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reproductive medicine

Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
Y Krylova, V Polyakova, I Kvetnoy, I Kogan, L Dzhemlikhanova, D Niauri, A Gzgzyan, E Ailamazyan
: Abstracts Background: Implantation failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles is recognized as one of key problems in contemporary reproductive medicine. Implantation itself is a multifactorial process and one can hardly expect to find a single criterion for the endometrium receptivity. Endometrium biopsy still remains the most applicable technique to diagnose abnormalities causing decrease or complete loss of endometrial receptivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have studied 95 endometrial biopsy samples from 45 patient with I/II stage endometriosis and 40 controls from October 2014 to December 2015...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Maria Regina Torloni, Ana Pilar Betrán, José M Belizán
The Birth in Brazil study is the largest national hospital-based survey in Brazil regarding birth practices. Conducted in 2011-2012, it collected information from 266 public and private healthcare facilities and interviewed nearly 24,000 postpartum women. It is also the latest effort to map out how labor and delivery are managed in this county in the 21st century. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement including 10 articles presenting the results of a series of analyses using this valuable resource...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Eric Wong, Jasmine J Leslie, Judith A Soon, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Interprofessional Patients-Computer-Assisted Reproductive Health Education for Students (VIP-CARES) Project took place during the summers of 2010-2012 for eight weeks each year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Undergraduate health care students worked collaboratively to develop virtual patient case-based learning modules on the topic of family planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in perception towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among the participants, before and after the project...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Orie Hikabe, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, Go Nagamatsu, Yayoi Obata, Yuji Hirao, Norio Hamada, So Shimamoto, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima, Mitinori Saitou, Katsuhiko Hayashi
The female germ line undergoes a unique sequence of differentiation processes that confers totipotency to the egg. The reconstitution of these events in vitro using pluripotent stem cells is a key achievement in reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Here we report successful reconstitution in vitro of the entire process of oogenesis from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Fully potent mature oocytes were generated in culture from embryonic stem cells and from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from both embryonic fibroblasts and adult tail tip fibroblasts...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Xiangrong Cui, Xuan Jing, Xueqing Wu, Meiqin Yan
Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fereshteh Esfandiari, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Mehdi Sharifi-Tabar, Maryam Saber, Hamed Daemi, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Michaël R Laurent, Geoffrey L Hammond, Marco Blokland, Ferran Jardí, Leen Antonio, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Saskia S Sterk, Evelien Gielen, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Tom Fiers, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicolas Geades, Benjamin A E Hunt, Simon M Shah, Andrew Peters, Olivier E Mougin, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain. METHODS: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
K Dziendzikowska, A Krawczyńska, M Oczkowski, T Królikowski, K Brzóska, A Lankoff, M Dziendzikowski, T Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Radoslava Vlčková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Igor Valocký, Attila Kádasi, Abdel Halim Harrath, Vladimír Petrilla, Alexander V Sirotkin
Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Tetsuya Ishii
Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Bradley D Holbrook, Stephen M Petterson, William F Rayburn
Objectives Retirement of "baby boomer" physicians is a matter of growing concern in light of the shortage of certain physician groups. The objectives of this investigation were to define what constitutes a customary retirement age range of maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) physicians and examine how that compares with other obstetrician-gynecologist (ob-gyn) specialists. Study Design This descriptive study was based on American Medical Association Masterfile survey data from 2010 to 2014. Data from the National Provider Identifier were used to correct for upward bias in reporting retirement ages...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Amy H Farkas, Sarah Tilstra, Sonya Borrero, Melissa McNeil
BACKGROUND: Internal medicine residents are expected to be able to provide gender-specific care. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus list of core topics and procedural skills in women's health to allow residency program directors to prioritize and standardize educational efforts in women's health. METHODS: We conducted a two-round Delphi of women's health experts. Participants were given a list of topics and asked to: (1) rank each topic based on how important they felt each topic was for internal medicine residents to be proficient in upon graduation, and (2) identify which topics were critical for a women's health curriculum...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Kunyan Zhou, Jing Zhang, Liangzhi Xu, Taixiang Wu, Chi Eung Danforn Lim
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony W DeMartino, David F Zigler, Jon M Fukuto, Peter C Ford
The overview presented here has the goal of examining whether carbon disulfide (CS2) may play a role as an endogenously generated bioregulator and/or has therapeutic value. The neuro- and reproductive system toxicity of CS2 has been documented from its long-term use in the viscose rayon industry. CS2 is also used in the production of dithiocarbamates (DTCs), which are potent fungicides and pesticides, thus raising concern that CS2 may be an environmental toxin. However, DTCs also have recognized medicinal use in the treatment of heavy metal poisonings as well as having potency for reducing inflammation...
September 27, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Kurt T Barnhart
The science of contraceptive medicine and reproductive medicine are similar. At present contraceptive medicine has moved beyond understanding the mechanism of action of steroid hormones with the introduction of many safe and effective methods. Long-acting reversible contraceptives are increasing in acceptance and providing very high efficacy. The science has pivoted toward optimization of family planning in selected high-risk populations, such as those with a high-risk of thrombosis, as well as addressing the challenge of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Lulu Yang, Jianjun Chen, Weiming Hu, Tianshun Yang, Yanjun Zhang, Tamura Yukiyoshi, Yanyang Zhou, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation...
2016: PloS One
Wei Wei, Shaohua Shu, Wenjun Zhu, Ying Xiong, Fang Peng
Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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