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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035044/nicotine-alters-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolites-of-gut-brain-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#1
Liang Chi, Ridwan Mahbub, Bei Gao, Xiaoming Bian, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
As the primary active substance in tobacco, nicotine affects the activity of the central nervous system, and its effects are sex-dependent. There are complex interactions between the gut and brain, and the gut microbiome can influence neuronal activity and host behavior, with diverse chemical signaling being involved. However, it is unclear whether nicotine can affect the normal gut microbiome and associated chemical signaling of the gut-brain axis. Sex is an important factor that shapes the gut microbiome, but the role of sex in the interaction among nicotine, gut bacteria, and related metabolites remains unknown...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033840/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-cigarette-smoke-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#2
Fan Lin, Chengcheng Liao, Yun Sun, Jinsheng Zhang, Weiwei Lu, Yu Bai, Yixuan Liao, Minxia Li, Xianqiang Ni, Yuelong Hou, Yongfen Qi, Yahong Chen
Background: Apoptosis of lung structural cells contributes to the process of lung damage and remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies demonstrated that exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can reduce the lung tissue pathology score, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation effects in COPD, but the effect of H2S in regulating cigarette smoke (CS) induced bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Objectives: To investigate the effect of H2S on CS induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030305/entirely-s-protected-chitosan-a-promising-mucoadhesive-excipient-for-metronidazole-vaginal-tablets
#3
Noemi Lupo, Benjamin Fodor, Ijaz Muhammad, Muhammad Yaqoob, Barbara Matuszczak, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. METHODS: N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029302/acute-kynurenine-challenge-disrupts-sleep-wake-architecture-and-impairs-contextual-memory-in-adult-rats
#4
Ana Pocivavsek, Annalisa M Baratta, Jessica A Mong, Shaun S Viechweg
Study Objectives: Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality...
September 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024129/efficacy-of-vitamins-e-and-c-for-reversing-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-nicotine-and-cotinine
#5
Maryam Torshabi, Zeinab Rezaei Esfahrood, Mahshid Jamshidi, Abbas Mansuri Torshizi, Samira Sotoudeh
Nicotine has adverse cellular and molecular effects on oral mucosa, bone, and teeth. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are biological antioxidants with positive effects on wound healing and bone formation. This in vitro study sought to assess the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of nicotine and cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine) on MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence and absence of antioxidant vitamins E and C (separately and combined)...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023569/pancreatic-and-snake-venom-presynaptically-active-phospholipases-a2-inhibit-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#6
Catherine A Vulfius, Igor E Kasheverov, Elena V Kryukova, Ekaterina N Spirova, Irina V Shelukhina, Vladislav G Starkov, Tatyana V Andreeva, Grazyna Faure, Marios Zouridakis, Victor I Tsetlin, Yuri N Utkin
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986305/high-throughput-biosorter-quantification-of-relative-mitochondrial-content-and-membrane-potential-in-living-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Young Joon Kwon, Sujay Guha, Florin Tuluc, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain disease is caused by a wide range of individually rare genetic disorders that impair cellular energy metabolism. While fluorescence microscopy analysis of nematodes fed MitoTracker Green (MTG) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) can reliably quantify relative mitochondrial density and membrane potential, respectively, in C. elegans, it is a tedious process with limitations in the number and age of animals that can be studied. A novel, large particle, flow cytometry-based method reported here accelerates and automates the relative quantitation of mitochondrial physiology in nematode populations...
October 3, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967595/the-role-of-glucose-insulin-and-nefa-in-regulating-tissue-triglyceride-accumulation-substrate-cooperation-in-adipose-tissue-versus-substrate-competition-in-skeletal-muscle
#8
M A Guzzardi, L Hodson, L Guiducci, F La Rosa, P A Salvadori, S Burchielli, P Iozzo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic factors initiating adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride accumulation are not completely understood. We aimed to investigate the independent role of circulating glucose, NEFA and insulin on glucose and NEFA uptake, and lipogenesis in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-two pigs were stratified according to four protocols: 1) and 2) low NEFA + high insulin ± high glucose (hyperinsulinaemia-hyperglycaemia or hyperinsulinaemia-euglycaemia), 3) high NEFA + low insulin (fasting), 4) low NEFA + low insulin (nicotinic acid)...
