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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221987/hierarchical-recognition-of-amino-acid-co-germinants-during-clostridioides-difficile-spore-germination
#1
Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A Sorg
Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C...
December 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203982/patterns-and-the-occurrence-of-kras-mutations-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancers-a-study-from-indian-regional-cancer-centre
#2
C S Smitha, Babu M C Suresh, J A Linu, K C Lakshmaiah, Babu K Govind, D Lokanatha, R K Pretesh
Mutation analysis of the KRAS oncogene is established as a predictive biomarker in Colorectal cancer (CRC). Many prospective clinical trials have shown that only CRCs with wild-type KRAS respond to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment. Hence, mutation analysis is mandatory before treatment of metastatic CRCs. There are very few studies on the KRAS mutation status in the Indian setting. Hence, this study was done to document the patterns of KRAS mutations in CRCs reporting to a regional cancer centre in South India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201907/developmental-testicular-expression-cloning-and-characterization-of-rat-hdac6-in-silico
#3
Pratibha Verma, Omshree Shetty, Sweta Parab, Karen Menezes, Priyanka Parte
We had previously reported presence of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in sperm and demonstrated its tubulin deacetylase activity and role in sperm motility in rat. In the present study we report its abundant expression in testis, epididymis, accessory sex organs, brain, and adrenal. In the testis, HDAC6 transcript and protein were observed throughout development. We therefore cloned the gene from rat testis using primers for hdac6 (accession number XM_228753.8) in order to determine the role of acetylation/deacetylation in spermatogenesis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201067/hereditary-vitamin-d-resistant-rickets-clinical-laboratory-and-genetic-characteristics-of-2-iranian-siblings
#4
Ali A Ghazi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Marjan Zarif Yeganeh, Shahram Alamdari, Atieh Amouzegar, Ali Akbar Khorsandi, Alireza Amirbaigloo, Fereidoun Azizi
Purpose and Methods: Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR) is a rare disease that presents with signs and symptoms of rickets, alopecia, and growth retardation during the early years of life. The disease is caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, which leads to unresponsiveness of the mutant receptor to 1-25(OH) 2 D3. The disease is transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder and is found with equal frequency in males and females. The disease is rarely encountered and only about 100 cases are reported so far...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198954/metabolic-reprogramming-of-hydrogenosomal-amino-acids-in-trichomonas-vaginalis-under-glucose-restriction
#5
Kuo-Yang Huang, Seow-Chin Ong, Chih-Ching Wu, Chia-Wei Hsu, Hsin-Chung Lin, Yi-Kai Fang, Wei-Hung Cheng, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
BACKGROUND: Glucose is the major energy source that is converted to pyruvate for ATP generation in the trichomonad hydrogenosome. Under glucose restriction (GR), the regulation of amino acids metabolism is crucial for trichomonad growth and survival. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis has been used to identify differentially expressed genes in Trichomonas vaginalis under GR, leading to significant advances in understanding adaptive responses of amino acid metabolism to GR. However, the levels of amino acid metabolites modulated by GR are unknown in T...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198511/preliminary-evidence-for-an-association-between-variants-of-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-gene-and-premature-ejaculation
#6
Patrick Jern, Ada Johansson, Jana Strohmaier, Jens Treutlein, Juhana Piha, Marcella Rietschel
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that dopamine plays a role in the neurobiological mechanism that triggers ejaculation, leading scientists to hypothesize that dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms could contribute to symptoms of premature ejaculation (PE). AIM: To investigate associations between dopamine receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; an enzyme involved in the catabolism of dopamine) gene-linked polymorphisms and PE. METHODS: PE status in patient groups was determined by clinical diagnosis performed by a physician specializing in sexual medicine...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193328/transport-of-valine-across-the-small-intestinal-epithelium-in-pigs-fed-different-valine-levels-and-bacillus-subtilis
#7
K Blaabjerg, J V Nørgaard, B Nielsen, M D Cantor, P Derkx, J Sehested, H D Poulsen
Mutants of Bacillus subtilis overproducing valine (B. subtilis VAL) could be an approach to supply pigs dietary valine (Val). In the study, 18 gilts were fed: (i) negative diet with a standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg); (ii) Neg added B. subtilis VAL (1.28 × 1011  cfu/kg as-fed) or; (iii) Neg added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1. Using the Ussing chamber method, the study aimed to investigate whether (i) the diets affect intestinal transport of additions of 0, 5, 10 or 20 mmol Val/L from the mucosal to the serosal side and (ii) the B...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193326/tibiotarsus-bone-characteristics-and-tibial-dyschondroplasia-incidence-of-broilers-fed-diets-supplemented-with-leucine-and-valine
#8
I C Ospina-Rojas, A E Murakami, C R A Duarte, M I Sakamoto, P C Aguihe, P C Pozza, T C Santos
Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) leucine and valine levels on tibiotarsus bone characteristics and the incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia of broilers from day 1 to 21 (Experiment I) and day 21 to 42 post-hatch (Experiment II). Each experimental phase was evaluated independently. In both experiments, a total of 1,500 one-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192774/nitrogen-containing-volatiles-from-marine-salinispora-pacifica-and-roseobacter-group-bacteria
#9
Tim Harig, Christian Schlawis, Lisa Ziesche, Marion Pohlner, Bert Engelen, Stefan Schulz
Bacteria can produce a wide variety of volatile compounds. Many of these volatiles carry oxygen, while nitrogen-containing volatiles are less frequently observed. We report here on the identification and synthesis of new nitrogen-containing volatiles from Salinispora pacifica CNS863 and explore the occurrence in another bacterial lineage, exemplified by Roseobacter-group bacteria. Several compound classes not reported before from bacteria were identified, such as dialkyl ureas and oxalamides. Sulfinamides have not been reported before as natural products...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191093/branched-chain-amino-acids-regulate-type-i-tropocollagen-and-type-iii-tropocollagen-syntheses-via-modulation-of-mtor-in-the-skin
#10
Takumi Yamane, Yuka Morioka, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Ken Iwatsuki, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Yuichi Oishi
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) exhibit many physiological functions. However, the potential link and mechanism between BCAA and skin function are unknown. We examined the effects of deletion of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK), a key enzyme in BCAA catabolism, on type I and III tropocollagen syntheses in mice. Leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the skin of BDK-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. No changes in valine concentrations were observed. The levels of type I and III tropocollagen proteins and mRNAs (COL1A1 and COL3A1) were significantly lower in the skin of BDK-KO mice compared with wild-type mice...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183788/reduction-of-nonspecificity-motifs-in-synthetic-antibody-libraries
#11
Ryan L Kelly, Doris Le, Jessie Zhao, K Dane Wittrup
Successful antibody development requires both functional binding and desirable biophysical characteristics. In the current study we analyze the causes of one hurdle to clinical development, off-target reactivity or nonspecificity. We used a high-throughput nonspecificity assay to isolate panels of nonspecific antibodies from two synthetic scFv libraries expressed on the surface of yeast, identifying both individual amino acids and motifs within the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) which contribute to the phenotype...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181729/methyl-group-assignment-using-pseudocontact-shifts-with-parassign
#12
Mathilde Lescanne, Simon P Skinner, Anneloes Blok, Monika Timmer, Linda Cerofolini, Marco Fragai, Claudio Luchinat, Marcellus Ubbink
A new version of the program PARAssign has been evaluated for assignment of NMR resonances of the 76 methyl groups in leucines, isoleucines and valines in a 25 kDa protein, using only the structure of the protein and pseudocontact shifts (PCS) generated with a lanthanoid tag at up to three attachment sites. The number of reliable assignments depends strongly on two factors. The principle axes of the magnetic susceptibility tensors of the paramagnetic centers should not be parallel so as to avoid correlated PCS...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174812/amino-acid-and-peptide-prodrugs-of-diphenylpropanones-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-with-analgesic-activity
#13
Beatriz Balsera, José Mulet, Salvador Sala, Francisco Sala, Roberto de la Torre-Martínez, Sara González-Rodríguez, Adrián Plata, Lieve Naesens, Asia Fernández-Carvajal, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel, Manuel Criado, María Jesús Pérez de Vega, Rosario González-Muñiz
α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels implicated in a number of CNS pathological processes, including pain and psychiatric, cognitive and inflammatory diseases. Comparing with orthosteric agonism, positive allosteric modulation of these channels constitutes an interesting approach to achieve selectivity versus other nicotinic receptors. We have recently described new chalcones and 1,3-diphenylpropanones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs, which proved to have good analgesic activities but poor pharmacokinetic properties...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169674/identification-of-a-4-fluorobenzyl-l-valinate-amide-benzoxaborole-an11736-as-a-potential-development-candidate-for-the-treatment-of-animal-african-trypanosomiasis-aat
#14
Tsutomu Akama, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yvonne R Freund, Pamela Berry, Joanne Lee, Eric E Easom, Robert T Jacobs, Jacob J Plattner, Michael J Witty, Rosemary Peter, Tim G Rowan, Kirsten Gillingwater, Reto Brun, Bakela Nare, Luke Mercer, Musheng Xu, Jiangong Wang, Hao Liang
Novel l-valinate amide benzoxaboroles and analogues were designed and synthesized for a structure-activity-relationship (SAR) investigation to optimize the growth inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) and Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) parasites. The study identified 4-fluorobenzyl (1-hydroxy-7-methyl-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborole-6-carbonyl)-l-valinate (5, AN11736), which showed IC50 values of 0.15 nM against T. congolense and 1.3 nM against T. vivax, and demonstrated 100% efficacy with a single dose of 10 mg/kg against both T...
