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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426990/concentration-of-perfluorinated-compounds-and-cotinine-in-human-foetal-organs-placenta-and-maternal-plasma
#1
Linn Salto Mamsen, Bo A G Jönsson, Christian H Lindh, Rasmus H Olesen, Agnete Larsen, Erik Ernst, Thomas W Kelsey, Claus Yding Andersen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. OBJECTIVES: The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine - the primary metabolite of nicotine - were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425490/urinary-and-fecal-metabonomics-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-chaihu-shu-gan-san-on-antibiotic-induced-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-rats
#2
Meng Yu, Hong-Mei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Li-Li Sun, Zhong-Mei Zou
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development. A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), has been effectively used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate whether CSGS modulates the host metabolic phenotype under the condition of gut microbiota dysbiosis. The metabonomics studies of biochemical changes in urine and feces of antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420996/chronic-water-pipe-smoke-exposure-induces-injurious-effects-to-reproductive-system-in-male-mice
#3
Badreldin H Ali, Khalid A Al Balushi, Mohammed Ashique, Asem Shalaby, Mohammed A Al Kindi, Sirin A Adham, Turan Karaca, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Abderrahim Nemmar
There is a global increase in the popularity of water-pipe tobacco smoking including in Europe and North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the male reproductive effects of water-pipe smoke (WPS), especially after long-term exposure. Here, we assessed effects of WPS exposure (30 min/day) in male mice for 6 months. Control mice were exposed to air-only for the same period of time. Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, testicular histopathology, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and the tyrosine-protein kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) were assessed in testicular homogenates...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419874/oral-administration-of-a-specific-kynurenic-acid-synthesis-kat-ii-inhibitor-attenuates-evoked-glutamate-release-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#4
D M Bortz, H-Q Wu, R Schwarcz, J P Bruno
Cognitive deficits represent core symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ) and predict patient outcome; however, they remain poorly treated by current antipsychotic drugs. Elevated levels of the endogenous alpha7 nicotinic receptor negative allosteric modulator and NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are commonly seen in post-mortem tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with SZ. When acutely or chronically elevated in rodents, KYNA produces cognitive deficits similar to those seen in the disease, making down-regulation of KYNA, via inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a potential treatment strategy...
April 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412965/multireceptor-fingerprints-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#5
Wang Zheng Chiu, Laura Donker Kaat, Agnita J W Boon, Wouter Kamphorst, Axel Schleicher, Karl Zilles, John C van Swieten, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) with a frontal presentation, characterized by cognitive deficits and behavioral changes, has been recognized as an early clinical picture, distinct from the classical so-called Richardson and parkinsonism presentations. The midcingulate cortex is associated with executive and attention tasks and has consistently been found to be impaired in imaging studies of patients with PSP. The aim of the present study was to determine alterations in neurotransmission underlying the pathophysiology of PSP, as well as their significance for clinically identifiable PSP subgroups...
April 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393690/hepatic-amp-kinase-as-a-potential-target-for-treating-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-evidence-from-studies-of-natural-products
#6
Gang Xu, Kaixun Huang, Jun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease, is the leading cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis and has consistently been implicated in related metabolic disorders, such as dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains to be elucidated, and no established therapeutic regimens for treating NAFLD exist. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the main cellular energy sensor, has been implicated as a key regulator of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism...
April 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391901/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-negative-compound-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-two-lifetime-journeys-of-lipid-lowering-therapy
#7
Reyhana Yahya, Monique T Mulder, Eric J G Sijbrands, Monique Williams, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388636/characterization-and-mutational-analysis-of-a-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-deamidase-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-showing-high-thermal-stability-and-catalytic-efficiency
#8
Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino, Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Antonio Ginés García-Saura, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Among the enzymes involved in its recycling, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase is one of the key players in the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of NMN into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which is later converted to NAD+ in the Preiss-Handler pathway. The biochemical characteristics of bacterial NMN deamidases have been poorly studied, although they have been investigated in some firmicutes, gamma-proteobacteria and actinobacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386045/naadp-mediated-ca-2-signaling-promotes-autophagy-and-protects-against-lps-induced-liver-injury
#9
So-Young Rah, Young-Hoon Lee, Uh-Hyun Kim
LPS has been shown to induce hepatocyte autophagy, but little is known about how LPS is able to do this during acute toxic liver injury. Our aim was to determine the existence of any selective Ca(2+) signaling coupling to hepatocyte autophagy in response to LPS. LPS increased the autophagic process in hepatocytes, and CD38 knockdown prevented this response. Ned19, a specific inhibitor for nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), prevented LPS-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and autophagosome formation in hepatocytes...
