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eriksen flanker task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668394/it-s-the-other-way-around-early-modulation-of-sensory-distractor-processing-induced-by-late-response-conflict
#1
Bernhard Pastötter, Christian Frings
Understanding the neural processes that maintain goal-directed behavior is a major challenge for the study of attentional control. Although much of the previous work on the issue has focused on prefrontal brain areas, little is known about the contribution of sensory brain processes to the regulation of attentional control. The present EEG study examined brain oscillatory activities invoked in the processing of response conflict in a lateralized Eriksen single-flanker task, in which target letters were presented at fixation and single distractor letters were presented either left or right to the targets...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574234/reduced-distractor-interference-during-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#2
Marlies E van Bochove, Leen De Taeye, Robrecht Raedt, Kristl Vonck, Alfred Meurs, Paul Boon, Ine Dauwe, Wim Notebaert, Tom Verguts
Suppressing irrelevant information in decision making is an essential everyday skill. We studied whether this ability could be improved in epileptic patients during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). VNS is known to increase norepinephrine (NE) in the brain. NE is thought to improve several aspects of cognitive control, including the suppression of irrelevant information. Nineteen epileptic VNS patients executed the Eriksen flanker task twice, both during on and off stimulation. Distractor interference was indexed by the congruency effect, a standard empirical marker of cognitive control...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479325/exposing-an-intangible-cognitive-skill-among-collegiate-football-players-enhanced-interference-control
#3
Scott A Wylie, Theodore R Bashore, Nelleke C Van Wouwe, Emily J Mason, Kevin D John, Joseph S Neimat, Brandon A Ally
American football is played in a chaotic visual environment filled with relevant and distracting information. We investigated the hypothesis that collegiate football players show exceptional skill at shielding their response execution from the interfering effects of distraction ( interference control ). The performances of 280 football players from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football programs were compared to age-matched controls in a variant of the Eriksen flanker task (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462986/i-can-stand-learning-a-controlled-pilot-intervention-study-on-the-effects-of-increased-standing-time-on-cognitive-function-in-primary-school-children
#4
Katharina Wick, Oliver Faude, Susanne Manes, Lukas Zahner, Lars Donath
Sedentarism is considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of employing standing desks in classrooms on cognitive function. The intervention class (IG; n = 19) was supplied with standing desks and balance pads for 11 weeks. The control class (CG; n = 19) received lessons as usual. Standing time was assessed objectively (accelerometers) and subjectively (self-report sheets, external classroom observers). The impact of standing on the digit span task and Eriksen flanker task was analysed...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189634/alpha-band-frequency-differences-between-low-trait-and-high-trait-anxious-individuals
#5
Richard T Ward, Shelby L Smith, Brian T Kraus, Anna V Allen, Michael A Moses, Stephanie L Simon-Dack
Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task...
January 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966082/the-peak-frequency-of-motor-related-gamma-oscillations-is-modulated-by-response-competition
#6
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Joslynn M Hoburg, Tony W Wilson
Movement execution generally occurs in an environment with numerous distractors, and requires the selection of a motor plan from multiple possible alternatives. However, the impact of such distractors on cortical motor function during movement remains largely unknown. Previous studies have identified two movement-related oscillatory responses that are critical to motor planning and execution, and these responses include the peri-movement beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the movement-related gamma synchronization (MRGS)...
January 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952829/mental-fatigue-and-physical-and-cognitive-performance-during-a-two-bout-exercise-test
#7
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: The two bout exercise protocol has been developed to diagnose non-functional overreaching (NFO) and the 'Overtraining Syndrome' (OTS). It consists of two maximal exercise bouts separated by 4 hours. Mental fatigue negatively influences performance but the effects of its occurrence during the two bout exercise protocol have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue (induced during the rest period) influences physical and cognitive performance during/after the second exercise bout of the two bout exercise protocol...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950211/blame-everyone-error-related-devaluation-in-eriksen-flanker-task
#8
Andrey Chetverikov, Polina Iamschinina, Alena Begler, Ivan Ivanchei, Margarita Filippova, Maria Kuvaldina
Preferences are determined not only by stimuli themselves but also by the way they are processed in the brain. The efficacy of cognitive processing during previous interactions with stimuli is particularly important. When observers make errors in simple tasks such as visual search, recognition, or categorization, they later dislike the stimuli associated with errors. Here we test whether this error-related devaluation exists in Erisken flanker task and whether it depends on the distribution of attention. We found that both attended stimuli (targets) and ignored ones (distractors) are devaluated after errors on compatible trials but not incompatible ones...
