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nicotinic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240768/the-association-between-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-4-subunit-gene-chrna4-rs1044396-and-internet-gaming-disorder-in-korean-male-adults
#1
Jo-Eun Jeong, Je-Keun Rhee, Tae-Min Kim, Su-Min Kwak, Sol-Hee Bang, Hyun Cho, Young-Hoon Cheon, Jung Ah Min, Gil Sang Yoo, Kyudong Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Sam-Wook Choi, Dai-Jin Kim
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217642/nicotinamide-riboside-preserves-cardiac-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
Nicolas Diguet, Samuel A J Trammell, Cynthia Tannous, Robin Deloux, Jérôme Piquereau, Nathalie Mougenot, Anne Gouge, Mélanie Gressette, Boris Manoury, Jocelyne Blanc, Marie Breton, Jean-François Decaux, Gareth Lavery, István Baczkó, Joffrey Zoll, Anne Garnier, Zhenlin Li, Charles Brenner, Mathias Mericskay
Background -Myocardial metabolic impairment is a major feature in chronic heart failure (HF). As the major coenzyme in fuel oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and a substrate for enzymes signaling energy stress and oxidative stress response, NAD+ is emerging as a metabolic target in a number of diseases including HF. Little is known on mechanisms regulating homeostasis of NAD+ in the failing heart. Methods -To explore possible alterations of NAD+ homeostasis in the failing heart, we quantified expression of NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes in human failing heart and in the heart of a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) triggered by SRF transcription factor depletion in the heart (SRFHKO) or of cardiac hypertrophy triggered by transverse aorta constriction (TAC)...
December 7, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213024/-a-refractory-case-of-ulcerative-colitis-developed-after-the-cessation-smoking-achieved-clinical-and-endoscopic-remission-after-resuming-smoking
#3
Tetsuro Hamamoto, Masashi Ohtani, Eiji Matsumoto, Tatsuaki Hori, Ichiro Tsuruhara, Kazuo Yashima, Hajime Isomoto
A 42-year-old man, who had stopped smoking almost one year ago, visited our hospital for hematochezia. He was diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis and was prescribed 5-amino salicylic acid and corticosteroids, which led to the remission of his disease. However, the disease relapsed after sufficient continuous corticosteroids administration and persisted despite 5-amino salicylic acid administration and intensive treatment with corticosteroids, immune modulators, leukocyte apheresis, and anti-TNF-α antibodies...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212824/targeted-microbiome-intervention-by-microencapsulated-delayed-release-niacin-beneficially-affects-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#4
Daniela Fangmann, Eva-Maria Theismann, Kathrin Türk, Dominik M Schulte, Isabelle Relling, Katharina Hartmann, Julia K Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Ateequr Rehman, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Lennart Lenk, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Esther Appel, Stanislav Gorb, Charles Brenner, Dirk Seegert, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Karin Schwarz, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota represent a potential novel target for future prediabetes and type 2 diabetes therapies. In that respect, niacin has been shown to beneficially affect the host-microbiome interaction in rodent models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We characterized more than 500 human subjects with different metabolic phenotypes regarding their niacin (nicotinic acid [NA] and nicotinamide [NAM]) status and their gut microbiome. In addition, NA and NAM delayed-release microcapsules were engineered and examined in vitro and in vivo in two human intervention studies (bioavailability study and proof-of-concept/safety study)...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212709/a-eukaryotic-nicotinate-inducible-gene-cluster-convergent-evolution-in-fungi-and-bacteria
#5
Judit Ámon, Rafael Fernández-Martín, Eszter Bokor, Antonietta Cultrone, Joan M Kelly, Michel Flipphi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Zsuzsanna Hamari
Nicotinate degradation has hitherto been elucidated only in bacteria. In the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, six loci, hxnS/AN9178 encoding the molybdenum cofactor-containing nicotinate hydroxylase, AN11197 encoding a Cys2/His2 zinc finger regulator HxnR, together with AN11196/hxnZ, AN11188/hxnY, AN11189/hxnP and AN9177/hxnT, are clustered and stringently co-induced by a nicotinate derivative and subject to nitrogen metabolite repression mediated by the GATA factor AreA. These genes are strictly co-regulated by HxnR...
