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Christine Ludwin Wanjala, Eliningaya J Kweka
Background: Malaria vector control efforts have taken malaria related cases down to appreciable number per annum after large scale of intervention tools. Insecticides-based tools remain the major control option for malaria vectors in Kenya and, therefore, the potential of such programs to be compromised by the reported insecticide resistance is of major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in different agro ecosystems from western Kenya...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Laura Hedges, Susan Brown, Audrey Vardy, Edward Doyle, Miyoung Yoon, Thomas G Osimitz, Brian G Lake
1. The metabolism of deltamethrin (DLM), cis-permethrin (CPM) and trans-permethrin (TPM) was studied in liver microsomes, liver cytosol and plasma from male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 15, 21 and 90 days and from adult humans. 2. DLM and CPM were metabolised by rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and to a lesser extent by microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes, whereas TPM was metabolised to a greater extent by CES enzymes. 3. In human liver, DLM and TPM were mainly metabolised by CES enzymes, whereas CPM was metabolised by CYP and CES enzymes...
March 14, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Cyrille Ndo, Edmond Kopya, Marie Agathe Donbou, Flobert Njiokou, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Charles Wondji
BACKGROUND: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs...
March 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sébastien Boyer, Sergio Lopes, Didot Prasetyo, John Hustedt, Ay Sao Sarady, Dyna Doum, Sony Yean, Borin Peng, Sam Bunleng, Rithea Leang, Didier Fontenille, Jeffrey Hii
Dengue fever is a major public health concern, including 185,000 annual cases in Cambodia. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for dengue transmission and is targeted with insecticide treatments. This study characterized the insecticide resistance status of Ae aegypti from rural and urban locations. The susceptibility to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin of Ae aegypti was evaluated in accordance with World Health Organization instructions. All the field populations showed lower mortality rate to temephos compared with the sensitive strain with resistance ratio 50 (RR50 ) varying from 3...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Emilie Bouhsira, Katrin Deuster, Emmanuel Lienard, Christophe Le Sueur, Michel Franc
BACKGROUND: Two laboratory experiments (Studies 1 and 2) were conducted to confirm the efficacy of an imidacloprid and permethrin combination (Advantix® Spot-on, Bayer) to repel and kill Phlebotomus (Larroussius) perniciosus sand flies when applied once a month topically to dogs. METHODS: Both studies compared dogs treated with a combination containing 100 mg/ml imidacloprid + 500 mg/ml permethrin (Advantix® Spot-on, Bayer) to placebo treated dogs. The treatments were applied topically on Day -28 (Study 2) and Day 0 (Studies 1 and 2)...
March 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sulaiman S Ibrahim, Nathalie Amvongo-Adjia, Murielle J Wondji, Helen Irving, Jacob M Riveron, Charles S Wondji
Resistance to pyrethroids (the ingredients in bed net insecticides) in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus is threatening recent gains in the fight against malaria. Here, we established the role of an over-expressed P450, A. funestus CYP6AA1 in insecticides resistance. Transcription profiling of CYP6AA1 across Africa using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that it is significantly more over-expressed in southern African populations compared to West (Benin) and East African (Uganda)...
March 2, 2018: Genes
Katherine M Stiff, Philip R Cohen
Scabies, a mite infestation caused by 'Sarcoptes scabiei', most commonly presents as pruritic linear burrows where the mite has invaded the skin. Scabies variant such as bullous, crusted, hidden, incognito, nodular and scalp-mimic the other conditions. In addition, atypical presentations of scabies can masquerade as dermatitis herpetiformis, ecchymosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, urticaria, and urticaria pigmentosa. A 59-year-old male presented with non-pruritic papulosquamous plaques on his chest, abdomen, and back resembling lesions of pityriasis rosea in morphology and distribution...
December 19, 2017: Curēus
Chao Xu, Xinfang Li, Meiqing Jin, Xiaohui Sun, Lili Niu, Chunmian Lin, Weiping Liu
Ecotoxicological studies have revealed the association between synthetic pyrethroid (SP) exposure and aquatic toxicity in fish; however, research on the toxic effects of SP metabolites is still limited. In this study, the toxicity of two SPs (permethrin (PM) and β-cypermethrin (β-CP)) and their three metabolites (3-phenoxybenzoic alcohol (PBCOH), 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (PBCHO), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH)) towards zebrafish embryos and larvae was evaluated. Both SPs and their metabolites exhibited significant developmental toxicities, caused abnormal vascular development, and changed locomotor activities in larvae...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Carl Cummings, Jane C Finlay, Noni E MacDonald
Les infestations par les poux de tête ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) ne constituent ni un risque sanitaire primaire ni un vecteur de maladie, mais représentent plutôt un problème de société au coût impor- tant. Pour diagnostiquer une infestation, il faut déceler un pou vivant. Même si les pyréthines et la perméthrine demeurent les traitements de première intention au Canada, la solution de myristate d'isopropyle et de ST-cyclométhicone et la diméticone peuvent être envisagées en deuxième intention après un échec thérapeutique démontré...
