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Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram, Sumi Lee
Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides in malaria control programs; however, insecticide resistance limits the benefits gained by using these insecticides. In the present study, we assessed the resistance status for different pyrethroids of the malaria mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Muscidae), in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Bioassays were conducted using diagnostic doses following standard World Health Organization protocols: 0.05% λ-cyhalothrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.15% cyfluthrin, 0...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Caroline W Kiuru, Florence Awino Oyieke, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Joseph Mwangangi, Luna Kamau, Damaris Muhia-Matoke
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and it's implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jonathan Côté, Michèle Bouchard
A toxicokinetic model has been optimized to describe the time profiles of common biomarkers of exposure to permethrin and cypermethrin: trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The model then served to reproduce urinary time courses in exposed agricultural workers and predict corresponding absorbed doses. It allowed for the prediction of the main routes of exposure in workers during the study period. Modeling showed that simulating exposure mostly by the oral route, during the 3-day biomonitoring period, provided best-fits to the urinary time courses of most workers...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yuanqing Li, William A Mitch
This study evaluates an electrochemical system to treat the halogenated pesticides, fipronil, permethrin and bifenthrin, in urban runoff. Compared to the poor sorption capacity of metal-based electrodes, granular activated carbon (GAC)-based electrodes could sorb halogenated pesticides, permitting electrochemical degradation to occur over longer timescales than reactor hydraulic residence times. In a dual-cell configuration, a cathode constructed of loose GAC containing sorbed pesticides was separated from the anode by an ion exchange membrane to prevent chloride transport and oxidation to chlorine at the anode...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Verena Pichler, Romeo Bellini, Rodolfo Veronesi, Daniele Arnoldi, Annapaola Rizzoli, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Domenico Otranto, Fabrizio Montarsi, Sara Carlin, Marco Ballardini, Elisa Antognini, Marco Salvemini, Emanuele Brianti, Gabriella Gaglio, Mattia Manica, Pietro Cobre, Paola Serini, Enkelejda Velo, John Vontas, Ilias Kioulos, Joao Pinto, Alessandra Della Torre, Beniamino Caputo
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus has spread during the last decades all over the world. This has increased significantly the risk of exotic arbovirus transmission (e.g. Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika) also in temperate areas, as testified by the Chikungunya 2007- and 2017-outbreaks in north-east and central Italy. Insecticides represent a main tool for limiting the circulation of these mosquito-borne viruses. The aim of the present study is to start filling the current gap of knowledge on pyrethroid insecticide resistance of European Ae...
December 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
Isabel Carreras, Nurgul Aytan, Tiffany Mellott, Ji-Kyung Choi, Margaret Lehar, Leah Crabtree, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Bruce G Jenkins, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Alpaslan Dedeoglu
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disease that affects the 1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans for which treatment is lacking. It has been hypothesized that drugs used to protect military personnel from chemical attacks and insects during the war: pyridostigmine bromide (PB),N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrin (PER) together with stress may have contributed collectively and synergistically to generate GWI. There is a need to find markers of pathology to be used in pre-clinical trials. For this purpose we employed a previously validated mouse model of GWI evoked by daily exposure to PB (1...
December 22, 2017: Brain Research
Jennifer R Heim, Donald P Weston, Kaley Major, Helen Poynton, Kara E Huff Hartz, Michael J Lydy
Pyrethroid-resistant Hyalella azteca with voltage-gated sodium channel mutations have been identified at multiple locations throughout California. In December 2013, H. azteca were collected from Mosher Slough in Stockton, CA, USA, a site with reported pyrethroid (primarily bifenthrin and cyfluthrin) sediment concentrations approximately twice the 10-d LC50 for laboratory-cultured H. azteca. These H. azteca were shipped to Southern Illinois University Carbondale and have been maintained in pyrethroid-free culture since collection...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ashar Dhana, Hsi Yen, Jean-Phillip Okhovat, Eunyoung Cho, NaNa Keum, Nonhlanhla P Khumalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
WeiYu Lu, Justin K Hwang, Fangfang Zeng, Walter S Leal
The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), is a multimodal compound that acts as a spatial repellent as well as an irritant (contact repellent), thus being perceived by the insect's olfactory and gustatory systems as an odorant and a tastant, respectively. Soon after DEET was developed, almost 6 decades ago, it was reported that it reduced mosquito feeding on blood mixed with this repellent. It is now known that the mosquito proboscis senses contact repellents with the tips (labella) of the labium, which remain in direct contact with the outer layers of the skin, while the stylets, including the feeding deterrent sensor (labrum), penetrate the skin...