December 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199094/%C3%AE-conotoxins-to-explore-the-molecular-physiological-and-pathophysiological-functions-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Julien Giribaldi, Sébastien Dutertre
The vast diversity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine subunits expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as in non-neuronal tissues, constitutes a formidable challenge for researchers and clinicians to decipher the role of particular subtypes, including complex subunit associations, in physiological and pathophysiological functions. Many natural products target the nAChRs, but there is no richer source of nicotinic ligands than the venom of predatory gastropods known as cone snails. Indeed, every single species of cone snail was shown to produce at least one type of such α-conotoxins...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196901/an-improved-solvent-free-synthesis-of-flunixin-and-2-arylamino-nicotinic-acid-derivatives-using-boric-acid-as-catalyst
#7
Mahsa Yarhosseini, Shahrzad Javanshir, Zahra Dolatkhah, Mohammad G Dekamin
A simple solvent-free protocol for the preparation of flunixin, a potent non-narcotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is reported using boric acid as catalyst. Its salt, flunixin meglumine are then prepared under reflux in EtOH. This sustainable method are then extended for the synthesis of a series of 2-(arylamino) nicotinic acid derivatives. The present protocol combines non-hazardous neat conditions with associated benefits like excellent yield, straightforward workup, and use of readily available and safe catalyst in the absence of any solvent, which are important factors in the pharmaceutical industry...
December 1, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196273/optimising-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-of-oral-cocrystal-formulations-via-spray-coating
#8
Dolores R Serrano, David Walsh, Peter O'Connell, Naila A Mugheirbi, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Francisco Bolas-Fernandez, Carolina Galiana, Maria Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Anne Marie Healy
Engineering of pharmaceutical cocrystals is an advantageous alternative to salt formation for improving the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic drugs. Although, spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique in the production of cocrystals, several issues can arise such as sublimation or stickiness due to low glass transition temperatures of some organic molecules, making the process very challenging. Even though, fluidised bed spray coating has been successfully employed in the production of amorphous drug-coated particles, to the best of our knowledge, it has never been employed in the production of cocrystals...
November 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194389/variation-in-cyp2a6-activity-and-personalized-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Julie-Anne Tanner, Rachel F Tyndale
The cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) enzyme metabolizes several clinically relevant substrates, including nicotine-the primary psychoactive component in cigarette smoke. The gene that encodes the CYP2A6 enzyme is highly polymorphic, resulting in extensive interindividual variation in CYP2A6 enzyme activity and the rate of metabolism of nicotine and other CYP2A6 substrates including cotinine, tegafur, letrozole, efavirenz, valproic acid, pilocarpine, artemisinin, artesunate, SM-12502, caffeine, and tyrosol. CYP2A6 expression and activity are also impacted by non-genetic factors, including induction or inhibition by pharmacological, endogenous, and dietary substances, as well as age-related changes, or interactions with other hepatic enzymes, co-enzymes, and co-factors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192197/interaction-of-synthetic-human-slurp-1-with-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#10
Thomas Durek, Irina V Shelukhina, Han-Shen Tae, Panumart Thongyoo, Ekaterina N Spirova, Denis S Kudryavtsev, Igor E Kasheverov, Grazyna Faure, Pierre-Jean Corringer, David J Craik, David J Adams, Victor I Tsetlin
Human SLURP-1 is a secreted protein of the Ly6/uPAR/three-finger neurotoxin family that co-localizes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and modulates their functions. Conflicting biological activities of SLURP-1 at various nAChR subtypes have been based on heterologously produced SLURP-1 containing N- and/or C-terminal extensions. Here, we report the chemical synthesis of the 81 amino acid residue human SLURP-1 protein, characterization of its 3D structure by NMR, and its biological activity at nAChR subtypes...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187865/a-novel-method-of-nicotine-quantification-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-and-aerosols
#11
Mumiye A Ogunwale, Yizheng Chen, Whitney S Theis, Michael H Nantz, Daniel J Conklin, Xiao-An Fu
The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) has emerged as popular electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDs). However, the general safety and validity of e-cigarettes for nicotine delivery efficacy are still not well understood. This study developed a new method for efficient measurement of nicotine levels in both the liquids (e-liquids) used in e-cigarettes and the aerosols generated from the e-cigarettes. Protonation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen of nicotine molecules by addition of excess hydrochloric acid affords an aminium salt that is readily quantified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183962/intestinal-lymphatic-hdl-mir-223-and-apoa-i-are-reduced-during-insulin-resistance-and-restored-with-niacin
#12
Rabban Mangat, Faye Borthwick, Tina Haase, Miriam Jacome, Randy Nelson, Anatol Kontush, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
The intestine is involved in whole-body lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and secretes lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein (Apo)B48 and discrete ApoA-I into the mesenteric lymph. The lymphatic system has been proposed to have a significant role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway associated with HDL-ApoA-I. In conditions of insulin resistance (IR), there is intestinal overproduction of chylomicrons containing ApoB48; however, there is limited data on the intestinal synthesis and secretion of HDL-ApoA-I...
