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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895598/pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-physicians-perceptions-and-practices
#1
Caridad Ponce Martinez, Priyanka Vakkalanka, Nassima Ait-Daoud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) recommendations that medications be considered for patients with alcohol dependence, the mainstay of treatment has been counseling. We designed a survey to assess the treatment practices of psychiatrists and family medicine (FM) physicians in an effort to identify barriers to the use of pharmacotherapy and develop strategies to increase physician knowledge and utilization of these medications...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890540/association-of-plasma-calcium-concentrations-with-alcohol-craving-new-data-on-potential-pathways
#2
Rilana Schuster, Anne Koopmann, Martin Grosshans, Iris Reinhard, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
Recently, calcium was suggested to be the active moiety of acamprosate. We examined plasma calcium concentrations in association with severity of alcohol dependence and its interaction with regulating pathways and alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent patients. 47 inpatient alcohol-dependent patients undergoing detoxification treatment underwent laboratory testing, including calcium, sodium, liver enzymes as well as serum concentrations of calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. The psychometric dimension of craving was analyzed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)...
November 24, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755217/anterior-cingulate-glutamate-is-reduced-by-acamprosate-treatment-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#3
Mark A Frye, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Lee J Gunderson, Scott E Feeder, Doo-Sup Choi, John D Port
Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729866/methanolic-extract-of-morinda-citrifolia-l-noni-unripe-fruit-attenuates-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preferences-in-mice
#4
Yasmin Khan, Vijayapandi Pandy
Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692188/a-naturalistic-evaluation-of-extended-release-naltrexone-in-clinical-practice-in-missouri
#5
Paul Crits-Christoph, Hannah M Markell, Mary Beth Connolly Gibbons, Robert Gallop, Christie Lundy, Mark Stringer, David R Gastfriend
The purpose of this study was to compare the naturalistic outcomes of individuals with alcohol or opioid use problems who were treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to those treated with psychosocial treatment only and also to those treated with other medication-assisted therapies in Missouri during 2010 to 2011. We analyzed intake and discharge data collected as part of SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set assessments. Patients who received XR-NTX during their treatment episode were compared, for those reporting alcohol (but not opioids) as their problem (N=21,137), to those who received oral naltrexone, acamprosate, and psychosocial treatment only, and for those who reported opioids as a problem (N=8996), to those receiving oral naltrexone, buprenorphine/naloxone, and psychosocial treatment only...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633982/multifaceted-academic-detailing-program-to-increase-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-interrupted-time-series-evaluation-of-effectiveness
#6
Alex H S Harris, Thomas Bowe, Hildi Hagedorn, Andrea Nevedal, Andrea K Finlay, Risha Gidwani, Craig Rosen, Chad Kay, Melissa Christopher
BACKGROUND: Active consideration of effective medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a consensus standard of care, yet knowledge and use of these medications are very low across diverse settings. This study evaluated the overall effectiveness a multifaceted academic detailing program to address this persistent quality problem in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), as well as the context and process factors that explained variation in effectiveness across sites. METHODS: An interrupted time series design, analyzed with mixed-effects segmented logistic regression, was used to evaluate changes in level and rate of change in the monthly percent of patients with a clinically documented AUD who received naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram, or topiramate...
September 15, 2016: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534440/discussing-prevalence-impacts-and-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-in-athletes
#7
Felipe Gil, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia
The consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has become a concern in high-performance athletes. Professional athletes are more exposed to drugs than the general population. Although some drugs are unquestionably detrimental to performance, several studies have nevertheless shown evidence of increased consumption of these substances within this sub-population. This review aimed to elucidate alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use among high-performance athletes, discussing the prevalence of substance use, its impacts, and alternatives to treatment in this special population...
August 18, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484692/are-alcohol-anti-relapsing-and-alcohol-withdrawal-drugs-useful-in-cannabinoid-users
#8
Patrycja Kleczkowska, Irena Smaga, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny
Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS)...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440951/factors-influencing-adherence-to-anti-craving-medications-and-drinking-outcomes-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-a-hospital-based-study
#9
K Lohit, Chanda Kulkarni, R B Galgali
OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors influencing the pattern and extent of anti-craving medication adherence and drinking outcomes in alcohol-dependent patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data from 102 inpatients were collected at discharge from hospital. The pattern of anti-craving medication, extent of adherence, and drinking outcome was collected at 1(st), 3(rd), 8(th), and 12(th) week follow-up. Patients' self-reported adherence, medication diary, and simplified medication adherence questionnaire were used and data were analyzed using SPSS...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438908/marketing-status-and-perceived-efficacy-of-drugs-for-supporting-abstinence-and-reducing-alcohol-intake-in-alcohol-use-disorders-a-survey-among-european-federation-of-addiction-societies-in-europe
#10
Jørgen G Bramness, Karl Mann, Friedrich M Wurst
BACKGROUND: Acamprosate, disulfiram (DIS), naltrexone and nalmefene can be used in treating alcohol use disorders. The drugs are, however, underutilized. METHODS: In this survey of marketing status and perceived efficacy, member societies of the European federation for addiction societies were asked to report on the status of these drugs in their country. Results were obtained from 20 European countries showing that the drugs were registered in most countries. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The drugs were mentioned in guidelines in approximately half and were partially or fully reimbursed in half to two-thirds countries...
