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shark liver oil

Michelle Pinault, Cyrille Guimaraes, Hélène Couthon, Jérôme Thibonnet, Delphine Fontaine, Aurélie Chantôme, Stephan Chevalier, Pierre Besson, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Christophe Vandier
Natural O -alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood plasma, and bone marrow. Only a few AEL are commercially available, while many others with saturated or mono-unsaturated alkyl chains of variable length are not available. These compounds are, however, necessary as standards for analytical methods...
March 23, 2018: Marine Drugs
Kajal Chakraborty, Dexy Joseph
Crude liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus was clarified by sequential degumming, decolorization and vacuum deodorization. The refined oil was added with ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds and various physiochemical parameters were evaluated in a time-reliant accelerated storage study. Significantly greater induction time was observed for the oil supplemented with Sargassum wightii and Sargassum ilicifolium (>4.5h) than other seaweed extracts and control oil (~1h). Among different seaweeds, the ethylacetate extracts of S...
January 2018: Food Research International
Dexy Joseph, Kajal Chakraborty
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited Vmax and Km of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol...
October 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tomoaki Tsutsumi, Satoshi Takatsuki, Reiko Teshima, Rieko Matsuda, Takahiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Akiyama
We determined the concentrations of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) in 46 dietary supplement products, containing the oil of fish, marine mammals, or egg yolk, on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014. Dioxins were detected in 43 of the 46 products tested at concentrations from 0.00015 to 67 pg TEQ/g. The highest concentration of dioxins was found in a shark liver oil product which varied insignificantly in five batches collected over a two-year period...
January 2018: Chemosphere
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
Diego Cardeñosa, Andrew Fields, Debra Abercrombie, Kevin Feldheim, Stanley K H Shea, Demian D Chapman
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded...
2017: PloS One
Dirk Steinke, Andrea M Bernard, Rebekah L Horn, Paul Hilton, Robert Hanner, Mahmood S Shivji
Continuously increasing demand for plant and animal products causes unsustainable depletion of biological resources. It is estimated that one-quarter of sharks and rays are threatened worldwide and although the global fin trade is widely recognized as a major driver, demand for meat, liver oil, and gill plates also represents a significant threat. This study used DNA barcoding and 16 S rRNA sequencing as a method to identify shark and ray species from dried fins and gill plates, obtained in Canada, China, and Sri Lanka...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Barbara J Bałan, Andrzej K Siwicki, Krzysztof Pastewka, Urszula Demkow, Piotr Skopiński, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Sławomir Lewicki, Robert Zdanowski
Tumor angiogenesis is an important link in the process of tumor growth and metastasis. A number of substances with an anti-angiogenic activity has been described, but their efficiency remains low. Many researchers believe that a better therapeutic effect could be achieved using a cocktail of several anti-angiogenic agents, having different points of action. A lot of synthetic and natural products of plant and animal origin have anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some combinations of angiogenesis inhibitors on the growth and neovascularization of murine sarcoma L-1 , and on angiogenesis induced in the mouse skin by grafting of human renal cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
January 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Vishnu Venugopal, Ajeeshkumar Kizhakkepurath Kumaran, Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee, Suvanish Kumar, Shyni Kavilakath, Jayarani Ramachandran Nair, Suseela Mathew
The objective of the present study was to characterize the liver oil extracted from the deep sea shark, Echinorhinus brucus, caught from Central Indian Ocean and to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y). Characterization of liver oil of Echinorhinus brucus revealed the presence of palmitic acid (15%), oleic acid (12%), stearic acid (8%), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (18%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (16%). It was also found to be a good source of squalene (38.5%) and fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, and K (vitamin A: 17...
2016: Scientifica
A Parri, Montserrat Fitó, C F Torres, D Muñoz-Aguayo, H Schröder, J F Cano, L Vázquez, G Reglero, María-Isabel Covas
Alkylglycerols (AKGs), isolated or present in shark liver oil have anti-inflammatory properties. Complement 3 (C3) and 4 (C4) participate in lipid metabolism and in obesity, contributing to the metabolic syndrome and to the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. In a randomized, controlled, crossover study, 26 non-diabetes obese individuals were assigned two preparations with low (LAC, 10 mg AKGs) and high (HAC, 20 mg AKGs) AKG content. Intervention periods were of 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods in which shark liver oil was avoided...
