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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317220/acamprosate-rescues-neuronal-defects-in-the-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Russell L Hutson, Rachel L Thompson, Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
AIMS: Several off-label studies have shown that acamprosate can provide some clinical benefits in youth with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss of function of the highly conserved FMR1 gene. This study investigated the ability of acamprosate to rescue cellular, molecular and behavioral defects in the Drosophila model of FXS. MAIN METHODS: A high (100μM) and low (10μM) dose of acamprosate was fed to Drosophila FXS (dfmr1 null) or genetic control (w1118) larvae and then analyzed in multiple paradigms...
January 6, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302222/animal-models-of-addiction
#2
Rainer Spanagel
In recent years, animal models in psychiatric research have been criticized for their limited translational value to the clinical situation. Failures in clinical trials have thus often been attributed to the lack of predictive power of preclinical animal models. Here, I argue that animal models of voluntary drug intake-under nonoperant and operant conditions-and addiction models based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are crucial and informative tools for the identification of pathological mechanisms, target identification, and drug development...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273901/systematic-review-of-combined-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-in-patients-without-comorbid-conditions
#3
REVIEW
Andrew C Naglich, Austin Lin, Sidarth Wakhlu, Bryon H Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews have examined the use of theoretically supported combinations of drugs for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. This review seeks to examine the strengths and limitations of current clinical evidence for the use of combined pharmacological interventions intended to treat alcohol use disorder. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify combinations of pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder, and assess the strength of clinical evidence for these treatments...
December 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154368/precision-medicine-in-alcohol-dependence-a-controlled-trial-testing-pharmacotherapy-response-among-reward-and-relief-drinking-phenotypes
#4
Karl Mann, Corey R Roos, Sabine Hoffmann, Helmut Nakovics, Tagrid Leménager, Andreas Heinz, Katie Witkiewitz
Randomized trials of medications for alcohol dependence (AD) often report no differences between active medications. Few studies in AD have tested hypotheses regarding which medication will work best for which patients (ie, precision medicine). The PREDICT Study tested acamprosate and naltrexone versus placebo in 426 randomly assigned AD patients in a 3-month treatment. PREDICT proposed individuals whose drinking was driven by positive reinforcement (ie, reward drinkers) would have a better treatment response to naltrexone, whereas individuals whose drinking was driven by negative reinforcement (ie, relief drinkers) would have a better treatment response to acamprosate...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120249/alcohol-addiction-the-safety-of-available-approved-treatment-options
#5
Mariangela Antonelli, Anna Ferrulli, Luisa Sestito, Gabriele A Vassallo, Claudia Tarli, Carolina Mosoni, Maria M Rando, Antonio Mirijello, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Addolorato
Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. At present disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are approved for the treatment of AUD in U.S. and Europe. Nalmefene is approved in Europe and sodium oxybate is approved in Italy and Austria only. Baclofen received a 'temporary recommendation for use' in France. Areas covered: The safety of the above mentioned medications on liver, digestive system, kidney function, nervous system, pregnancy and lactation and their possible side effects are described and discussed...
November 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016275/effectiveness-of-psychoanalytic-interactional-group-therapy-vs-behavioral-group-therapy-in-routine-outpatient-treatment-of-alcohol-dependent-patients
#6
Peter W Nyhuis, Eva Niederhofer, Norbert Scherbaum, Fabrizio Schifano, Udo Bonnet, Nikolai Dembski, Anna Niederhofer, Michael Specka, Meike Tenbergen
BACKGROUND: The cognitive behavioral therapy has been extensively investigated to assess relapse prevention rates in patients with alcohol dependence. In contrast, only little is known regarding the effectiveness of psychoanalytical psychotherapy in relapse prevention, although this treatment is widely used and especially so in Germany. The aim of this quasi-randomized study was to compare the effectiveness of these two group treatments' approaches under the condition of routine outpatient treatment in a non-university hospital...
