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shark liver oil

Viacheslav G Rybin, Andrey B Imbs, Darja A Demidkova, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Monoalkyldiacylglycerol (MADAG) is an important lipid class in mollusks, corals, starfishes, and some species of zooplankton. Up to 80% of liver oils of squids and sharks are comprised of MADAG. Except for one fish species, there are no data on the composition of MADAG molecular species of marine organisms. The molecular species of MADAG obtained from digestive glands of the deep-sea squid Berryteuthis magister were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were applied...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Vishnu Venugopal, Ajeeshkumar Kizhakkepurath Kumaran, Niladri Sekhar Chatterjee, Suvanish Kumar, Shyni Kavilakath, Jayarani Ramachandran Nair, Suseela Mathew
The objective of the present study was to characterize the liver oil extracted from the deep sea shark, Echinorhinus brucus, caught from Central Indian Ocean and to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y). Characterization of liver oil of Echinorhinus brucus revealed the presence of palmitic acid (15%), oleic acid (12%), stearic acid (8%), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (18%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (16%). It was also found to be a good source of squalene (38.5%) and fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, and K (vitamin A: 17...
2016: Scientifica
A Parri, Montserrat Fitó, C F Torres, D Muñoz-Aguayo, H Schröder, J F Cano, L Vázquez, G Reglero, María-Isabel Covas
Alkylglycerols (AKGs), isolated or present in shark liver oil have anti-inflammatory properties. Complement 3 (C3) and 4 (C4) participate in lipid metabolism and in obesity, contributing to the metabolic syndrome and to the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. In a randomized, controlled, crossover study, 26 non-diabetes obese individuals were assigned two preparations with low (LAC, 10 mg AKGs) and high (HAC, 20 mg AKGs) AKG content. Intervention periods were of 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods in which shark liver oil was avoided...
June 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Gopal Prasad Ghimire, Nguyen Huy Thuan, Niranjan Koirala, Jae Kyung Sohng
Squalene is a linear triterpene formed via the MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway and is widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, and animals. Metabolically, squalene is used not only as a precursor in the synthesis of complex secondary metabolites such as sterols, hormones, and vitamins, but also as a carbon source in aerobic and anaerobic fermentation in microorganisms. Owing to the increasing roles of squalene as an antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent, the demand for this chemical is highly urgent...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Naobumi Hamadate, Yoshiyuki Matsumoto, Kayoko Seto, Tetsuro Yamamoto, Hideyo Yamaguchi, Takashi Nakagawa, Etsushi Yamamoto, Mitsuhiko Fukagawa, Kazunaga Yazawa
Shark liver oil (SLO) has long been used as a traditional health food, with a particular benefit for vascular health, in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with SLO on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function in otherwise healthy middle-aged and older males with slightly increased arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design was used to assign 41 healthy males with a mean age of 59.0±4.0 years (range, 45-69 years) to either SLO (n=21) or placebo (n=20) treatment for eight weeks...
August 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
David W Hall, Susan N Marshall, Keith C Gordon, Daniel P Killeen
Squalene is sourced predominantly from shark liver oils and to a lesser extent from plants such as olives. It is used for the production of surfactants, dyes, sunscreen, and cosmetics. The economic value of shark liver oil is directly related to the squalene content, which in turn is highly variable and species-dependent. Presented here is a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis method for the quantitation of squalene in shark liver oils, with an accuracy of 99.0 %, precision of 0.23 % (standard deviation), and linearity of >0...
January 2016: Lipids
Itsumi Nakamura, Carl G Meyer, Katsufumi Sato
We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance...
2015: PloS One
Beniamino Palmieri, Alfonso Pennelli, Alessandro Di Cerbo
BACKGROUND: Shark liver oil (SLO) contains both alkylglycerols (AKG) and squalene and is an ancient remedy among the fishermen on the west coast of Norway and Sweden. Literature reports showed that alkyglycerols enhance Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis, increase humoral immune response and delay hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: On this background we performed an open spontaneous study on 40 very old aged surgical patients preoperatively treated with alkyglycerols (500 mg twice a day for 4 weeks), in order to reduce the risks of operation, counteracting the postoperative inflammatory and anergic conditions thus achieving quick and plain recovery...
2014: Lipids in Health and Disease
Linxi Qian, Mingshun Zhang, Shengmei Wu, Yan Zhong, Eric Van Tol, Wei Cai
Alkylglycerols (AKGs) are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed that oral AKGs administration significantly increased the immune response in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of AKGs on stimulating splenic lymphocyte responses. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Splenic B cells were purified and stimulated with anti-BCR and anti-CD38. Meanwhile, splenic CD4+ T cells were purified and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28...
2014: PloS One
Crystal L Beckmann, James G Mitchell, David A J Stone, Charlie Huveneers
Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pellets treated with fish or poultry oil and sampled every 6 weeks...
June 2014: Lipids
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: The article gives a brief description of "Ecomer", preparation containing shark liver oil. Main immunoactive ingredient of the shark liver oil are the alkylglycerols. The main characteristics of alkylglycerols are noted together with their mechanism of action. There is also a list of indications for Ecomer administration. There is a summary of the authors' experience with Ecomer, its efficacy in ObGyn being the main aim of this study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For the purpose of the study Ecomer is given to two main groups of patients: I-pregnant women between 27 and 36 weeks of gestation having two subgroups: 1--with 8 women with naso-pharyngeal complaints and 2--with 13 patients with urinary tract complaints, suggestive of cysto-pyelitic disorders and II main group of patients operated for cervical cancer in different stages with two subgroups--1 with 17 patients with Ecomer intake started at the beginning of the radiation therapy, and 2 with 6 patients who began taking Ecomer before the beginning of the radiation therapy, after having a histologically proved diagnose...
