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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#1
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512461/transcriptional-responses-to-pre-flowering-leaf-defoliation-in-grapevine-berry-from-different-growing-sites-years-and-genotypes
#2
Sara Zenoni, Silvia Dal Santo, Giovanni B Tornielli, Erica D'Incà, Ilaria Filippetti, Chiara Pastore, Gianluca Allegro, Oriana Silvestroni, Vania Lanari, Antonino Pisciotta, Rosario Di Lorenzo, Alberto Palliotti, Sergio Tombesi, Matteo Gatti, Stefano Poni
Leaf removal is a grapevine canopy management technique widely used to modify the source-sink balance and/or microclimate around berry clusters to optimize fruit composition. In general, the removal of basal leaves before flowering reduces fruit set, hence achieving looser clusters, and improves grape composition since yield is generally curtailed more than proportionally to leaf area itself. Albeit responses to this practice seem quite consistent, overall vine performance is affected by genotype, environmental conditions, and severity of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511592/cytotoxicity-mutagenicity-and-antimutagenicity-of-the-gentisic-acid-on-htc-cells
#3
Flavia Maria Lima Cavalcante, Igor Vivian Almeida, Elisângela Düsman, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini
Gentisic acid (GA) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic activities. This substance can be found in citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and peas. Considering that there are few studies in the literature on the toxicity of GA, the present work aimed to investigate its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities on HTC cells. GA was diluted in culture medium at the final concentration of 0.08, 0.16, 0.8, 1.6, and 8 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue exclusion method, with methyl methanesulfonate and doxorubicin as positive controls, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507011/influence-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
M José Bagur, M Antonia Murcia, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Josep A Tur, M Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo L Alonso, Magdalena Martínez-Tomé
Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the influence of diet on MS was therefore conducted. The literature search was conducted by using Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE) via PubMed and Scopus. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504346/harvesting-and-blending-options-for-lower-alcohol-wines-a-sensory-and-chemical-investigation
#5
Rocco Longo, John W Blackman, Guillaume Antalick, Peter J Torley, Suzy Y Rogiers, Leigh M Schmidtke
BACKGROUND: Lower alcohol wines often have a poor reputation among consumers, in part due to their unsatisfactory flavours such as reduced overall aroma intensity or herbaceous characters. The aim of this study, performed on Verdelho and Petit Verdot, was to quantify the effectiveness of a monovarietal blend in which wines made from less ripe grapes were blended with an equivalent volume of a wine vinified from riper fruit to produce wines with a lower alcohol content and desirable ripe fruit flavours...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504125/preparation-of-chitosan-tio2-composite-film-with-efficient-antimicrobial-activities-under-visible-light-for-food-packaging-applications
#6
Xiaodong Zhang, Gang Xiao, Yaoqiang Wang, Yan Zhao, Haijia Su, Tianwei Tan
By incorporation of TiO2 nano-powder in chitosan, a chitosan-TiO2 composite film was prepared with efficient antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogenic microbes and expected to be a promising food packaging material. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the TiO2 nano-powder was successfully and uniformly dispersed into the chitosan matrix. TiO2 addition led to enhanced hydrophilicity, to better mechanical properties, and to decreased light transmittance in visible light region of the composite film...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503773/the-table-grape-victoria-with-a-long-shaped-berry-a-potential-mutation-with-attractive-characteristics-for-consumers
#7
Giuseppe Ferrara, Alessandra Gallotta, Carmela Pacucci, Angela Maria Stella Matarrese, Andrea Mazzeo, Angelica Giancaspro, Agata Gadaleta, Francesca Piazzolla, Giancarlo Colelli
BACKGROUND: Puglia is the most important region in Italy for table grape production. Since consumers look for new products, the number of table grape varieties is strongly increasing in the last years. RESULTS: In a survey in the Puglia region, we identified several years ago a potential mutation of the cv. Victoria. We described this accession in comparison with the standard Victoria for some amphelographic characteristics. All the characteristics were very similar to the standard Victoria except for the berry shape, which was significantly more elongated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#8
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500724/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-ameliorates-inflammation-and-adiposity-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-mice
#9
Wen Liu, Shaoqian Zhao, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Jie Hong, Ruixin Liu
SCOPE: Obesity and associated metabolic complications is a worldwide public health issue. Gut microbiota has been recently linked to obesity and its related inflammation. In this study, we have explored the anti-inflammatory effect of grape seed proanthocyanindin extract (GSPE) in the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and identified the contribution of the gut microbiota to GSPE effects on metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without GSPE (300mg/kg body weight/day) by oral gavage for 7 weeks...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499242/potential-ameliorative-effects-of-grape-seed-derived-polyphenols-against-cadmium-induced-prostatic-deficits
#10
Yongfang Lei, Qian Chen, Jinglou Chen, Dong Liu
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is consumed as fruit and wine for people. In this study, rat model of prostatic deficits was induced by orally receiving 60mg/L cadmium chlorine (CdCl2) through drinking water for 20 weeks. Grape seed-derived polyphenols extract (GSP) was orally given for 20 weeks. Finally, the prostatic levels of E-cadherin, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were measured by immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis. The oxidative stress was measured by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione and enzymatic antioxidant status...