2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394934/national-trends-in-alcohol-pharmacotherapy-findings-from-an-australian-claims-database
#11
Kirsten C Morley, Warren Logge, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Andrew Baillie, Paul S Haber
BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of alcohol pharmacotherapy has been widely investigated, little is known about real-world prescription patterns. Population-based dispensing data can provide an understanding of prescription patterns and characteristics of treatment in nonexperimental settings. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients (aged 15-84) treated with acamprosate or naltrexone between July 2009 and June 2013 was conducted using dispensing claims from the Australian Pharmaceutical benefits Scheme Database...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333840/noni-morinda-citrifolia-linn-fruit-juice-attenuates-the-rewarding-effect-of-ethanol-in-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#12
Vijayapandi Pandy, Yasmin Khan
Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni or Indian mulberry belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Noni fruit juice has recently become a very popular remedy for the treatment of several diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR male mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP procedure consisted of four phases: preconditioning, conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235620/pharmacotherapy-for-substance-use-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Jared Wilson Klein
This article reviews the current pharmacotherapy options available for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders. In the United States there are medications available to treat tobacco use disorders (nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline), alcohol use disorders (naltrexone and acamprosate), and opioid use disorders (methadone and buprenorphine). These medications are likely underused and physicians should more readily prescribe for eligible patients.
July 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211993/access-to-addiction-pharmacotherapy-in-private-health-plans
#14
Sharon Reif, Constance M Horgan, Dominic Hodgkin, Ann-Marie Matteucci, Timothy B Creedon, Maureen T Stewart
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of medications are available to treat addictions. To understand access to addiction medications, it is essential to consider the role of private health plans. To contain medication expenditures, most U.S. health plans use cost-sharing and administrative controls, which may impact physicians' prescribing and patients' use of addiction medications. This study identified health plan approaches to manage access to and utilization of addiction medications (oral and injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and buprenorphine)...
July 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184383/combined-effects-of-acamprosate-and-escitalopram-on-ethanol-consumption-in-mice
#15
Ada Man-Choi Ho, Yanyan Qiu, Yun-Fang Jia, Felipe S Aguiar, David J Hinton, Victor M Karpyak, Richard M Weinshilboum, Doo-Sup Choi
BACKGROUND: Major depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatry comorbidities of alcohol use disorders (AUD). As negative emotions can trigger craving and increase the risk of relapse, treatments that target both conditions simultaneously may augment treatment success. Previous studies showed a potential synergistic effect of Food and Drug Administration approved medication for AUD acamprosate and the antidepressant escitalopram. In this study, we investigated the effects of combining acamprosate and escitalopram on ethanol (EtOH) consumption in stress-induced depressed mice...
July 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184259/discovery-development-and-adoption-of-medications-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-goals-for-the-phases-of-medications-development
#16
REVIEW
Raye Z Litten, Daniel E Falk, Megan L Ryan, Joanne B Fertig
For more than 25 years, advances have been made in developing medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD), highlighted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approval of naltrexone (oral and long-acting) and acamprosate. Despite this progress, more work remains to be done in this area because these medications, although effective for some people, do not work for everyone. A high priority for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol is to put into place a solid infrastructure to aid in the development of medications that are more effective than those currently available and with few side effects...
July 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173413/alcohol-dependence-and-harmful-use-of-alcohol
#17
Anil Batra, Christian A Müller, Karl Mann, Andreas Heinz
BACKGROUND: In Germany today, there are more than 1.8 million persons who are dependent on alcohol, and 1.6 million persons whose use of alcohol is harmful. The many complications of alcohol use are both mental and physical-in particular, gastrointestinal and neurological. Yet more than 80% of persons whose alcohol use is problematic still receive no treatment for their harmful use or dependence, despite contact with the health-care system. METHODS: This article is a selective review of the pertinent literature, including guidelines, meta-analyses, and Cochrane Reviews...
April 29, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023898/safety-and-tolerability-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-comprehensive-review-of-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Julia M A Sinclair, Sophia E Chambers, Celia J Shiles, David S Baldwin
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but pharmacological treatments for them are underused, despite evidence of efficacy. Acamprosate, naltrexone, nalmefene and disulfiram are all approved in one or more region for the treatment of AUD. Baclofen currently has a temporary indication in France. Safety considerations for using psychopharmacological treatments in this patient group include the impact of concurrent alcohol consumption at high levels; multiple physical comorbidities that may interfere with pharmacological effects, distribution and metabolism; and concomitant medication for the treatment of comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions...
July 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009547/gender-specific-effects-of-comorbid-depression-and-anxiety-on-the-propensity-to-drink-in-negative-emotional-states
#19
Victor M Karpyak, Joanna M Biernacka, Jennifer R Geske, Osama A Abulseoud, Michael D Brunner, Mohit Chauhan, Daniel K Hall-Flavin, Kriste A Lewis, Larissa L Loukianova, George J Melnyk, David A Onsrud, Brian D Proctor, Terry D Schneekloth, Michelle K Skime, John E Wittkopp, Mark A Frye, David A Mrazek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Depression and anxiety are often comorbid with alcoholism and contribute to craving and relapse. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of life-time diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), substance-induced depression (SID), anxiety disorder (AnxD) and substance-induced anxiety (SIA), the effects of these comorbidities on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states (negative craving), and test whether these effects differ by sex. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of baseline data collected in a single-arm study of pharmacogenetic predictors of acamprosate response...
August 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008795/alcohol-dependence-neurobiology-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Agnieszka Michalak, Grazyna Biała
The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs...
January 2016: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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