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Sami S AlAbdulwahab, Shaji John Kachanathu, Abdullah Saad AlSaeed
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students' ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students' cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Andrea Moglia, Luca Morelli, Vincenzo Ferrari, Mauro Ferrari, Franco Mosca, Alfred Cuschieri
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest for a test assessing objectively the innate aptitude for surgery as a craft specialty to complement the current selection process of surgical residents. The aim of this study was to quantify the size of individuals with high, average, and low level of innate psychomotor skills among medical students. METHODS: A volunteer sample of 155 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulator, executed five tasks at a virtual simulator for robot-assisted surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Pilar Mañas, Jorge de Las Heras
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to: firstly evaluate the response of nutrient uptake after applying 15 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, compost and a commercial fertiliser to soil in grain and straw of winter wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Vitron); secondly investigate the composition of the same parameters in the original soil and compare them with soil after applying fertiliser treatments. A field-scale experiment established the agronomic performance of air-dried sewage sludge and composted sludge for winter wheat...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
A McKinley, M Stevenson, K Steele
The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was introduced to assist in identification of applicants from all levels of society with the appropriate characteristics to become good doctors. Evidence that the UKCAT has achieved such widened participation (WP) in applicants to medical school remains elusive. One of the limitations to WP investigation has been that data on socioeconomic status of applicants to medical schools has been obtained through voluntary submission on application to UKCAT and up to 30% of applications offered either none or only limited information...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
Belén Rebollo, Javier Sarraseca, Mª José Rodríguez, Antonio Sanz, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Ángel Venteo
West Nile virus is a globally spread zoonotic arbovirus. The laboratory diagnosis of WNV infection relies on virus identification by RT-PCR or on specific antibody detection by serological tests, such as ELISA or virus-neutralization. These methods usually require a preparation of the whole virus as antigen, entailing biosafety issues and therefore requiring BSL-3 facilities. For this reason, recombinant antigenic structures enabling effective antibody recognition comparable to that of the native virions, would be advantageous as diagnostic reagents...
February 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
H Rolin, P Fossion, I Kotsou, C Leys
In this paper, we discuss various issues related to the concept of resilience, which is conventionally defined as a dynamic process allowing for a positive adaptation in a context of significant adversity. First, we try to draw the reader's attention to the importance of the concept of resilience in terms of public health. Second, we address the difficulty of measuring resilience in a relevant and operational manner. Third, we then address the question of whether resilience can be conceived only in the context of a confrontation with trauma, or whether its application can be relevant to the everyday nontraumatic adversity...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Vikas H Malojirao, V Vigneshwaran, Prabhu Thirusangu, Riaz Mahmood, B T Prabhakar
Aim Deformity in the cellular homeostatic event associated with cell survival and apoptosis are committing factors for carcinogenesis. Interventions of these events by pharmacologically active agent gain predominance in cancer treatment. In current investigation Solanidine, a steroidal alkaloid was evaluated on tumorigenesis by targeting death signal using multiple tumor cells and model systems. MAIN METHODS: Anti-proliferative effect was evaluated using cytotoxic studies. Prolonged cytotoxic effect of Solanidine was examined by colony formation assay...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Allan Ayella, Moriah R Beck
There is a growing movement to involve undergraduate students in authentic research experiences. A variety of studies have indicated the strength of this approach in developing scientific aptitude, confidence, critical thinking skills, and increasing the likelihood to become career scientists. Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) foster opportunities for students to carry out authentic research at both primarily undergraduate and large research institutions. Here, we describe a novel CURE-based biochemistry laboratory course to explore the consequences of mutagenesis of non-conserved amino acid sites in the structure and function of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and demonstrate how collaborations between institutions can facilitate real research experiences at any type of institution...
March 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Yera Hur, A Ra Cho, Mihye Kwon
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a systematic career-coaching program (SCCP) that can be used by medical teaching schools to address a growing need for career-coaching. The program objectives were to help students (1) develop a comprehensive self-understanding of their aptitudes, interests, and personality traits; (2) explore possible career choices and decide on a career path; and (3) develop the competencies needed to prepare for their future careers. METHODS: The SCCP was based on the ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model and decision-making questioning model...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Sally A Hageman, Anita J Tarzian, John Cagle
The costs of serious medical illness and end of life care are often a heavy burden for patients and families (Collins, Stepanczuk, Williams, & Rich, 2016 ; Kim, 2007 ; May et al., 2014 ; Zarit, 2004 ). Twenty-six practitioners, including social workers, managers/administrators, supervisors, and case managers from five health care settings, participated in qualitative semistructured interviews about financial challenges patients encountered. Seven practitioners took part in a focus group. Practitioners were recruited from hospice (n = 5), long-term care (n = 5), intensive care (n = 5), dialysis (n = 6), and oncology (n = 5)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Social Work in End-of-life & Palliative Care
Keesha L Roach, Patricia E Hershberger, Julienne N Rutherford, Robert E Molokie, Zaijie Jim Wang, Diana J Wilkie
Pain is the quintessential symptom for individuals suffering from sickle cell disease (SCD). Although the degree of suffering and the cost of treatment are staggering, SCD continues to be grossly understudied, including a lack of data for pain-related genes and prevalence of polymorphisms in this population. This lack of data adds to the inadequacy of pain therapy in this population. Pain genetics investigators have recently examined allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from candidate genes in people who have SCD...
