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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937586/monitoring-the-temporal-expression-of-genes-involved-in-ochratoxin-a-production-of-aspergillus-carbonarius-under-the-influence-of-temperature-and-water-activity
#1
Iliada K Lappa, Dimosthenis Kizis, Efstathios Z Panagou
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of environmental factors, namely temperature and water activity, on genes involved in the regulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) production over time. For this purpose, the previously characterized toxigenic Aspergilluscarbonarius Ac29 isolate from Greek vineyards and the A. carbonarius ITEM 5010 reference strain were subjected to combined temperature and water activity (aw) treatments to study OTA production and relative gene expression. The fungal isolates were grown on a synthetic grape juice liquid medium (SGM) under different temperature (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) and aw (0...
September 22, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936872/characterization-of-lipophilized-monomeric-and-oligomeric-grape-seed-flavan-3-ol-derivatives
#2
Mingshun Chen, Shu-Juan Yu
Grape seed proanthocyanidins, compose of flavan-3-ols of different degree of polymerization, are natural food antioxidant. Flavan-3-ols in grape seed are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibiting hydrophilic character. Monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols were modified structurally to improve their lipophilicity, expand their application in lipophilic media, and enhance their cellular absorption in the body. Esterification of the water-soluble flavan-3-ols was prepared by Lipozyme TL IM with lauric acid, and their enhanced lipophilicity was confirmed by 1-octanol/water partition coefficient...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936776/brettanomyces-bruxellensis-yeasts-impact-on-wine-and-winemaking
#3
REVIEW
Monica Agnolucci, Antonio Tirelli, Luca Cocolin, Annita Toffanin
Yeasts belonging to the Brettanomyces/Dekkera genus are non-conventional yeasts, which affect winemaking by causing wine spoilage all over the world. This mini-review focuses on recent results concerning the presence of Brettanomyces bruxellensis throughout the wine processing chain. Here, culture-dependent and independent methods to detect this yeast on grapes and at the very early stage of wine production are encompassed. Chemical, physical and biological tools, devised for the prevention and control of such a detrimental species during winemaking are also presented...
September 21, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936721/a-novel-resveratrol-derivative-selectively-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-with-kras-mutation
#4
Haruna Okamoto, Taiji Matsukawa, Satoshi Doi, Toshiyuki Tsunoda, Yuuga Sawata, Madoka Naemura, Koichiro Ohnuki, Senji Shirasawa, Yojiro Kotake
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound in many edible foods including grapes, peanuts, and berries. Several studies have revealed the beneficial effects of resveratrol against various diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, neurological disorders, and cancer. A recent study showed that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells in three-dimensional culture (3DC) via induction of luminal apoptosis in HCT116 cell spheroids. In this study, we showed that a novel compound, caffeic acid-adducted resveratrol, has a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of HCT116 cell spheroids in 3DC than resveratrol...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936215/omics-approaches-for-understanding-grapevine-berry-development-regulatory-networks-associated-with-endogenous-processes-and-environmental-responses
#5
REVIEW
Alejandra Serrano, Carmen Espinoza, Grace Armijo, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Evelyn Poblete, Carlos Meyer-Regueiro, Anibal Arce, Francisca Parada, Claudia Santibáñez, Patricio Arce-Johnson
Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I), lag (II), and ripening (III), in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934927/evolution-and-expression-analysis-reveal-the-potential-role-of-the-hd-zip-gene-family-in-regulation-of-embryo-abortion-in-grapes-vitis-vinifera-l
#6
Zhiqian Li, Chen Zhang, Yurui Guo, Weili Niu, Yuejin Wang, Yan Xu
BACKGROUND: The HD-Zip family has a diversity of functions during plant development. In this study, we identify 33 HD-Zip transcription factors in grape and detect their expressions in ovules and somatic embryos, as well as in various vegetative organs. RESULTS: A genome-wide survey for HD-Zip transcription factors in Vitis was conducted based on the 12 X grape genome (V. vinifera L.). A total of 33 members were identified and classified into four subfamilies (I-IV) based on phylogeny analysis with Arabidopsis, rice and maize...
September 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933917/grape-and-wine-polymeric-polyphenols-their-importance-in-enology
#7
Lingxi Li, Baoshan Sun
Phenolic compounds are important constituents of red wine, contributing to its sensory properties and antioxidant activity. Owing to the diversity and structural complexity, study of these compounds was mainly limited, during the last three decades, on their low-molecular-mass compounds or simple phenolic compounds. Only in recent years, much attention has been paid to highly polymerized polyphenols in grape and red wines. The reason for this is largely due to the development of analytical techniques, especially those of HPLC-ESI-MS, permitting the structural characterization of highly polymerized polyphenols...
