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nicotinic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725903/suppressive-effects-of-dietary-epa-rich-fish-oil-on-the-degradation-of-elastin-fibers-in-the-aortic-wall-in-nicotine-administered-mice
#1
Hirona Kugo, Nobuhiro Zaima, Megumi Onozato, Chie Miyamoto, Keisuke Hashimoto, Kenichi Yanagimoto, Tatsuya Moriyama
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta. Recent studies suggest that nicotine, which is a primary component in cigarette smoke, is closely associated with the development and rupture of an AAA. Nicotine accelerates AAA development through the weakening of the vascular wall by increasing oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. However, little is known about preventing the AAA induced by nicotine. A non-surgical means of preventing the weakening of the vascular wall before the onset of AAA by functional food factors would be a valuable option over surgery...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724915/quinolinate-phosphoribosyltransferase-is-an-antiviral-host-factor-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#2
Zhilong Wang, Yanhang Gao, Chao Zhang, Haiming Hu, Dongwei Guo, Yi Xu, Qiuping Xu, Weihong Zhang, Sisi Deng, Pingyun Lv, Yan Yang, Yanhua Ding, Qingquan Li, Changjiang Weng, Xinwen Chen, Sitang Gong, Hairong Chen, Junqi Niu, Hong Tang
HCV infection can decrease NAD(+)/NADH ratio, which could convert lipid metabolism to favor HCV replication. In hepatocytes, quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase (QPRT) catabolizes quinolinic acid (QA) to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN) for de novo NAD synthesis. However, whether and how HCV modulates QPRT hence the lipogenesis is unknown. In this work, we found QPRT was reduced significantly in livers of patients or humanized C/O(Tg) mice with persistent HCV infection. Mechanistic studies indicated that HCV NS3/4A promoted proteasomal degradation of QPRT through Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, in Huh7...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722260/effect-of-long-distance-transportation-on-serum-metabolic-profiles-of-steer-calves
#3
Satoshi Takemoto, Shozo Tomonaga, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718768/selective-and-regulated-trapping-of-nicotinic-receptor-weak-base-ligands-and-relevance-to-smoking-cessation
#4
Anitha P Govind, Yolanda F Vallejo, Jacob R Stolz, Jing-Zhi Yan, Geoffrey T Swanson, William N Green
To better understand smoking cessation, we examined the actions of varenicline (Chantix) during long-term nicotine exposure. Varenicline reduced nicotine upregulation of α4β2-type nicotinic receptors (α4β2Rs) in live cells and neurons, but not for membrane preparations. Effects on upregulation depended on intracellular pH homeostasis and were not observed if acidic pH in intracellular compartments was neutralized. Varenicline was trapped as a weak base in acidic compartments and slowly released, blocking (125)I-epibatidine binding and desensitizing α4β2Rs...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715707/design-synthesis-and-2d-qsar-study-of-novel-pyridine-and-quinolone-hydrazone-derivatives-as-potential-antimicrobial-and-antitubercular-agents
#5
Mohamed A Abdelrahman, Ismail Salama, Mohamed S Gomaa, Mahmoud M Elaasser, Marwa M Abdel-Aziz, Dalia H Soliman
The increased development of highly resistant bacterial strains and tuberculosis, constitute a serious public health threat, highlighting the urgent need of novel antibacterial agents. In this work, two novel series of nicotinic acid hydrazone derivatives (6a-r) and quinolone hydrazide derivatives (12a-l) were synthesized and evaluated as antimicrobial and antitubercular agents. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities. Compounds 6f and 6p bearing the 3,4,5- (OCH3)3 and 2,5-(OCH3)2 benzylidene motifs were the most potent and as antibacterial, antifungal (MIC: 0...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714277/free-fatty-acid-receptor-3-activation-suppresses-neurogenic-motility-in-rat-proximal-colon
#6
I Kaji, Y Akiba, T Furuyama, D W Adelson, K Iwamoto, M Watanabe, A Kuwahara, J D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are microbial fermentation products absorbed by the colon. We recently reported that activation of the SCFA receptor termed free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3), expressed on cholinergic nerves, suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transepithelial anion secretion. This study aimed to clarify how activation of neurally expressed FFA3 affects colonic motor function. METHODS: FFA3-expressing myenteric neurons were identified by immunostaining; contractions of isolated circular muscle strips obtained from rat proximal colon were measured by isometric transducers...
