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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#1
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333241/dysmorphic-patterns-are-associated-with-cytoskeletal-alterations-in-human-oocytes
#2
Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Maria Cristina Guglielmo, Mario Mignini Renzini, Rubens Fadini, Clarissa Moutier, Maria Merola, Elena De Ponti, Giovanni Coticchio
Study Question: Are specific morphological anomalies in human mature oocytes, as revealed by transmitted light microscopy, associated with intrinsic damage to the meiotic spindle and actin cytoskeleton? SUMMARY ANSWER: Aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and domains of centrally localized granular cytoplasm (GC) reflect intrinsic damage to the oocyte cytoskeleton, namely alterations in spindle size, chromosome misalignment and cortical actin disorganization...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333033/freeze-all-cycle-in-reproductive-medicine-current-perspectives
#3
Matheus Roque, Marcello Valle, Alessandra Kostolias, Marcos Sampaio, Selmo Geber
The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers...
February 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333032/ethical-moral-and-other-aspects-related-to-fertility-preservation-in-cancer-patients
#4
Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho, Jhenifer Kliemchen, Teresa K Woodruff
Post-treatment fertility emerges as an important issue in the early counseling of individuals with cancer, since survivors may have their quality of life affected by the occurrence of functional failure of the gonads because of antineoplastic therapies. In the context, oncofertility has been developed as an interdisciplinary field of study that combines expertise in reproductive medicine and oncology, to provide strategies aiming to maintain the possibility of future procreation. Today, we have many options and techniques available for the preservation of gametes in men and women...
February 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326124/adverse-effects-of-hydroalcoholic-extracts-and-the-major-components-in-the-stems-of-impatiens-balsamina-l-on-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Hong-Fang Jiang, Zi-Heng Zhuang, Bei-Wei Hou, Bao-Jun Shi, Cheng-Jie Shu, Lei Chen, Guo-Xin Shi, Wei-Ming Zhang
Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321900/coronary-mr-angiography-using-image-based-respiratory-motion-compensation-with-inline-correction-and-fixed-gating-efficiency
#6
Markus Henningsson, Jouke Smink, Gerald van Ensbergen, Rene Botnar
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new inline motion compensation approach called image-based navigation with Constant Respiratory efficiency UsIng Single End-expiratory threshold (iNAV-CRUISE) for coronary MR angiography (CMRA). METHODS: The CRUISE gating technique was combined with iNAV motion correction and implemented inline for motion-compensated CMRA on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The approach was compared to conventional diaphragmatic navigator gating (dNAVG) in 10 healthy subjects...
March 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320240/immunogenesis-of-preeclampsia-lessons-from-donor-gametes
#7
Richard P Porreco, Kent D Heyborne
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia remains an important complication of pregnancy. It is associated with mortality and morbidity for both maternal and fetal/newborn patients. Although major inroads have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in recent decades, the initial primary cause of its occurrence in some women and not others has escaped clarification. REVIEW: There have been a number of clinical clues pointing to an immune genesis of this disease, including most recently the use of donor gametes in assisted reproductive technology (ART)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#8
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315665/physician-scientists-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-predictors-of-success-in-obtaining-independent-research-funding
#9
Ijeoma Okeigwe, Cynthia Wang, Joseph A Politch, Linda J Heffner, Wendy Kuohung
BACKGROUND: Obstetrics and gynecology departments receive the smallest amount of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding and have significantly lower application success rates compared to pediatric, internal medicine, and surgery departments. The development of mentored early career development training grants (K awards) has been one strategy implemented by the NIH to help aspiring physician-scientists establish independent research careers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the cohort of ob/gyn physician-scientists who were K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988-2015 and to identify predictors of success in obtaining independent federal funding, as defined by acquisition of an R01, R21, R34, U01, U54, P01, or P50...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303617/joint-system-relaxometry-jsr-and-cr%C3%A3-mer-rao-lower-bound-optimization-of-sequence-parameters-a-framework-for-enhanced-precision-of-despot-t1-and-t2-estimation
#10
Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Shaihan J Malik, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: This study aims to increase the precision of single-compartment DESPOT relaxometry by two means: (i) a joint system relaxometry (JSR) approach that estimates parameters in a single step using all available data; and (ii) optimizing acquisition parameters by deploying a robust design tool based on the Crámer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). METHODS: Following the development of the analysis and design capabilities, phantom and four in vivo subject experiments were performed to compare directly the precision achieved with DESPOT and JSR estimation using published protocols and protocols designed using a proposed CRLB framework...
March 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303591/-31-p-magnetization-transfer-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessing-the-activation-induced-change-in-cerebral-atp-metabolic-rates-at-3-t
#11
Chen Chen, Mary C Stephenson, Andrew Peters, Peter G Morris, Susan T Francis, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: In vivo (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer (MT) provides a direct measure of neuronal activity at the metabolic level. This work aims to use functional (31) P MRS-MT to investigate the change in cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolic rates in healthy adults upon repeated visual stimuli. METHODS: A magnetization saturation transfer sequence with narrowband selective saturation of γ-ATP was developed for (31) P MT experiments at 3 T...
March 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299367/ivf-in-sri-lanka-a-concise-history-of-regulatory-impasse
#12
Bob Simpson
This article outlines the development of IVF in Sri Lanka from the first successful births in the late 1990s and over the subsequent 15 years. It is based on anthropological fieldwork carried out at various points during this period. The piece focuses on the challenges entailed in achieving regulation of the new reproductive technologies against a backdrop of: (i) a bitter civil war; (ii) a complex mosaic of different religious traditions (specifically, Buddhism, Catholicism, Hinduism and Islam); and (iii) a shift towards neo-liberal marketization, particularly in relation to specialist and hi-tech medical interventions...