September 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932378/benefits-of-ellagic-acid-from-grapes-and-pomegranates-against-colorectal-cancer
#8
Sayedalireza Mirsane, Sayedmojtaba Mirsane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#9
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928759/identification-of-biomarkers-for-defense-response-to-plasmopara-viticola-in-a-resistant-grape-variety
#10
Giulia Chitarrini, Evelyn Soini, Samantha Riccadonna, Pietro Franceschi, Luca Zulini, Domenico Masuero, Antonella Vecchione, Marco Stefanini, Gabriele Di Gaspero, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek
Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928526/the-growing-season-impacts-the-accumulation-and-composition-of-flavonoids-in-grape-skins-in-two-crop-a-year-viticulture
#11
Lei Zhu, Yu Huang, Yali Zhang, Changmou Xu, Jiang Lu, Ying Wang
The influence of growing season (winter vs. summer) on the flavonoid accumulation and composition was studied in the skins of three grape cultivars for two consecutive years under a two-crop-a-year viticulture practice in Southwest China. The total anthocyanin, flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents in winter berry skins were significantly higher than those in summer berry skins for 'Kyoho' and 'Muscat Hamburg'. Reversely, the content of anthocyanin in 'NW196' winter berry was lower than summer berry. However, the percentage of diglycosylated, trihydroxylated, methylated, and acylated anthocyanins, trihydroxylated and methylated flavonols, and flavan-3-ol polymers were higher in the summer berry skins than the winter berry skins among all the three grape cultivars...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928504/bioactivity-based-antioxidative-components-screening-and-evaluation-in-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract
#12
Jie Gao, Shengtao Lv, Changzhi Li, Jin Tao, Chengqi Jia, Min Jiang, Yuanyuan Hou, Xiaotao Hou, Jiagang Deng, Gang Bai
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a type of functional food, possesses potent antioxidant activity. In this study, GSPE protected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells from H2O2-induced cell injury and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The key effective constituents that exerted the most potent antioxidative activity in GSPE were screened by using a modified ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) integrated 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation antioxidative activity analysis system...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926983/expression-of-the-grape-vasts19-gene-in-arabidopsis-improves-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-botrytis-cinerea-but-increases-susceptibility-to-pseudomonas-syringe-pv-tomato-dc3000
#13
Yaqiong Wang, Dejun Wang, Fan Wang, Li Huang, Xiaomin Tian, Steve van Nocker, Hua Gao, Xiping Wang
Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925975/new-insights-into-the-genome-organization-of-yeast-killer-viruses-based-on-atypical-killer-strains-characterized-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#14
Manuel Ramírez, Rocío Velázquez, Antonio López-Piñeiro, Belén Naranjo, Francisco Roig, Carlos Llorens
Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed...
September 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924329/a-computational-tool-for-accelerated-analysis-of-oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-in-plants
#15
Mengliang Zhang, Jianghao Sun, Pei Chen
A computational tool was developed to facilitate proanthocyanidin analysis using data collected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-HRAM-MS). Both identification and semi-quantitation of proanthocyanidins can be achieved by the developed computational tool. It can extract proanthocyanidin chromatographic peaks, deconvolute the isotopic patterns of A-type, B-type, and multi-charged proanthocyanidins ions, and predict proanthocyanidin structures...
March 2017: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923723/efficacy-and-field-applicability-of-burmese-grape-leaf-extract-bgle-for-cadmium-removal-an-implication-of-metal-removal-from-natural-water
#16
Rinkumoni Borah, Deepa Kumari, Anindita Gogoi, Sunayana Biswas, Ritusmita Goswami, Jaehong Shim, Naznin Ara Begum, Manish Kumar
Burmese Grape Leaf Extract (BGLE), a low cost adsorbent was studied for cadmium (Cd(II)) removal from metal solutions and natural water samples. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of contact time and initial metal concentration after characterization under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cd(II)adsorptiononto BGLE was best explained by pseudo-second order kinetics (R(2) = 0.99) and best fitted with Langmuir isotherm model (R(2) = 0.76). Beside the selective adsorption activity of BGLE towards Cd(II), only 0...
September 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922915/influence-of-fermentation-temperature-yeast-strain-and-grape-juice-on-the-aroma-chemistry-and-sensory-profile-of-sauvignon-blanc-wines
#17
Rebecca Christina Deed, Bruno Fedrizzi, Richard C Gardner
Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold ferments produce and retain more 'fruity' aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 °C and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2 and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922729/lithium-induced-oxidative-damage-and-inflammation-in-the-rat-s-heart-protective-effect-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract
#18
Ali Mezni, Hanène Aoua, Olfa Khazri, Ferid Limam, Ezzeddine Aouani
Lithium (Li) is a relevant mood stabilizer metal for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), as it protects from both depression and mania and reduces the risk of suicide. However, Lihas some clinical concerns as a narrow therapeutic index requiring routine monitoring of the serum level. The present study was designed to analyze the cardio-toxic side effect of Li and the ability of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) to protect the heart against such toxicity. After 30days of exposure to Li (0, 2, 5 and 100mg/kg bw) and prevention with GSSE (4000mg/kg bw), rats were killed by decapitation and their heart processed for Li-induced oxidative stress...
September 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922393/a-set-of-nutrient-limitations-trigger-yeast-cell-death-in-a-nitrogen-dependent-manner-during-wine-alcoholic-fermentation
#19
Camille Duc, Martine Pradal, Isabelle Sanchez, Jessica Noble, Catherine Tesnière, Bruno Blondin
Yeast cell death can occur during wine alcoholic fermentation. It is generally considered to result from ethanol stress that impacts membrane integrity. This cell death mainly occurs when grape musts processing reduces lipid availability, resulting in weaker membrane resistance to ethanol. However the mechanisms underlying cell death in these conditions remain unclear. We examined cell death occurrence considering yeast cells ability to elicit an appropriate response to a given nutrient limitation and thus survive starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914789/phytochemical-constituents-health-benefits-and-industrial-applications-of-grape-seeds-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang
Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate...
September 15, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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