March 1, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Mohammad Azizian Kalkhoran, Didier Vray
Optoacoustic ultrasound (OPUS) is a promising hybridized technique for simultaneous acquisition of functional and morphological data. The optical specificity of optoacoustic leverages the diagnostic aptitude of ultrasonography beyond anatomy. However, this integration has been rarely practiced for volumetric imaging. The challenge lies in the effective imaging probes that preserve the functionality of both modalities. The potentials of a sparse annular array for volumetric OPUS imaging are theoretically investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Victor Pereira, Paloma Carbajales, Marta López-Alonso, Marta Miranda
Animal feed has traditionally been supplemented with trace elements at dietary concentrations well above physiological needs. However, environmental concerns have led to calls for better adjustment of mineral supplementation to actual physiological needs and, in this context, consideration of breed-related differences in trace element requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze trace element concentrations in the main breeds used for intensive beef production in northern Spain (Holstein-Friesian [HF], Galician Blonde [GB], and GB × HF cross)...
February 24, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
K Maunder, K Walton, P Williams, M Ferguson, E Beck
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the eHealth readiness and changes over time of dietitians in Australia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional analyses of Australian dietitians were conducted in 2013 and 2016, using a survey adapted from one conducted in 2011 by the US Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The survey encompassed 30 questions on eHealth readiness across five dimensions: access, standards, attitude, aptitude and advocacy. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, chi-squared tests and Z-tests were computed to compare responses from the 2013 and 2016 surveys...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Varun Warrier, Simon Baron-Cohen
Difficulties in 'theory of mind' (the ability to attribute mental states to oneself or others, and to make predictions about another's behaviour based on these attributions) have been observed in several psychiatric conditions. We investigate the genetic architecture of theory of mind in 4,577 13-year-olds who completed the Emotional Triangles Task (Triangles Task), a first-order test of theory of mind. We observe a small but significant female-advantage on the Triangles Task (Cohen's d = 0.19, P < 0...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge A Colombo
Assertions regarding attempts to link glial and macrostructural brain events with cognitive performance regarding Albert Einstein, are critically reviewed. One basic problem arises from attempting to draw causal relationships regarding complex, delicately interactive functional processes involving finely tuned molecular and connectivity phenomena expressed in cognitive performance, based on highly variable brain structural events of a single, aged, formalin fixed brain. Data weaknesses and logical flaws are considered...
February 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Joye C Anestis, Michael D Anestis, Olivia C Preston
The capability to enact lethal self-harm has recently been highlighted as a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. Klonsky and May's (2015) three step theory of suicide (3ST) expanded upon the construct of the capability for suicide by dividing it into categories: dispositional, acquired, and practical. The current study examined constructs of Patrick and colleagues' (2009) triarchic model of psychopathy as indicators of dispositional capability in gun owners, a sample at heightened risk for death by suicide (Anestis and Houtsma, 2017)...
February 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
Prey selection governs species interactions and regulates physiological energetics of individuals and populations. Suspension-feeding bivalves represent key species in coastal and estuarine systems for their ecological and economic value. These animals are able to sort and selectively ingest nutritious microalgae from dilute and composite mixtures of particulate matter. This aptitude was suggested to be mediated by interactions between carbohydrates associated with the surface of microalgae and C-type lectins present in mucus covering the feeding organs although a direct, unequivocal, role of lectins in food sorting in bivalves remains elusive...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ben Kumwenda, Jennifer Cleland, Rachel Greatrix, Rhoda Katharine MacKenzie, Gordon Prescott
INTRODUCTION: Attracting graduates was recommended as a means of diversifying the UK medical student population. Graduates now make up nearly a quarter of the total medical student population. Research to date has focused on comparing the sociodemographic characteristics of applicants to and/or students on traditional and graduate entry programmes (GEMs), yet GEMs account for only 40% of the graduate medical student population. Thus, we aimed to compare the sociodemographic characteristic and outcomes of graduates and non-graduate applicants across a range of programmes...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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