June 2016: Reprod Biomed Soc Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#13
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295563/in-vivo-mri-of-the-human-finger-at-7-t
#14
Elmar Laistler, Barbara Dymerska, Jürgen Sieg, Sigrun Goluch, Roberta Frass-Kriegl, Andre Kuehne, Ewald Moser
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a dedicated setup for ultrahigh resolution MR imaging of the human finger in vivo. METHODS: A radiofrequency coil was designed for optimized signal homogeneity and sensitivity in the finger at ultrahigh magnetic field strength (7 T), providing high measurement sensitivity. Imaging sequences (2D turbo-spin echo (TSE) and 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE)) were adapted for high spatial resolution and good contrast of different tissues in the finger, while keeping acquisition time below 10 minutes...
March 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292618/guidance-on-the-limits-to-the-number%C3%A2-of-embryos-to-transfer-a%C3%A2-committee-opinion
#15
(no author information available yet)
Based on American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology data available through 2014, ASRM's guidelines for the limits on the number of embryos to be transferred in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles have been further refined in continuing efforts to promote singleton gestation and reduce the number of multiple pregnancies. This version replaces the document titled Criteria for number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion that was published most recently in August of 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;99:44-6)...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292611/asrm-standard-embryo-transfer-protocol-template-a-committee-opinion
#16
Alan Penzias, Kristin Bendikson, Samantha Butts, Christos Coutifaris, Tommaso Falcone, Gregory Fossum, Susan Gitlin, Clarisa Gracia, Karl Hansen, Jennifer Mersereau, Randall Odem, Robert Rebar, Richard Reindollar, Mitchell Rosen, Jay Sandlow, Michael Vernon
Standardization improves performance and safety. A template for standardizing the embryo transfer procedure is presented here with 12 basic steps supported by published scientific literature and a survey of common practice of SART programs; it can be used by ART practices to model their own standard protocol.
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292311/sonography-of-the-distal-urethra-in-lambs
#17
Ammar AlLugami, Kerstin von Pückler, Axel Wehrend, Marlene Sickinger
Sonography is a convenient, non-invasive diagnostic modality in small ruminants, often used in reproductive management, internal medicine, and surgery. Pregnancy diagnostics and imaging anatomy and pathology of organs, such as neoplasia, are major applications. Urolithiasis is one of the most common causes of death in male sheep and goats, for which sonography is the diagnostic modality of choice. Although ultrasound-imaging techniques for kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder in small ruminants have been described previously, this study focuses on reporting the imaging technique of the extra-pelvic portion of the urethra, as nearly all the cases of obstructive urolithiasis result from urinary stones in this part...
March 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287638/state-of-the-art-fertility-preservation-in-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-report-on-the-expert-meeting-of-the-paediatric-diseases-working-party-pdwp-of-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation
#18
J-H Dalle, G Lucchini, A Balduzzi, M Ifversen, K Jahnukainen, K T Macklon, A Ahler, A Jarisch, M Ansari, E Beohou, D Bresters, S Corbacioglu, A Dalissier, C Diaz de Heredia Rubio, T Diesch, B Gibson, T Klingebiel, A Lankester, A Lawitschka, R Moffat, C Peters, C Poirot, N Saenger, P Sedlacek, E Trigoso, K Vettenranta, J Wachowiak, A Willasch, M von Wolff, I Yaniv, A Yesilipek, P Bader
Nowadays, allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a well-established treatment procedure and often the only cure for many patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. Decrease in short-term complications has substantially contributed to increased survival. Therefore long-term sequelae are reaching the focus of patient care. One of the most important risks of stem cell transplant survivors is infertility. As well as in the field of allo-HSCT also the field of reproductive medicine has achieved substantial advances to offer potential options for fertility preservation in both boys and girls...
March 13, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287560/modified-microsecure-vitrification-a-safe-simple-and-highly-effective-cryopreservation-procedure-for-human-blastocysts
#19
Mitchel C Schiewe, Shane Zozula, Nancy Nugent, Kelley Waggoner, Jessica Borba, Lisa Gamboa, John B Whitney
Clinical embryo vitrification evolved with the development of unique vitrification devices in the 21(st) century and with the misconception that ultra-rapid cooling in an "open" system (i.e., direct LN2 contact) was a necessity to optimize vitrification success. The dogma surrounding the importance of cooling rates led to unsafe practices subject to technical variation and to the creation of vitrification devices that disregarded important quality-control factors (e.g., ease of use, repeatability, reliability, labeling security, and storage safety)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284038/3d-and-4d-studies-from-human-reproduction-to-perinatal-medicine
#20
Sonal Panchal, Asim Kurjak, Chaitanya Nagori
Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) is a modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations. But 3D-four-dimensional US(4D US) is of utmost importance also to achieve pregnancy. 3D US plays an important role for diagnosis of PCO, to assess ovarian reserve and response and thus to decide optimum stimulation protocols. It adds to the information on follicular maturity and endometrial receptivity, thus improving the chances to achieve pregnancy for patients under treatment for fertility. 3D hystero-contrast-salpingography (HyCoSy) has also proved itself to be one of the best modalities for assessment of tubal patency...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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