November 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169405/atypical-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-prp-amyloid-plaques-in-white-matter-molecular-characterization-and-transmission-to-bank-voles-show-the-m1-strain-signature
#15
Marcello Rossi, Daniela Saverioni, Michele Di Bari, Simone Baiardi, Afina Willemina Lemstra, Laura Pirisinu, Sabina Capellari, Annemieke Rozemuller, Romolo Nonno, Piero Parchi
Amyloid plaques formed by abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) aggregates occur with low frequency in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but represent a pathological hallmark of three relatively rare disease histotypes, namely variant CJD, sporadic CJDMV2K (methionine/valine at PRNP codon 129, PrPSc type 2 and kuru-type amyloid plaques) and iatrogenic CJDMMiK (MM at codon 129, PrPSc of intermediate type and kuru plaques). According to recent studies, however, PrP-amyloid plaques involving the subcortical and deep nuclei white matter may also rarely occur in CJDMM1 (MM at codon 129 and PrPSc type 1), the most common CJD histotype...
November 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165113/alteration-in-plasma-free-amino-acid-levels-and-its-association-with-gout
#16
M H Mahbub, Natsu Yamaguchi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryosuke Hase, Hiroki Amano, Mikiko Kobayashi-Miura, Hideyuki Kanda, Yasuyuki Fujita, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Mai Yamamoto, Shinya Kikuchi, Atsuko Ikeda, Naoko Kageyama, Mina Nakamura, Yasutaka Ishimaru, Hiroshi Sunagawa, Tsuyoshi Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of plasma-free amino acids with gout are very limited and produced conflicting results. Therefore, we sought to explore and characterize the plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profile in patients with gout and evaluate its association with the latter. METHODS: Data from a total of 819 subjects (including 34 patients with gout) undergoing an annual health examination program in Shimane, Japan were considered for this study. Venous blood samples were collected from the subjects and concentrations of 19 plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154733/metabolomic-analysis-of-alterations-in-lipid-oxidation-carbohydrate-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-dairy-goats-caused-by-exposure-to-aflotoxin-b1
#17
Jianbo Cheng, Shuai Huang, Caiyun Fan, Nan Zheng, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151641/foliar-treatment-of-bacillus-methylotrophicus-ke2-reprograms-endogenous-functional-chemicals-in-sesame-to-improve-plant-health
#18
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, In-Jung Lee
The present study was aimed to investigate the health of vegetative and reproductive parts of sesame plants during Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 interaction by their pigments, sugars, organic acid, amino acids, hormones and antioxidant production analysis. In a green-house study, B. methylotrophicus KE2 was sprayed to sesame plants at late flowering stage. The bacterial treatment enhanced photosynthetic pigments of plants including pods than their controls. The shoots of plants had higher amount of sucrose, glucose, galactose, xylitol and malic acid, and while the pods of plants showed the more accumulation of sucrose, glucose, inulin and xylitol in bacterium treated plants...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148584/metabolic-effects-of-p-p-dde-on-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#19
Pål A Olsvik, Liv Søfteland
Decades after being banned in many countries, DDT and its metabolites are still considered major environmental hazards. The p,p'-DDE isomer, the DDT metabolite found in highest concentration in aquaculture feeds, is an endocrine disruptor with demonstrated ability to induce epigenetic effects. This study aimed at examining the impact of p,p'-DDE on Atlantic salmon. Primary hepatocytes were exposed to four concentrations of p,p'-DDE (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μm) for 48 hours, and endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcription and metabolomics profiling (100 μm)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148066/predicting-the-use-of-corporal-punishment-child-aggression-parent-religiosity-and-the-bdnf-gene
#20
Reut Avinun, Maayan Davidov, David Mankuta, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with deleterious child outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding its underpinnings. Although several factors have been linked with parents' CP use, genetic influences on CP have rarely been studied, and an integrative view examining the interplay between different predictors of CP is missing. We focused on the separate and joint effects of religiosity, child aggression, parent's gender, and a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene...
November 17, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
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