July 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692088/the-influence-of-coordination-modes-and-active-sites-of-a-5-triazol-1-yl-nicotinic-ligand-on-the-assembly-of-diverse-mofs
#7
Yang-Tian Yan, Si-Si Zhang, Guo-Ping Yang, Wen-Yan Zhang, Fang Zhang, Feng Cao, Rui-Feng Yang, Yao-Yu Wang
Six new complexes based on 5-(triazol-1-yl)nicotinic acid (HL), namely [Cu2(L)3(H2O)(OH)]n (1), [Co(L)2(H2O)2]n (2), [Mn(L)2(H2O)2]n (3), {[Co(L)(H2O)0.5(DMF)0.5(NO3)0.5]·(Cl)0.5·DMF·2H2O}n (4), {[Cu(L)(O)0.5]·CH3OH·2.5H2O}n (5) and {[Co2(L)4(H2O)]·2DMA·2H2O}n (6), were synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. The L(-) ligand in 1-6 reveals various coordination modes and forms diverse secondary building units (SBUs) in the final structures. Complex 1 shows a 2D layered structure with a rare (3,8)-connected topology based on tetranuclear [Cu4(COO)6(H2O)2(OH)2N6] SBUs...
July 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686840/carboxylate-counter-anions-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-influence-on-nicotine-emissions
#8
Ahmad El Hellani, Rachel El-Hage, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine are normally associated with counter anions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counter anions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence nicotine emissions as well as their evaporation behavior and potential decomposition during ECIG operation...
July 7, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673548/inhibition-of-the-endocannabinoid-regulating-enzyme-monoacylglycerol-lipase-elicits-a-cb1-receptor-mediated-discriminative-stimulus-in-mice
#9
Robert A Owens, Mohammed A Mustafa, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, M Imad Damaj, Patrick M Beardsley, Jenny L Wiley, Micah J Niphakis, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Substantial challenges exist for investigating the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-mediated discriminative stimulus effects of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA), compared with exogenous CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940. Specifically, each is rapidly degraded by the respective hydrolytic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Whereas MAGL inhibitors partially substitute for THC and fully substitute for CP55,940, FAAH inhibitors do not substitute for either drug...
June 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663255/subcutaneous-adipocyte-lipolysis-contributes-to-circulating-lipid-levels
#10
Mikael Rydén, Peter Arner
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acids released via fat cell lipolysis can affect circulating lipid levels. However, the contribution of different lipolysis measures in adipose tissue is unknown and was presently examined in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: One thousand and sixty-six men and women were examined for lipolysis regulation in subcutaneous abdominal fat cells. Results were compared with fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides...
June 29, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662136/influence-of-nicotine-on-choline-deficient-l-amino-acid-defined-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-rats
#11
Hiroyuki Kanamori, Yukiomi Nakade, Taeko Yamauchi, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Takaya Yamamoto, Yuji Kobayashi, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Kiyoaki Ito, Yoshio Sumida, Haruhisa Nakao, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Masashi Yoneda
Nicotine, a major compound in cigarette smoke, decreases food intake and body weight gain in mammals; however, the influence of nicotine on the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nicotine on NASH in rat models. Male Wistar rats were fed choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet and treated with nicotine or saline. Food intake, body weight gain, presence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed 6 weeks after the rats were fed CDAA diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660730/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-inactivation-confers-enhanced-sensitivity-to-nicotine-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Francisco J Pavon, Antonia Serrano, Nimish Sidhpura, Ilham Polis, David Stouffer, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Benjamin F Cravatt, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Loren H Parsons
Nicotine exerts its rewarding effects by promoting an increase in dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and this process is influenced by the endocannabinoid system. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the main enzyme responsible for the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide and other non-cannabinoid N-acylethanolamines. Previous research has reported that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of FAAH enhance nicotine-induced conditioned place preference at low doses...
June 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656206/nicotinic-acid-impairs-assembly-of-leading-edge-in-glioma-cells
#13
Xiangcai Yang, Shuting Mei, Hua Niu, Jiejing Li
Malignant glioma is a clinically formidable disease. It commonly leads to death within 5 years after diagnosis. Physicians are often baffled since the inevitable diffuse invasion deteriorates clinical outcomes rapidly. Therefore, cancerous infiltration presents a foremost challenge to all therapeutic strategies on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Previously, we demonstrated that nicotinic acid (NA) possesses a brand new function by targeting F-actin stress fibers. By treating HEK293 or NIH3T3 cells with a certain concentration of NA, the F-actin stress fiber was significantly disassembled...