August 16, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958507/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-identification-of-aspergillus-flavus-based-on-chemical-markers-using-hplc-ms
#9
Nayara C Saldan, Rafaela T R Almeida, Alexandre Avíncola, Carla Porto, Marília B Galuch, Thiago F S Magon, Eduardo J Pilau, Terezinha I E Svidzinski, Claudio C Oliveira
Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus found in nature and characterized by the production of bright and colourful colonies. It grows on different substrates, producing secondary metabolites and, if present in foodstuffs, can be a source of health problems for humans and animals, as well as causing economic losses. Traditional methods for fungal identification are based on morphological characteristics, requiring specialists and being very time-consuming. The development of analytical alternatives might have advantages such as greater efficiency, more reproducibility and be less time-consuming...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951665/prevalence-of-potential-drug-interactions-in-thai-patients-receiving-simvastatin-the-causality-assessment-of-musculoskeletal-adverse-events-induced-by-statin-interaction
#10
Methira Siriangkhawut, Patthana Tansakul, Verawan Uchaipichat
Drug-drug interactions are one of the major risk factors associated with statin-induced myopathy. Although simvastatin is widely used in Thailand, studies investigating the prevalence of potential simvastatin-drug interactions (SDIs) and its clinical relevance in Thai population are still limited. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential SDIs (phase 1 study) and musculoskeletal adverse effects (AEs) associated with those interactions (phase 2 study). A phase 1 study was retrospectively conducted with outpatients at a 60-bed hospital who received simvastatin between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013...
September 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950693/the-effects-of-two-different-multivitamins-on-aging-mice
#11
Su-Xi Wu, Xiao-Miao Han, Xue-Wei Jiang, Jun Tao
Investigating anti-aging factors that is more effective than antioxidants has important theoretical significance and application value. In search for nutritional ingredients that are more effective in anti-aging, two different multivitamins (multivitamin-1 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg BW/day; multivitamin-2 at a dose of 5.4 mg/kg BW/day) were administered to aging mice (N = 40) induced by D-galactose. The content or activity of the biochemical components associated with aging and anti-aging in the brain and the liver of the experimental mice was then determined for analysis of statistically significant difference among the groups...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942634/photochemical-transformation-of-nicotine-in-wastewater-effluent
#12
Lushi Lian, Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Shen-An Chan, Weihua Song
Nicotine is a highly toxic tobacco alkaloid that is ubiquitous in wastewater effluent. For the first time, we report the identification of the products and the pathways for the photodegradation of nicotine in an effluent matrix under simulated solar irradiation. Nicotine was found to be degraded by triplet-state organic matter ((3)OM*), thus indicating that electron transfer is a preferred reaction mechanism. Using the multivariate statistical strategies orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering, 49 potential transformation products (TPs) of nicotine were successfully extracted from the water matrix via high-resolution ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS)...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940989/amino-acid-modulation-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-mediates-sex-differences-in-nicotine-withdrawal
#13
Luis M Carcoba, Rodolfo J Flores, Luis A Natividad, Laura E O'Dell
The aversive effect of nicotine withdrawal is greater in female versus male rats, and we postulate that this sex difference is mediated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Nicotine withdrawal induces decreases in NAc dopamine and increases in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in male rats. To our knowledge, these neurochemical markers of nicotine withdrawal have not been compared in female versus male rats. Given the role of amino acids in modulating NAc dopaminergic and cholinergic transmission, concomitant measures of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels were also compared across sex...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938170/aromatic-hydrazones-derived-from-nicotinic-acid-hydrazide-as-fluorimetric-ph-sensing-molecules-structural-analysis-by-computational-and-spectroscopic-methods-in-solid-phase-and-in-solution
#14
T Benković, A Kenđel, J Parlov-Vuković, D Kontrec, V Chiş, S Miljanić, N Galić
Structural analyses of aroylhydrazones were performed by computational and spectroscopic methods (solid state NMR, 1 and 2D NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR (ATR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry and spectrofluorimetry) in solid state and in solution. The studied compounds were N'-(2,3-dihydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (1), N'-(2,5-dihydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (2), N'-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-phenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (3), and N'-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (4)...