April 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383252/prescreening-of-nicotine-hapten-linkers-in-vitro-to-select-hapten-conjugate-vaccine-candidates-for-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-in-vivo
#10
Viswanath Arutla, Joseph Leal, Xiaowei Liu, Sriram Sokalingam, Michael Raleigh, Adejimi Adaralegbe, Li Liu, Paul R Pentel, Sidney M Hecht, Yung Chang
Since the demonstration of nicotine vaccines as a possible therapeutic intervention for the effects of tobacco smoke, extensive effort has been made to enhance nicotine specific immunity. Linker modifications of nicotine haptens have been a focal point for improving the immunogenicity of nicotine, in which the evaluation of these modifications usually relies on in vivo animal models, such as mice, rats or nonhuman primates. Here, we present two in vitro screening strategies to estimate and predict the immunogenic potential of our newly designed nicotine haptens...
April 17, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374970/human-bj-fibroblasts-is-an-alternative-to-mouse-balb-c-3t3-cells-in-in-vitro-neutral-red-uptake-assay
#11
Marika Mannerström, Tarja Toimela, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Tuula Heinonen
The OECD GD 129 BALB/c 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay is a standardized test method for estimating starting dose for an acute oral systemic toxicity test in rodents. Mouse BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts are the most commonly used cells in the NRU assay. We have previously transferred and validated BALB/c 3T3 NRU assay in our GLP laboratory. Subsequently, in order to obtain more human relevant cytotoxicity data, we performed an intra-laboratory validation using human BJ fibroblasts in the NRU assay instead of mouse BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts...
April 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374913/liposomes-as-a-putative-tool-to-investigate-naadp-signaling-in-vasculogenesis
#12
Francesca Di Nezza, Estella Zuccolo, Valentina Poletto, Vittorio Rosti, Antonio De Luca, Francesco Moccia, Germano Guerra, Luigi Ambrosone
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the newest discovered intracellular second messengers, which is able to release Ca(2+) stored within endolysosomal (EL) vesicles. NAADP-induced Ca(2+) signals mediate a growing number of cellular functions, ranging from proliferation to muscle contraction and differentiation. Recently, NAADP has recently been shown to regulate angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell growth. It is, however, still unknown whether NAADP stimulates proliferation also in endothelial progenitor cells, which are mobilized in circulation after an ischemic insult to induce tissue revascularization...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374531/from-nad-to-ni-pincer-complex-a-significant-cofactor-evolution-presented-by-lactate-racemase
#13
Ming-Jia Yu, Shi-Lu Chen
Lactate racemase (LarA), a new Ni enzyme discovered recently, catalyzes the racemization between D- and L-lactates via a novel Ni pincer cofactor (Ni-PTTMN) derived from nicotinic acid. Here, using DFT and a 200-atom active-site model, LarA is revealed to employ a modified proton-coupled hydride transfer mechanism where a hydride is transferred to a cofactor pyridine carbon from the substrate α-carbon along with a proton transfer from the substrate hydroxyl to a histidine, and then moved back from the opposite side...