June 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651684/diversity-of-the-auxotrophic-requirements-in-natural-isolates-of-escherichia-coli
#14
Odile Bouvet, Emmanuelle Bourdelier, Jeremy Glodt, Olivier Clermont, Erick Denamur
Isolates of Escherichia coli, except Shigella, are generally prototrophic; they do not require any growth factors to grow in mineral medium. However, a nicotinic acid requirement is common among B2 phylogroup STc95 O18 E. coli clone strains. Nicotinic acid is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an essential molecule that plays central role in cellular metabolism. The defect in NAD synthesis of these strains is due to alterations in de novo biosynthesis pathway nadB gene. Here, by studying growth on minimal medium with glycolytic (glucose) or gluconeogenic (pyruvate or succinate) substrates as the carbon supply in a large panel of E...
June 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649232/ion-channels-of-pituitary-gonadotrophs-and-their-roles-in-signaling-and-secretion
#15
REVIEW
Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba, Hana Zemkova
Gonadotrophs are basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland specialized to secrete gonadotropins in response to elevation in intracellular calcium concentration. These cells fire action potentials (APs) spontaneously, coupled with voltage-gated calcium influx of insufficient amplitude to trigger gonadotropin release. The spontaneous excitability of gonadotrophs reflects the expression of voltage-gated sodium, calcium, potassium, non-selective cation-conducting, and chloride channels at their plasma membrane (PM)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647364/crystal-structures-of-the-isochorismatase-domains-from-vibrio-anguillarum
#16
Jiansen Du, Tian Deng, Qingjun Ma
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a global threat and overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture disease control worsens the situation. To reduce the risk of drug resistance developed in aquaculture, safer biocontrol programs are needed. Antivirulence therapy, with less chance for developing drug resistance, is a promising approach. To facilitate antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum, a serious aquaculture pathogen, we present crystal structures for isochorismatase domains of AngB and VabB, which are required to synthesize siderophore, a critical virulence factor...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#17
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633997/nicotinamide-inhibits-the-growth-of-p-falciparum-and-enhances-the-antimalarial-effect-of-artemisinin-chloroquine-and-pyrimethamine
#18
Sergey O Tcherniuk, Olga Chesnokova, Irina V Oleinikov, Andrew V Oleinikov
Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) - is a water soluble amide derivative of nicotinic acid, which has been used at high doses for a variety of therapeutic applications. However, its antimalarial effect has not been intensively explored. In this work we analysed the effect of nicotinamide alone and in combination with artemisinin, chloroquine andpyrimethamine on the growth of blood stages of P. falciparum. Our results demonstrate that nicotinamide effectively inhibits the growth of blood stage parasites with IC50 of 6...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624424/fusaric-acid-fa-protects-heart-failure-induced-by-isoproterenol-isp-in-mice-through-fibrosis-prevention-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways
#19
Xin Li, Zhou-Long Zhang, Hui-Fen Wang
Fusaric acid (FA) is a novel compound derived from a class of nicotinic acid derivatives, exhibiting activity against cancers. However, its role in regulating cardiac injury is limited. Our study was aimed to investigate the role and the underlying molecular mechanism of FA in heart fibrosis and hypertrophy. Isoproterenol (ISP) was used to induce cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. FA administration ameliorated hypertrophy by reducing atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and β -myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621793/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-oxidation-of-the-anti-tubercular-prodrug-isoniazid-and-its-analog-by-iridium-iv-as-models-for-biological-redox-systems
#20
Jingran Dong, Yanli Ren, Sufang Sun, Jiao Yang, Chunxia Nan, Hongmei Shi, Jianzhong Xu, Jie Duan, Tiesheng Shi, Lars I Elding
A complex reaction mechanism of oxidation of the anti-tubercular prodrug isoniazid (isonicotinic hydrazide, INH) by [IrCl6](2-) as a model for redox processes of such drugs in biological systems has been studied in aqueous solution as a function of pH between 0 and 8.5. Similar experiments have been performed with its isomer nicotinic hydrazide (NH). All reactions are overall second-order, first-order in [IrCl6](2-) and hydrazide, and the observed second-order rate constants k' have been determined as a function of pH...
June 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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