September 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935979/intergrative-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-unveil-nutrient-remobilization-events-in-leaf-senescence-of-tobacco
#15
Wei Li, Hailiang Zhang, Xiaoxu Li, Fengxia Zhang, Cheng Liu, Yongmei Du, Xiaoming Gao, Zenglin Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Zhihui Hou, Hui Zhou, Xiaofei Sheng, Guodong Wang, Yongfeng Guo
Leaf senescence in plants is a coordinated process that involves remobilization of nutrients from senescing leaves to sink tissues. The molecular events associated with nutrient remobilization are however not well understood. In this study the tobacco system with a source-sink relationship between different leaf positions was used in analyzing the spatiotemporal changes of 76 metabolites from leaves at 3 different stalk positions and 8 developmental stages. The metabolomic data was then compared with RNA-seq data from the same samples to analyze the activities of the metabolic pathways that are important for nutrient remobilization...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935799/interacting-amino-acid-replacements-allow-poison-frogs-to-evolve-epibatidine-resistance
#16
Rebecca D Tarvin, Cecilia M Borghese, Wiebke Sachs, Juan C Santos, Ying Lu, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Cannatella, R Adron Harris, Harold H Zakon
Animals that wield toxins face self-intoxication. Poison frogs have a diverse arsenal of defensive alkaloids that target the nervous system. Among them is epibatidine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is lethal at microgram doses. Epibatidine shares a highly conserved binding site with acetylcholine, making it difficult to evolve resistance yet maintain nAChR function. Electrophysiological assays of human and frog nAChR revealed that one amino acid replacement, which evolved three times in poison frogs, decreased epibatidine sensitivity but at a cost of acetylcholine sensitivity...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935207/effects-of-energy-supply-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation-on-phagocytosis-and-ros-production-of-blood-immune-cells-of-periparturient-primi-and-pluriparous-dairy-cows
#17
S Bühler, J Frahm, W Liermann, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
Effects of energy supply and nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation on the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and on ROS production in PMN of periparturient cows differing in parity were examined. 29 pluriparous and 18 primiparous cows were allocated to four different feeding groups from 42days prepartum until 100days postpartum. They were fed either a ration with a low concentrate proportion of 30% (LC) or a high concentrate proportion of 60% (HC)...
September 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933636/nicotinic-acid-inhibits-angiogenesis-likely-through-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#18
Lemen Pan, Guanfeng Yu, Xiangjian Chen, Xiaoqiang Li
Angiogenesis is a physiological procedure during which the new blood vessels develop from the pre-existing vessels. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is related to various diseases including cancers. Clinical inhibition of undesired angiogenesis is still under investigation. We utilized nicotinic acid, a family member of the B-vitamin niacin (vitamin B3) that has been used in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis or other lipid-metabolic disorders, to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and investigated its influence on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
September 21, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933109/-study-on-volatile-components-of-lonicerae-japonicae-flos-in-bud-stage-extended-type
#19
Jing-Ru Zhang, Gen-Ben Bai, Wei-Dong Li, Zhong-Shuang Zhang, Jin-Rui Gu, Cai-Qiao Zhang
Volatile components of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos in bud stage extended type Beihua 1 were determined by the headspace solid-phase micro-extraction, compared with traditional cultivar Damaohua. There are fifty-two volatile compounds were identified and the relative content of the volatiles was calculated by the area normalization method. Thirty-nine compounds were found in Beihua 1, whereas thirty-three components in Damaohua. Total twenty identical compounds existed in Beihua 1 and Damaohua. The contents of alcohols and hydrocarbons of Beihua 1 were higher significantly than that of Damaohua, while significantly lower than that of Damaohua in ketones content...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929692/-metabolomics-of-bovine-serum-albumin-induced-allergic-reactions-based-on-uplc-q-tof-ms
#20
Yuan-Yuan Gu, Dan-Dan Zhang, Cheng Feng, Yu Wang, Da-Zhong Chen, Yan-Hong Wang
The metabonomic techniques were used to study the changes in endogenous metabolites between urines of rats in normal physiological conditions and bovine serum albumin induced allergic reactions, identify potential biomarkers associated with allergic reactions, and then analyze the metabolic pathways and the metabolic mechanisms of allergic reactions. The bovine serum albumin-induced allergic reactions in rats were adopted as a model to detect histamine and tryptase in rat serum and observe the issue morphology of lungs and trachea in rats...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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