May 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496992/flavored-little-cigar-smoke-induces-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-airway-epithelia
#11
Arunava Ghosh, Rachel C Nethery, Amy H Herring, Robert Tarran
Addition of flavors reduces the harsh taste of tobacco, facilitating the initiation and maintenance of addiction among youths. Flavored cigarettes (except menthol) are now banned. However, the legislation on little cigars remains unclear and flavored little cigars are currently available for purchase. Since inhaled tobacco smoke directly exerts toxic effects on the lungs, we tested whether non-flavored and flavored little cigar smoke exposure had the potential for harm in cultured pulmonary epithelia. We cultured Calu-3 lung epithelia on both 96-well plates and at the air-liquid interface and exposed them to smoke from non-flavored Swisher Sweets and flavored (sweet cherry, grape, menthol, peach and strawberry) Swisher Sweets little cigars...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496453/grapevine-grafting-scion-transcript-profiling-and-defense-related-metabolites-induced-by-rootstocks
#12
Walter Chitarra, Irene Perrone, Carla G Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Paolo Boccacci, Deborah Santini, Giovanna Gilardi, Ilenia Siciliano, Maria L Gullino, Massimo Delledonne, Franco Mannini, Giorgio Gambino
Rootstocks are among the main factors that influence grape development as well as fruit and wine composition. In this work, rootstock/scion interactions were studied using transcriptomic and metabolic approaches on leaves of the "Gaglioppo" variety, grafted onto 13 different rootstocks growing in the same vineyard. The whole leaf transcriptome of "Gaglioppo" grafted onto five selected rootstocks showed high variability in gene expression. In particular, significant modulation of transcripts linked to primary and secondary metabolism was observed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495310/resveratrol-inhibits-urban-particulate-matter-induced-cox-2-pge2-release-in-human-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-via-the-inhibition-of-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#13
Ming-Horng Tsai, Lee-Fen Hsu, Chiang-Wen Lee, Yao-Chang Chiang, Ming-Hsueh Lee, Jia-Mei How, Ching-Mei Wu, Chieh-Liang Huang, I-Ta Lee
Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play a role in joint synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some evidence indicates that particulate matter (PM) in air pollution could contribute to the progression of RA. However, more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found mainly in grapes and red wine, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491066/robust-phylogeny-of-tetrastigma-vitaceae-based-on-ten-plastid-dna-regions-implications-for-infrageneric-classification-and-seed-character-evolution
#14
Sadaf Habib, Viet-Cuong Dang, Stefanie M Ickert-Bond, Jin-Long Zhang, Li-Min Lu, Jun Wen, Zhi-Duan Chen
Tetrastigma (Miq.) Planch. is one of the most species-rich genera of the economically and agronomically important grape family Vitaceae. It includes ca. 95 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Australia. Species of Tetrastigma exhibit great diversity in both vegetative and reproductive characters. Here we inferred a well-supported phylogeny of Tetrastigma based on ten chloroplast DNA regions with an expanded taxon sampling of 72 species and two varieties. Our molecular results support six major clades within Tetrastigma and the relationships among these clades were well-resolved...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490147/thermal-degradation-kinetics-of-anthocyanins-extracted-from-ju%C3%A3-ara-euterpe-edulis-martius-and-italia-grapes-vitis-vinifera-l-and-the-effect-of-heating-on-the-antioxidant-capacity
#15
D V Peron, S Fraga, F Antelo
The effect of temperature on the degradation of anthocyanins in juçara and "Italia" grape extracts was determined between 50 and 90°C. For both species, thermal degradation followed a first-order kinetic model. The decimal reduction time decreased with increasing temperature, and dependence on the thermodegradable factor was lower at higher temperatures. The anthocyanins from juçara degraded more slowly than those extracted from "Italia" grapes. The activation enthalpy and free energy of inactivation indicated an endothermic reaction, not spontaneous degradation, whereas the activation entropy suggested that the transition state has less structural freedom than that of the reactants...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490118/study-of-phenolic-extractability-in-grape-seeds-by-means-of-atr-ftir-and-raman-spectroscopy