November 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176657/dyslipidaemia-in-nephrotic-syndrome-mechanisms-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Shipra Agrawal, Joshua J Zaritsky, Alessia Fornoni, William E Smoyer
Nephrotic syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that is associated with high morbidity despite notable advances in its treatment. Many of the complications of nephrotic syndrome, including the increased risk of atherosclerosis and thromboembolism, can be linked to dysregulated lipid metabolism and dyslipidaemia. These abnormalities include elevated plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and the apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins VLDL and IDL; decreased lipoprotein lipase activity in the endothelium, muscle and adipose tissues; decreased hepatic lipase activity; and increased levels of the enzyme PCSK9...
November 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175123/characterization-and-application-of-a-novel-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-adenylyltransferase-from-thermus-thermophilus-hb8
#14
Kenji Konishi, Shigeru Ueda, Miki Kawano, Susumu Osawa, Tomohiro Tamura, Eisaku Hokazono, Yuzo Kayamori, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa
Herein, we describe a novel enzymatic cycling method to measure nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which are precursors of NAD biosynthesis. A gene encoding an NMN adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC 2.7.7.1) homologue was identified in Thermus thermophilus HB8. The gene from T. thermophilus (TtNMNAT) was engineered for expression in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme found to be stable, retaining full activity after incubation for 45 min at 70°C. The Km values for NMN and ATP were calculated to be 0...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174812/amino-acid-and-peptide-prodrugs-of-diphenylpropanones-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-with-analgesic-activity
#15
Beatriz Balsera, José Mulet, Salvador Sala, Francisco Sala, Roberto de la Torre-Martínez, Sara González-Rodríguez, Adrián Plata, Lieve Naesens, Asia Fernández-Carvajal, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel, Manuel Criado, María Jesús Pérez de Vega, Rosario González-Muñiz
α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels implicated in a number of CNS pathological processes, including pain and psychiatric, cognitive and inflammatory diseases. Comparing with orthosteric agonism, positive allosteric modulation of these channels constitutes an interesting approach to achieve selectivity versus other nicotinic receptors. We have recently described new chalcones and 1,3-diphenylpropanones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs, which proved to have good analgesic activities but poor pharmacokinetic properties...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167641/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-agonist-ar-r17779-protects-mice-against-2-4-6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-a-spleen-dependent-way
#16
Andrea Grandi, Irene Zini, Lisa Flammini, Anna M Cantoni, Valentina Vivo, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Simona Bertoni
The existence of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway negatively modulating the inflammatory and immune responses in various clinical conditions and experimental models has long been postulated. In particular, the protective involvement of the vagus nerve and of nicotinic Ach receptors (nAChRs) has been proposed in intestinal inflammation and repeatedly investigated in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis. However, the role of α7 nAChRs stimulation is still controversial and the potential contribution of α4β2 nAChRs has never been explored in this experimental condition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163390/comparative-genomics-reveals-specific-genetic-architectures-in-nicotine-metabolism-of-pseudomonas-sp-jy-q
#17
Jun Li, Shulan Qian, Lie Xiong, Chengyun Zhu, Ming Shu, Jie Wang, Yang Jiao, Houlong He, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Weihong Zhong
Microbial degradation of nicotine is an important process to control nicotine residues in the aqueous environment. In this study, a high active nicotine degradation strain named Pseudomonas sp. JY-Q was isolated from tobacco waste extract (TWE). This strain could completely degrade 5.0 g l(-1) nicotine in 24 h under optimal culture conditions, and it showed some tolerance even at higher concentrations (10.0 g l(-1)) of nicotine. The complete genome of JY-Q was sequenced to understand the mechanism by which JY-Q could degrade nicotine and tolerate such high nicotine concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157816/effect-of-ipomoea-aquatica-ethanolic-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-rats-via-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach
#18
Azliana Abu Bakar Sajak, Ahmed Mediani, Maulidiani, Nur Sumirah Mohd Dom, Chandradevan Machap, Muhajir Hamid, Amin Ismail, Alfi Khatib, Faridah Abas
BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown. PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126954/quantitative-analysis-of-kynurenine-aminotransferase-ii-in-the-adult-rat-brain-reveals-high-expression-in-proliferative-zones-and-corpus-callosum
#19
Chang Song, Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, James D Nicholson, Kelley J Murphy, Ta-Chung M Mou, Robert Schwarcz, Gloria E Hoffman, Leonardo H Tonelli
Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126773/clomipramine-counteracts-lipid-raft-disturbance-due-to-short-term-muscle-disuse
#20
Irina G Bryndina, Maria N Shalagina, Alexey V Sekunov, Andrei L Zefirov, Alexey M Petrov
Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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