April 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358223/ameliorative-effects-of-pyrazinoic-acid-against-oxidative-and-metabolic-stress-manifested-in-rats-with-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colonic-carcinoma
#14
Anil K Sahdev, Vinit Raj, Ashok K Singh, Amit Rai, Amit K Keshari, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Umesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Dinesh Kumar, Sneha Nath, Anand Prakash, Sudipta Saha
Pyrazinoic acid (PA) is structurally similar to nicotinic acid which acts on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR109A). GPR109A expresses in colonic and intestinal epithelial sites, and involves in DNA methylation and cellular apoptosis. Therefore, it may be assumed that PA has similar action like nicotinic acid and may be effective against colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CRC was produced via subcutaneous injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight once in a week for four weeks. After that, PA was administered orally at two doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg daily for 15 days to observe the antiproliferative effect...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358153/domino-reaction-of-cyclic-sulfamidate-imines-with-morita-baylis-hillman-acetates-promoted-by-dabco-a-metal-free-approach-to-functionalized-nicotinic-acid-derivatives
#15
Debashis Majee, Soumen Biswas, Shaikh M Mobin, Sampak Samanta
A facile, green, metal-free new one-pot synthetic strategy has been developed for easy access to a wide array of medicinally promising functionalized pyridines having an ester, a nitrile or an acetyl group at the C-3 position in good to excellent yields via a domino SN2/elimination/6π-aza-electrocyclization/aromatization reaction of several 4-aryl/hetero-aryl-substituted 5-membered cyclic sulfamidate imines with a broad range of MBH acetates of acrylate/acrylonitrile/MVK in 2-MeTHF promoted by DABCO as an organobase under an O2 atmosphere...
April 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357121/uricosuric-targets-of-tranilast
#16
Asim K Mandal, Adriana Mercado, Andria Foster, Kambiz Zandi-Nejad, David B Mount
Uric acid, generated from the metabolism of purines, has both proven and emerging roles in human disease. Serum uric acid in humans is determined by production and by the net balance of reabsorption and secretion in kidney and intestine. In the human kidney, epithelial reabsorption dominates over secretion, such that in normal subjects there is at least 90% net reabsorption of filtered urate resulting in a fractional excretion of <10%. Tranilast, an anti-inflammatory drug with pleiotropic effects, has a marked hypouricemic, uricosuric effect in humans...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356017/antitumor-activity-of-copper-i-nicotinate-complex-and-autophagy-modulation-in-hcc1806-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Mohamed A Abdel-Mohsen, Eman S El-Shafey, Camelia A Abdel Malak, Morsy M Abou-Yossef
BACKGROUND: TNBC is a heterogeneous aggressive disease, therefore, its treatment is challenging. Increased attention has been paid to metal complexes as anticancer drugs. However, new insights towards autophagy have been recognized due to its role in tumor cell death or survival. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the antitumor activity of copper (I) nicotinate complex (CNC) as new therapeutic agent and understand the role of autophagy modulation as a prospective target for the advancement of efficient therapeutic agent for TNBC treatment...
March 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349880/anti-inflammatory-and-antithrombotic-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-in-oral-contraceptive-induced-insulin-resistance-is-glucocorticoid-independent
#18
Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Oluwaseun Aremu Adeyanju, Emmanuel Damilare Areola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye
BACKGROUND: Reports showed that estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive (COC) or tobacco smoking causes increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in premenopausal women. Studies also suggest that nicotine; a major tobacco alkaloid may worsen or improve atherothrombotic CVD. Altered hemorheology, prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory biomarkers, have been implicated in the development of atherothrombotic CVD events. However, the effect of non-smoking nicotine exposure on these biomarkers during COC treatment is not yet established...
December 19, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342135/pacap-protects-against-ethanol-and-nicotine-toxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells-implications-for-drinking-smoking-co-morbidity
#19
Sridharan Manavalan, Bruk Getachew, Kebreten F Manaye, Syed J Khundmiri, Antonei B Csoka, Raechel McKinley, Andrea Tamas, Dora Reglodi, Yousef Tizabi
The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340569/an-immunohistochemical-enzymatic-and-behavioral-study-of-cd157-bst-1-as-a-neuroregulator
#20
Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong, Takahiro Tsuji, Chiharu Tsuji, Olga Lopatina
BACKGROUND: Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans...
March 24, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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