October 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959434/naltrexone-efficacy-in-treating-alcohol-use-disorder-in-individuals-with-comorbid-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Martyna Sawicka, Derek K Tracy
BACKGROUND: Psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are typically enduring and disabling conditions, impacting individual, family, and societal outcomes. Individuals with these face greater vulnerabilities in developing alcohol-use disorder (AUD). Furthermore, the nature of psychoses, often manifesting with paranoia, cognitive impairment, a lack of insight, sub-optimal treatment adherence, and stigma from others, means that they can pose unique treatment challenges when these two conditions comorbidly occur...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940866/pharmacologically-controlled-drinking-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-or-alcohol-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-with-direct-and-network-meta-analyses-on-nalmefene-naltrexone-acamprosate-baclofen-and-topiramate
#8
REVIEW
Clément Palpacuer, Renan Duprez, Alexandre Huneau, Clara Locher, Rémy Boussageon, Bruno Laviolle, Florian Naudet
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is an emerging concept. Our objective was to explore the comparative effectiveness of drugs used in this indication. DESIGN: Systematic review with direct and network meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate in non-abstinent adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence or AUDs...
September 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#9
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833225/the-glycine-receptor-a-functionally-important-primary-brain-target-of-ethanol
#10
REVIEW
Bo Söderpalm, Helga H Lidö, Mia Ericson
Identification of ethanol's (EtOH) primary molecular brain targets and determination of their functional role is an ongoing, important quest. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, that is, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 , and the glycine receptor (GlyR), are such targets. Here, aspects of the structure and function of these receptors and EtOH's interaction with them are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on the GlyR and the importance of this receptor and its ligands for EtOH pharmacology...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827047/high-drinking-in-the-dark-hdid-mice-are-sensitive-to-the-effects-of-some-clinically-relevant-drugs-to-reduce-binge-like-drinking
#11
John C Crabbe, Angela R Ozburn, Pamela Metten, Amanda Barkley-Levenson, Jason P Schlumbohm, Stephanie E Spence, Wyatt R Hack, Lawrence C Huang
BACKGROUND: There is a serious public health need for better understanding of alcohol use disorder disease mechanisms and for improved treatments. At this writing, only three drugs are approved by the Food and Drug Administration as medications to treat alcohol use disorders - disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. Binge drinking is a form of abusive alcohol drinking defined by the NIAAA as a drinking to blood alcohol levels (BALs)>0.08% during a period of approximately 2h. To model genetic risk for binge-like drinking, we have used selective breeding to create a unique animal model, High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice...
September 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764992/impact-on-gaba-systems-in-monogenetic-developmental-cns-disorders-clues-to-symptomatic-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Dietmar Benke, Hanns Möhler
Animal studies of several single-gene disorders demonstrate that reversing the molecular signaling deficits can result in substantial symptomatic improvements in function. Focusing on the ratio of excitation to inhibition as a potential pathophysiological hallmark, seven single-gene developmental CNS disorders are reviewed which are characterized by a striking dysregulation of neuronal inhibition. Deficits in inhibition and excessive inhibition are found. The examples of developmental disorders encompass Neurofibromatosis type 1, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Dravet syndrome including autism-like behavior, NONO-mutation-induced intellectual disability, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and Congenital nystagmus due to FRMD7 mutations...
July 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728114/variation-in-receipt-of-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-across-racial-ethnic-groups-a-national-study-in-the-u-s-veterans-health-administration
#13
Emily C Williams, Shalini Gupta, Anna D Rubinsky, Joseph E Glass, Rhonda Jones-Webb, Kara M Bensley, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologic treatment is recommended for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but most patients do not receive it. Although racial/ethnic minorities have greater AUD consequences than whites, whether AUD medication receipt varies across race/ethnicity is unknown. We evaluate this in a national sample. METHODS: Electronic health records data were extracted for all black, Hispanic, and/or white patients who received care at the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA) during Fiscal Year 2012 and had a documented AUD diagnosis...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669022/pharmacological-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-with-comorbid-alcohol-use-disorder
#14
Andrew Naglich, Bryon Adinoff, E Sherwood Brown
Bipolar disorder (BD) spectrum and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) commonly occur together. Comorbidity between the two conditions predisposes patients to elevated risks of adverse outcomes, including hospitalization and suicide, compared with either condition alone. Despite the consistent relationship observed between BD and AUD, the underlying cause remains incompletely characterized. Few trials conducted have been able to identify promising interventions for patients with these disease states. The antipsychotic quetiapine has been evaluated most commonly as a therapeutic agent for patients with BD and AUD followed by naltrexone and acamprosate...