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Carl Cummings, Jane C Finlay, Noni E MacDonald
Head lice ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) infestations are not a primary health hazard or a vector for disease, but they are a societal problem with substantial costs. Diagnosis of head lice infestation requires the detection of a living louse. Although pyrethrins and permethrin remain first-line treatments in Canada, isopropyl myristate/ST-cyclomethicone solution and dimeticone can be considered as second-line therapies when there is evidence of treatment failure.
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Rachid Jellali, Perrine Zeller, Françoise Gilard, Audrey Legendre, Marie José Fleury, Sébastien Jacques, Guillaume Tcherkez, Eric Leclerc
Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and permethrin (PMT) are amongst most prevalent pesticides in the environment. Although their toxicity has been extensively studied, molecular mechanisms and metabolic effects remain unclear, including in liver where their detoxification occurs. Here, we used metabolomics, coupled to RT-qPCR analysis, to examine effects of DDT and PMT on hepatocytes cultivated in biochips. At 150 μM, DDT caused cell death, cytochrome P450 induction and modulation of estrogen metabolism...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kumudini M Meepagala, Alden S Estep, Brandon M Clausen, James J Becnel
The culture filtrate of a plant pathogenic fungus that infects English ivy (Hedera helix L., Araliaceae) was investigated for mosquitocidal constituents by bioassay-guided isolation. The fungus responsible for pathogenic effects on the plant H. helix has been identified as Diaporthe eres Nitschke by molecular techniques. The mosquito adulticidal constituent in the culture filtrate was identified as 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylisocoumarin (1) by spectroscopic techniques. Laboratory bioassays showed that (1) had larvicidal activity against permethrin-susceptible and -resistant Aedes aegypti strains...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Hui Zhan, Huishan Wang, Lisheng Liao, Yanmei Feng, Xinghui Fan, Lianhui Zhang, Shaohua Chen
Persistent use of permethrin has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils, yet little is known about the kinetics and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. In this study, a novel bacterial strain Acinetobacter baumannii ZH-14 utilizing permethrin via partial hydrolysis pathways was isolated from sewage sludge. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design of cultural conditions was used for optimization resulting in 100% degradation of permethrin (50 mg·L-1 ) within 72 h...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Kodali, B Hattiangady, G A Shetty, A Bates, B Shuai, A K Shetty
Diminished cognitive and mood function are among the most conspicuous symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Our previous studies in a rat model of GWI have demonstrated that persistent cognitive and mood impairments are associated with substantially declined neurogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We tested the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) to maintain better cognitive and mood function in a rat model of GWI because of its neurogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and memory and mood enhancing properties...
March 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stephanie L Richards, Nwanne Agada, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White
Minimizing arthropod exposure (e.g. mosquito and tick bites) is vital to protect health of outdoor workers. Personal protective measures can help protect against exposure. Here, the quantity of permethrin was evaluated for different fabric types after washing. Cone and petri dish exposure assays were used to investigate the knockdown/mortality of permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of mosquitoes. Permethrin-treated clothing was effective against the tested mosquito population that was susceptible to permethrin but not a permethrin-resistant population...
February 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Alyssa M Piccolomini, Shavonn R Whiten, Michelle L Flenniken, Kevin M O'Neill, Robert K D Peterson
Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zemin Xu, Weiping Liu, Fangxing Yang
In this study, the microbial degradation of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, α-cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) was investigated in soil to develop a new approach to estimate bioavailability of pyrethoids by compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA). After 56-day incubation, the residual concentrations of pyrethroids in unsterilized soil were much lower than those in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation was dominant for the elimination of pyrethroids...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Marta F Maia, Merav Kliner, Marty Richardson, Christian Lengeler, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death across endemic regions. Considerable success against malaria has been achieved within the past decade mainly through long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). However, elimination of the disease is proving difficult as current control methods do not protect against mosquitoes biting outdoors and when people are active. Repellents may provide a personal protection solution during these times. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of topical repellents, insecticide-treated clothing, and spatial repellents on malaria transmission...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manfredo Marotta, Francesco Toni, Laura Dallolio, Greta Toni, Erica Leoni
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, scabies is observed sporadically or as institutional outbreaks in hospitals and other health facilities. In the family context, outbreaks generally involve a limited number of cases. METHODS: A local health authority in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) carried out an epidemiologic investigation on a family outbreak of scabies that included an unusually high number of cases. Its possible connection with a nosocomial case in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and outbreak management are discussed...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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