June 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Gopal Prasad Ghimire, Nguyen Huy Thuan, Niranjan Koirala, Jae Kyung Sohng
Squalene is a linear triterpene formed via the MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway and is widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, and animals. Metabolically, squalene is used not only as a precursor in the synthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as sterols, hormones, and vitamins, but also as a carbon source in aerobic and anaerobic fermentation in microorganisms. Owing to the increasing roles of squalene as an antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent, the demand for this chemical is highly urgent...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Naobumi Hamadate, Yoshiyuki Matsumoto, Kayoko Seto, Tetsuro Yamamoto, Hideyo Yamaguchi, Takashi Nakagawa, Etsushi Yamamoto, Mitsuhiko Fukagawa, Kazunaga Yazawa
Shark liver oil (SLO) has long been used as a traditional health food, with a particular benefit for vascular health, in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with SLO on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function in otherwise healthy middle-aged and older males with slightly increased arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design was used to assign 41 healthy males with a mean age of 59.0±4.0 years (range, 45-69 years) to either SLO (n=21) or placebo (n=20) treatment for eight weeks...
August 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
David W Hall, Susan N Marshall, Keith C Gordon, Daniel P Killeen
Squalene is sourced predominantly from shark liver oils and to a lesser extent from plants such as olives. It is used for the production of surfactants, dyes, sunscreen, and cosmetics. The economic value of shark liver oil is directly related to the squalene content, which in turn is highly variable and species-dependent. Presented here is a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis method for the quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with an accuracy of 99.0 %, precision of 0.23 % (standard deviation), and linearity of >0...
January 2016: Lipids
Itsumi Nakamura, Carl G Meyer, Katsufumi Sato
We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance...
2015: PloS One
Beniamino Palmieri, Alfonso Pennelli, Alessandro Di Cerbo
BACKGROUND: Shark liver oil (SLO) contains both alkylglycerols (AKG) and squalene and is an ancient remedy among the fishermen on the west coast of Norway and Sweden. Literature reports showed that alkyglycerols enhance Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis, increase humoral immune response and delay hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: On this background we performed an open spontaneous study on 40 very old aged surgical patients preoperatively treated with alkyglycerols (500 mg twice a day for 4 weeks), in order to reduce the risks of operation, counteracting the postoperative inflammatory and anergic conditions thus achieving quick and plain recovery...
2014: Lipids in Health and Disease
Linxi Qian, Mingshun Zhang, Shengmei Wu, Yan Zhong, Eric Van Tol, Wei Cai
Alkylglycerols (AKGs) are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed that oral AKGs administration significantly increased the immune response in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of AKGs on stimulating splenic lymphocyte responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Splenic B cells were purified and stimulated with anti-BCR and anti-CD38. Meanwhile, splenic CD4+ T cells were purified and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28...
2014: PloS One
Crystal L Beckmann, James G Mitchell, David A J Stone, Charlie Huveneers
Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pellets treated with fish or poultry oil and sampled every 6 weeks...
June 2014: Lipids
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: The article gives a brief description of "Ecomer", preparation containing shark liver oil. Main immunoactive ingredient of the shark liver oil are the alkylglycerols. The main characteristics of alkylglycerols are noted together with their mechanism of action. There is also a list of indications for Ecomer administration. There is a summary of the authors' experience with Ecomer, its efficacy in ObGyn being the main aim of this study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For the purpose of the study Ecomer is given to two main groups of patients: I-pregnant women between 27 and 36 weeks of gestation having two subgroups: 1--with 8 women with naso-pharyngeal complaints and 2--with 13 patients with urinary tract complaints, suggestive of cysto-pyelitic disorders and II main group of patients operated for cervical cancer in different stages with two subgroups--1 with 17 patients with Ecomer intake started at the beginning of the radiation therapy, and 2 with 6 patients who began taking Ecomer before the beginning of the radiation therapy, after having a histologically proved diagnose...
2013: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
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