August 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658981/pharmacotherapy-of-alcoholism-an-update-on-approved-and-off-label-medications
#15
REVIEW
Michael Soyka, Christian A Müller
Only a few medications are available for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Areas covered: This paper discusses approved AUD medications, including the opioid antagonists naltrexone and nalmefene (the latter is licensed for reduction of alcohol consumption only), the putative glutamate receptor antagonist acamprosate and the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram. It also covers off-label medications of interest, including topiramate, gabapentin, ondansetron, varenicline, baclofen, sodium oxybate and antidepressants...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#16
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566752/metabolomics-biomarkers-to-predict-acamprosate-treatment-response-in-alcohol-dependent-subjects
#17
David J Hinton, Marely Santiago Vázquez, Jennifer R Geske, Mario J Hitschfeld, Ada M C Ho, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Doo-Sup Choi
Precision medicine for alcohol use disorder (AUD) allows optimal treatment of the right patient with the right drug at the right time. Here, we generated multivariable models incorporating clinical information and serum metabolite levels to predict acamprosate treatment response. The sample of 120 patients was randomly split into a training set (n = 80) and test set (n = 40) five independent times. Treatment response was defined as complete abstinence (no alcohol consumption during 3 months of acamprosate treatment) while nonresponse was defined as any alcohol consumption during this period...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500210/first-line-medications-for-alcohol-use-disorders-among-public-drug-plan-beneficiaries-in-ontario
#18
Sheryl Spithoff, Suzanne Turner, Tara Gomes, Diana Martins, Samantha Singh
OBJECTIVE: To examine use of first-line alcohol use disorder (AUD) medications (naltrexone and acamprosate) among public drug plan beneficiaries in the year following an AUD diagnosis. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals eligible for public drug plan benefits who had an AUD diagnosis at a hospital visit between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of AUD medications dispensed to public drug plan beneficiaries who had a recent hospital visit with an AUD diagnosis, and number of prescriptions dispensed per person...
May 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476269/barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-in-va-residential-treatment-programs
#19
Andrea K Finlay, Laura S Ellerbe, Jessie J Wong, Christine Timko, Anna D Rubinsky, Shalini Gupta, Thomas R Bowe, Jennifer L Burden, Alex H S Harris
Among US military veterans, alcohol use disorder (AUD) is prevalent and in severe cases patients need intensive AUD treatment beyond outpatient care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) delivers intensive, highly structured addiction and psychosocial treatment through residential programs. Despite the evidence supporting pharmacotherapy among the effective treatments for AUD, receipt of these medications (e.g., naltrexone, acamprosate) among patients in residential treatment programs varies widely. In order to better understand this variation, the current study examined barriers and facilitators to use of pharmacotherapy for AUD among patients in VA residential treatment programs...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413623/glutamate-plasticity-woven-through-the-progression-to-alcohol-use-disorder-a-multi-circuit-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Lara Hwa, Joyce Besheer, Thomas Kash
Glutamate signaling in the brain is one of the most studied targets in the alcohol research field. Here, we report the current understanding of how the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, its receptors, and its transporters are involved in low, episodic, and heavy alcohol use. Specific animal behavior protocols can be used to assess these different drinking levels, including two-bottle choice, operant self-administration, drinking in the dark, the alcohol deprivation effect, intermittent access to alcohol, and chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation...
2017: F1000Research
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