2017: PloS One
Aida M González, María Teresa Solís-Soto, Katja Radon
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is common in Colombia, negatively affecting the health of military personnel active in endemic areas. The disease is transmitted by sand fly bites. Therefore, during duty, use of long-sleeved uniforms and other clothes treated with permethrin and application of mosquito repellent are important personal preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess personal and occupational factors associated with the use of personal protection in male soldiers deployed to Leishmaniasis-endemic areas...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
Laura E McMillan, Dylan W Miller, Shelley A Adamo
Mounting an immune response consumes resources, which should lead to increased feeding. However, activating the immune system reduces feeding (i.e. illness-induced anorexia) in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it may be beneficial. We suggest that illness-induced anorexia may be an adaptive response to conflicts between immune defense and food detoxification. We found that activating an immune response in the caterpillar Manduca sexta increased its susceptibility to the toxin permethrin. Conversely, a sublethal dose of permethrin reduced resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens, demonstrating a negative interaction between detoxification and immune defense...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mohana Krishnan Baskar, Prakhya Balakrishna Murthy
Pyrethroid-mediated changes on microelectrode array (MEA) parameters, such as mean firing rate (MFR), mean burst rate (MBR), and number of active channels (nAC) were investigated by exposing neuronal networks to cumulative concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μM) of pyrethroids (Type-1, bifenthrin and permethrin; Type-2, beta-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin). The average MFR, MBR, and nAC increased for all pyrethroids (except nAC for deltamethrin) at lower concentrations and decreased at higher concentrations...
December 2, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
M T Moore, M A Locke
Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, and permethrin. Twenty-two high density polyethylene circular containers (56 cm x 45 cm) were used as mesocosms, with 12 mesocosms planted with rice and 10 mesocosms remaining unvegetated. Mesocosms were hydraulically connected and arranged in a series of two, with each system providing a 4 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) for a total system retention time of 8 h...
December 2, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Laura Bille, Giovanni Binato, Claudio Gabrieli, Amedeo Manfrin, Francesco Pascoli, Tobia Pretto, Anna Toffan, Manuela Dalla Pozza, Roberto Angeletti, Giuseppe Arcangeli
INTRODUCTION: Fish kills are events of strong emotional impact on the population because of the frequent suspicion that they can be the result of serious pollution accidents. As a matter of fact, they are often due to natural occurrences, such as low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, but in many cases the causes remain unknown. Fish are particularly sensitive to pesticides and pyrethroids are reported to be the most ecotoxicologically active in the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, the reported cases of massive wild fish mortalities due to these toxicants are very few...
November 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
Stephanie L Richards, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White, Joe Hope, Kurt Vandock, Brian D Byrd, Michael H Reiskind
Mosquitoes exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides may be selected for resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AIs). Mosquitoes are exposed to AIs through agricultural, public/private mosquito control programs, homeowners, and other sources. Hence, mosquito control programs should routinely measure the resistance/susceptibility status of mosquito populations of public health concern. The objectives here were to determine resistance status for six AIs used in adult mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance/susceptibility differs between AI, mosquito species (states where > 1 species collected), and between years (some populations sampled for 2 yr)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jun-Ran Kim, Haribalan Perumalsamy, He Min Shin, Sang-Guei Lee, Young-Joon Ahn
The American house dust mite (AHDM), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae), is recognized as an important source of allergens in the domestic environment. This study was conducted to determine whether 19 constituents from essential oil of cade, Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae), eight structurally related compounds, and another 16 previously known cade oil constituents were toxic for adult AHDMs and to determine the route of acaricidal action of the test compounds, as well as to assess the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing the oil (10-40 mg/L sprays)...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Xiao Xiao, Quancai Sun, Yoo Kim, Szu-Hao Yang, Weipeng Qi, Daeyoung Kim, Kyong Sup Yoon, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Permethrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that was previously reported to promote fat accumulation and insulin resistance in vitro. A recent study in female mice also found that permethrin could promote high fat-induced insulin resistance. The effects of permethrin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in male mice, however, remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and interactions of permethrin exposure (50, 500, and 5000 μg/kg body weight/day) and dietary fat (low fat, 4% w/w; high fat, 20% w/w) on development of obesity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice...
November 23, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Erika T Machtinger, Andrew Y Li
Lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. These ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including Erhlichia and tularemia. Common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET) and permethrin, but public concern over personal and environmental safety require the development of new, safer products. In the current study, four commercially available products (Wondercide, Essentria IC(3), Vet's Best, and Mosquito Barrier) were tested for both repellent and toxic effects against lone star tick nymphs and adults...
November 22, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Moussa B M Cisse, Djibril Sangare, Richard M Oxborough, Abdourhamane Dicko, Dereje Dengela, Aboubacar Sadou, Jules Mihigo, Kristen George, Laura Norris, Christen Fornadel
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that malaria vector resistance to pyrethroid insecticides may reduce the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Combination LLINs are designed to control susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations through a mixture of pyrethroid with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist. A cluster randomized trial with entomology outcome measures was conducted in Mali to determine the added benefit over mono-treated pyrethroid predecessors...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
Xuechun Feng, Ming Li, Nannan Liu
Carboxylesterases are one of the major enzyme families involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids. Up-regulation of carboxylesterase genes is thought to be a major component of insecticide resistant mechanisms in insects. Based on the house fly transcriptome and genome database, a total of 39 carboxylesterase genes of different functional clades have been identified in house flies. In this study, eleven of these genes were found to be significantly overexpressed in the resistant ALHF house fly strain compared with susceptible aabys and wild-type CS strains...
November 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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