October 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931569/individual-alpha-peak-frequency-predicts-10-hz-flicker-effects-on-selective-attention
#9
Rasa Gulbinaite, Tara van Viegen, Martijn Wieling, Michael X Cohen, Rufin VanRullen
Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910331/reproducibility-of-frequency-dependent-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-reaction-time-over-time-and-across-tasks
#10
Zan-Zan Liu, Hui-Jie Qu, Zhuo-Ling Tian, Meng-Jian Han, Yi Fan, Lie-Zhong Ge, Yu-Feng Zang, Hang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Increased levels of reaction time variability (RTV) are characteristics of sustained attention deficits. The clinical significance of RTV has been widely recognized. However, the reliability of RTV measurements has not been widely studied. The present study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of RTV conventional measurements, e.g., the standard deviation (SD), the coefficient of variation (CV), and a new measurement called the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of RT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872407/relationship-between-physical-activity-adiposity-and-attentional-inhibition
#11
Nicholas W Baumgartner, Anne M Walk, Caitlyn G Edwards, Alicia R Covello, Morgan R Chojnacki, Ginger E Reeser, Andrew M Taylor, Hannah D Holscher, Naiman A Khan
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be detrimental to physical and cognitive health. However, implications of these interrelated health factors are rarely examined together; consequently, little is known regarding the concomitant contribution of physical activity and adiposity to cognition. METHODS: Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted among a sample of adults between 25 and 45 years (N = 65)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774794/the-acute-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-cognitive-control-among-people-with-chronic-stroke
#12
Karli Swatridge, Kayla Regan, William Richard Staines, Eric Roy, Laura Elizabeth Middleton
BACKGROUND: Over half of stroke survivors have cognitive impairment, which impedes rehabilitation and functional recovery. Evidence suggests a single session of aerobic exercise improves cognitive functions among healthy adults. Whether this holds true for stroke survivors is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether one session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves the cognitive control and attention of stroke survivors. METHODS: Nine people with chronic stroke (≥6 months poststroke) performed a modified Eriksen Flanker task with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) before and immediately, 20 minutes, and 40 minutes after 20 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise and after 20 minutes of rest...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741423/cognitive-control-in-young-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#13
David Lr Maij, Ben Jm van de Wetering, Ingmar Ha Franken
Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers)...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#14
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711672/the-flexible-engagement-of-monitoring-processes-in-non-focal-and-focal-prospective-memory-tasks-with-salient-cues
#15
Carmen Hefer, Anna-Lisa Cohen, Alexander Jaudas, Gesine Dreisbach
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676780/prolonged-interruption-of-cognitive-control-of-conflict-processing-over-human-faces-by-task-irrelevant-emotion-expression
#16
Jinyoung Kim, Min-Suk Kang, Yang Seok Cho, Sang-Hun Lee
As documented by Darwin 150 years ago, emotion expressed in human faces readily draws our attention and promotes sympathetic emotional reactions. How do such reactions to the expression of emotion affect our goal-directed actions? Despite the substantial advance made in the neural mechanisms of both cognitive control and emotional processing, it is not yet known well how these two systems interact. Here, we studied how emotion expressed in human faces influences cognitive control of conflict processing, spatial selective attention and inhibitory control in particular, using the Eriksen flanker paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659750/development-of-performance-and-erps-in-a-flanker-task-in-children-and-adolescents-with-tourette-syndrome-a-follow-up-study
#17
Heike Eichele, Tom Eichele, Lynn Marquardt, Steinunn Adolfsdottir, Kenneth Hugdahl, Lin Sørensen, Kerstin J Plessen
Background: Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with childhood-onset, with a typical decline in tic severity, as well as an increasing ability to suppress tics in late childhood and adolescence. These processes develop in parallel with general improvement of self-regulatory abilities, and performance monitoring during this age-span. Hence, changes in performance monitoring over time might provide insight into the regulation of tics in children and adolescents with TS. Method: We measured reaction time, reaction time variability, accuracy, and event-related potentials (ERP) in 17 children with TS, including 10 children with comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), 24 children with ADHD, and 29 typically developing children, using a modified Eriksen Flanker task in two testing sessions administered on average 4...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608004/effector-system-specific-sequential-modulations-of-congruency-effects
#18
Markus Janczyk, Hartmut Leuthold
Congruency effects in conflict tasks are reliably reduced after experiencing conflict, that is, following incongruent trials. Such sequential modulations (sometimes referred to as the Gratton effect) indicate the operation of conflict adaptation mechanisms. The influential conflict monitoring hypothesis suggested that after conflict the processing of relevant stimulus dimensions is increased. Alternatively, it was suggested that the influence of automatic response activation is suppressed following conflict...
June 12, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551393/content-specificity-of-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
A Zinchenko, M M Al-Amin, M M Alam, W Mahmud, N Kabir, H M Reza, T H J Burne
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias to affective information and reduced cognitive control may maintain the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and impair cognitive functioning. However, the role of content specificity of affective stimuli (e.g., trauma-related, emotional trauma-unrelated) in the observed attentional bias and cognitive control is less clear, as this has not been tested simultaneously before. Therefore, we examined the content specificity of attentional bias to threat in PTSD...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549279/control-adjustments-in-speaking-electrophysiology-of-the-gratton-effect-in-picture-naming
#20
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Accumulating evidence suggests that spoken word production requires different amounts of top-down control depending on the prevailing circumstances. For example, during Stroop-like tasks, the interference in response time (RT) is typically larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. This effect is called the Gratton effect, and has been taken to reflect top-down control adjustments based on the previous trial type. Such control adjustments have been studied extensively in Stroop and Eriksen flanker tasks (mostly using manual responses), but not in the picture-word interference (PWI) task, which is a workhorse of language production research...
July 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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