#16
Julio Nogales-Bueno, Berta Baca-Bocanegra, Abigail Rooney, José Miguel Hernández-Hierro, Hugh J Byrne, Francisco José Heredia
Near infrared hyperspectral imaging has been applied to grape seeds in order to select a representative subset of samples according to their spectral features in the 900-1700nm range. Afterwards, selected grape seeds have been classified according to their total phenol and flavanol extractabilities. In this way, samples were sorted in three different groups identified as low, medium and high extractability levels. In order to establish the chemical structures which can be responsible for the different extractabilities, vibrational spectroscopy has been applied to the non-extracted material after seed extractions...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490102/effect-of-grape-juice-press-fractioning-on-polysaccharide-and-oligosaccharide-compositions-of-pinot-meunier-and-chardonnay-champagne-base-wines
#17
Sandrine Jégou, Duc An Hoang, Thomas Salmon, Pascale Williams, Solomen Oluwa, Céline Vrigneau, Thierry Doco, Richard Marchal
Press fractioning is an important step in the production of sparkling base wines to segregate the grape juices with different qualities. Grape juice fractions were collected during the pressing cycle at industrial and laboratory scales. The Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines obtained from the free-run juice and the squeezed juices exhibited strong differences from the beginning to the last step of pressing cycle for numerous enological parameters. Significant changes in polysaccharide (PS) and oligosaccharide (OS) base wine composition and concentration were found as the pressing cycle progressed...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490092/the-contribution-of-wine-derived-monoterpene-glycosides-to-retronasal-odour-during-tasting
#18
Mango Parker, Cory A Black, Alice Barker, Wes Pearson, Yoji Hayasaka, I Leigh Francis
This study investigated the sensory significance of monoterpene glycosides during tasting, by retronasal perception of odorant aglycones released in-mouth. Monoterpene glycosides were isolated from Gewürztraminer and Riesling juices and wines, chemically characterised and studied using sensory time-intensity methodology, together with a synthesised monoterpene glucoside. When assessed in model wine at five times wine-like concentration, Gewürztraminer glycosides and geranyl glucoside gave significant fruity flavour, although at wine-like concentrations, or in the presence of wine volatiles, the effect was not significant...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490083/combining-hydrothermal-pretreatment-with-enzymes-de-pectinates-and-exposes-the-innermost-xyloglucan-rich-hemicellulose-layers-of-wine-grape-pomace
#19
Anscha J J Zietsman, John P Moore, Jonatan U Fangel, William G T Willats, Melané A Vivier
Chardonnay grape pomace was treated with pressurized heat followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, with commercial or pure enzymes, in buffered conditions. The pomace was unfermented as commonly found for white winemaking wastes and treatments aimed to simulate biovalorization processing. Cell wall profiling techniques showed that the pretreatment led to depectination of the outer layers thereby exposing xylan polymers and increasing the extractability of arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactan proteins and mannans...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490072/evolution-of-free-and-bound-volatile-aroma-compounds-and-phenols-during-fermentation-of-muscat-blanc-grape-juice-with-and-without-skins
#20
Igor Lukić, Cesare Lotti, Urska Vrhovsek
Recently, various technologies which utilise fermentation with skins have been developed for obtaining distinct white wines. This study first reports the dynamic changes of volatiles and phenols that occur during skin fermentation in white winemaking. Volatiles were analysed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC), and phenols by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), both with mass spectrometric detection. Monoterpenols increased during the first 3days of skin fermentation, after which certain glycosides decreased, but were higher than in control...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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