and resumption (i.e., the increase in smoking over time after a quit attempt). Neurocognitive measures, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), may provide novel insights into smoking relapse and resumption. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to investigate the association between smoking relapse and resumption and ERPs reflecting smoking cue reactivity (i...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27177649/location-specific-attentional-control-is-also-possible-in-the-simon-task
#8
Ronald Hübner, Shreyasi Mishra
Goal-directed behavior usually requires mental control that directs attention to task-relevant information and ignores irrelevant information. For investigating how flexible this mechanism is, researchers have varied the proportion of congruent trials depending on some context, such as stimulus location. The corresponding studies revealed that attentional control indeed adapts to location-specific demands. However, until now, this flexibility has only been demonstrated for the Eriksen flanker task and for the Stroop task but not for the Simon task...
December 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068574/rationale-and-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-effect-of-classroom-based-physical-activity-on-math-achievement
#9
Mona Have, Jacob Have Nielsen, Anne Kær Gejl, Martin Thomsen Ernst, Kjeld Fredens, Jan Toftegaard Støckel, Niels Wedderkopp, Sidsel Louise Domazet, Claire Gudex, Anders Grøntved, Peter Lund Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. METHODS: The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013...
April 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045465/reach-tracking-reveals-dissociable-processes-underlying-cognitive-control
#10
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, David M Sobel, Joo-Hyun Song
The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial...
July 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017411/difficult-action-decisions-reduce-the-sense-of-agency-a-study-using-the-eriksen-flanker-task
#11
Nura Sidarus, Patrick Haggard
The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions and, through them, of events in the outside world. Much research has focused on the importance of retrospectively matching predicted and actual action outcomes for a strong sense of agency. Yet, recent studies have revealed that a metacognitive signal about the fluency of action selection can prospectively inform our sense of agency. Fluent, or easy, action selection leads to a stronger sense of agency over action outcomes than dysfluent, or difficult, selection...
May 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973443/performance-monitoring-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-children-with-tourette-syndrome
#12
Heike Eichele, Tom Eichele, Ingvar Bjelland, Marie F Høvik, Lin Sørensen, Heidi van Wageningen, Marius Kalsås Worren, Kenneth Hugdahl, Kerstin J Plessen
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder and its impact on cognitive development needs further study. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggests that the decline in tic severity and the ability to suppress tics relate to the development of self-regulatory functions in late childhood and adolescence. Hence, tasks measuring performance monitoring might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children with TS...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973149/moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-indices-of-cognitive-control-and-academic-achievement-in-preadolescents
#13
Dominika M Pindus, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Naiman A Khan, Lauren B Raine, Lauren B Sherar, Dale W Esliger, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether preadolescents' objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with cognitive control and academic achievement, independent of aerobic fitness. STUDY DESIGN: A sample of 74 children (Meanage = 8.64 years, SD = .58, 46% girls) were included in the analyses. Daily MVPA (min/d) was measured over 7 days using ActiGraph wGT3X+ accelerometer. Aerobic fitness was measured using a maximal graded exercise test and expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (mL*kg(-1)*min(-1))...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924018/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-over-the-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-stimulus-conflict-but-not-response-conflict
#14
S Zmigrod, L Zmigrod, B Hommel
When the human brain encounters a conflict, performance is often impaired. Two tasks that are widely used to induce and measure conflict-related interference are the Eriksen flanker task, whereby the visual target stimulus is flanked by congruent or incongruent distractors, and the Simon task, where the location of the required spatial response is either congruent or incongruent with the location of the target stimulus. Interestingly, both tasks share the characteristic of inducing response conflict but only the flanker task induces stimulus conflict...
May 13, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836622/aberrant-network-connectivity-during-error-processing-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Rolf Voegler, Michael P I Becker, Alexander Nitsch, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging methods have pointed to deficits in the interaction of large-scale brain networks in patients with schizophrenia. Abnormal connectivity of the right anterior insula (AI), a central hub of the salience network, is frequently reported and may underlie patients' deficits in adaptive salience processing and cognitive control. While most previous studies used resting state approaches, we examined right AI interactions in a task-based fMRI study. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls performed an adaptive version of the Eriksen Flanker task that was specifically designed to ensure a comparable number of errors between groups...
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820461/let-it-go-the-flexible-engagement-and-disengagement-of-monitoring-processes-in-a-non-focal-prospective-memory-task
#16
Anna-Lisa Cohen, Aliza Gordon, Alexander Jaudas, Carmen Hefer, Gesine Dreisbach
Remembering to perform a delayed intention is referred to as prospective memory (PM). In two studies, participants performed an Eriksen flanker task with an embedded PM task (they had to remember to press F1 if a pre-specified cue appeared). In study 1, participants performed a flanker task with either a concurrent PM task or a delayed PM task (instructed to carry out the intention in a later different task). In the delayed PM condition, the PM cues appeared unexpectedly early and we examined whether attention would be captured by the PM cue even though they were not relevant...
January 28, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802779/early-childhood-behavioral-inhibition-predicts-cortical-thickness-in-adulthood
#17
Chad M Sylvester, Deanna M Barch, Michael P Harms, Andy C Belden, Timothy J Oakberg, Andrea L Gold, Lauren K White, Brenda E Benson, Sonya Troller-Renfree, Kathryn A Degnan, Heather A Henderson, Joan L Luby, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral inhibition (BI) during early childhood predicts risk for anxiety disorders and altered cognitive control in adolescence. Although BI has been linked to variation in brain function through adulthood, few studies have examined relations between early childhood BI and adult brain structure. METHOD: The relation between early childhood BI and cortical thickness in adulthood was examined in a cohort of individuals followed since early childhood (N = 53, mean age 20...
February 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26799385/visual-distraction-in-cytopathology-should-we-be-concerned
#18
A Evered, D Walker, A Watt, N Perham
OBJECTIVE: Visual distraction in cytopathology has not been investigated previously as a source of diagnostic error, presumably because the viewing field of a conventional light microscope is considered to be large enough to minimise interference from peripheral visual stimuli. Virtual microscopy, which involves the examination of digitised images of pathology specimens on computer screens, is beginning to challenge the central role of light microscopy as a diagnostic tool in cytopathology...
October 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727211/associations-of-physical-activity-sports-participation-and-active-commuting-on-mathematic-performance-and-inhibitory-control-in-adolescents
#19
Sidsel L Domazet, Jakob Tarp, Tao Huang, Anne Kær Gejl, Lars Bo Andersen, Karsten Froberg, Anna Bugge
OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569036/normal-cognitive-conflict-resolution-in-psychosis-patients-with-and-without-schizophrenia
#20
Henderikus G O M Smid, Richard Bruggeman, Sander Martens
Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled conflict control problems in other disorders. Differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in stimulus perception, selective attention, alertness, processing speed and reaction time variability may have been previously overlooked...
January 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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