2013: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Fabíola Iagher, Sérgio Ricardo de Brito Belo, Wanessa Mazanek Souza, Juliana Rehlander Nunes, Katya Naliwaiko, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Sandro José Ribeiro Bonatto, Heloísa Helena Paro de Oliveira, Gleisson Alisson Pereira Brito, Carina de Lima, Marcelo Kryczyk, Carine Ferreira de Souza, Jovani Antonio Steffani, Everson Araújo Nunes, Luiz Cláudio Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Shark liver oil (SLOil) and fish oil (FOil), which are respectively rich in alkylglycerols (AKGs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are able to reduce the growth of some tumors and the burden of cachexia. It is known that FOil is able to reduce proliferation rate and increase apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation of tumor cells efficiently. However, there are few reports revealing the influence of SLOil on these parameters. In the current study, effects of FOil chronic supplementation on tumor growth and cachexia were taken as reference to compare the results obtained with SLOil supplementation...
2013: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mingshun Zhang, Shuna Sun, Ning Tang, Wei Cai, Linxi Qian
Alkylglycerols (AKGs) from shark liver oil (SLO) were demonstrated to have strong potency to stimulate immune response. However, no study has been conducted on the effects of AKGs on diet-induced obesity and metabolic inflammatory disorder. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two AKGs isoforms on obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high-fat (HF) diet. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were divided into normal, HF, HF + 20 mg/kg selachyl alcohol (SA), HF + 200 mg/kg SA, HF + 20 mg/kg batyl alcohol (BA), and HF + 200 mg/kg BA groups...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jorge Ruelas-Inzunza, Carolina Delgado-Alvarez, Martín Frías-Espericueta, Federico Páez-Osuna
In Mexico, published studies relating to the occurrence of Hg in the environment are limited. Among the main sources of Hg in Mexico are mining and refining of Auand Hg, chloralkali plants, Cu smelting, residential combustion of wood, carbo electric plants, and oil refineries. Hg levels are highly variable in the atmospheric compartment because of the atmospheric dynamics and ongoing metal exchange with the terrestrial surface. In atmospheric studies, Hg levels are usually reported as total gaseous Hg (TGM)...
2013: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Katarzyna Wołosik, Małgorzata Knaś, Anna Zalewska, Marek Niczyporuk, Adrian Wojciech Przystupa
Squalene is a highly unsaturated hydrocarbon from triterpenoid family, discovered as a major component of the liver oil of certain varieties of deep sea sharks. In the interest of protecting biodiversity, raw materials of animal origin must be replaced by alternative sources that respect our environment. Squalene is widely present as a component of the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils (i.e., olive oil, amaranth oil). Amaranth oil seems to be the key source of squalene. Amaranth grains contains 7-7...
January 2013: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Przemysław Lewkowicz, Henryk Tchórzewski
Fish oils contain several active compounds that modify cell activity and influence various functions of the human body. Shark liver oils are rich in 1-O-alkylglycerols which have strong ability to stimulate human immune system. In this review we discuss findings of the recent studies that showed antitumor properties of 1-O-alkylglycerols derived from fish oils and its effect in adjunctive treatment of several types of cancer.
December 2012: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Óscar Fernández, Luis Vázquez, Guillermo Reglero, Carlos F Torres
Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of squalene-free shark liver oil was investigated. The mentioned shark liver oil was comprised mainly of diacylglycerol ether and triacylglycerols. In order to test discrimination against diacylglycerol ether, up to 10 different lipases were compared. The ratio of oil to ethanol and lipase stability were also evaluated. Surprisingly, lipase from Pseudomonas stutzeri was the fastest biocatalyst among all assayed, although poor discrimination against diacylglycerol ether was observed...
January 15, 2013: Food Chemistry
Se-Kwon Kim, Fatih Karadeniz
Squalene is a polyunsaturated hydrocarbon with a formula of C₃₀H₅₀. Squalene can be found in certain fish oils, especially shark liver oil, in high amounts and some vegetable oils in relatively smaller amounts. Human sebum also contains 13% squalene as one of its major constituents. Squalane is a saturated derivative of squalene and also found in these sources. Interest in squalene has been raised after its characterization in shark liver oil which is used as a traditional medicine for decades. Several studies exhibited results that prove certain bioactivities for squalene and squalane...
2012: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Fabíola Iagher, Sérgio Ricardo de Brito Belo, Katya Naliwaiko, Andressa Machado Franzói, Gleisson Alisson Pereira de Brito, Ricardo Key Yamazaki, Ana Lúcia Muritiba, Luis Alexandre Muehlmann, Jovani Antonio Steffani, Luiz Cláudio Fernandes
We investigated the effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO), an antitumor supplement source of n-3 fatty acids and 1-O-alkylglycerols, alone and combined with coconut fat (CF), a source of saturated fatty acids, on Walker 256 tumor growth and cachexia. Male rats were supplemented daily and orally with SLO and/or CF (1 g per kg body weight) for 7 wk. After 7 wk, 50% of animals were subcutaneously inoculated with 3 × 10(7) Walker 256 tumor cells. After 14 days, the rats were killed, the tumors were removed for lipid peroxidation measurement, and blood was collected for glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, and lacticidemia evaluation...
November 2011: Nutrition and Cancer
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