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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148768/the-cyanopivaloyl-ester-in-the-automated-solid-phase-synthesis-of-oligorhamnans
#1
Anne Geert Volbeda, Jeanine van Mechelen, Nico Meeuwenoord, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen D C Codée
The development of effective protecting group chemistry is an important driving force behind the progress in the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides. Automated solid phase oligosaccharide synthesis is an attractive technique for the rapid assembly of oligosaccharides build up of repetitive elements. The fact that (harsh) reagents are used in excess in multiple reaction cycles make this technique extra demanding on the protecting groups used. Here, the synthesis of a set of oligorhamnan fragments is reported using the cyanopivaloyl (PivCN) ester, to ensure effective neighboring group participation during the glycosylation events...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142319/dna-metabarcoding-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-estuarine-macrobenthic-communities
#2
Jorge Lobo, Shadi Shokralla, Maria Helena Costa, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Filipe Oliveira Costa
Morphology-based profiling of benthic communities has been extensively applied to aquatic ecosystems' health assessment. However, it remains a low-throughput, and sometimes ambiguous, procedure. Despite DNA metabarcoding has been applied to marine benthos, a comprehensive approach providing species-level identifications for estuarine macrobenthos is still lacking. Here we report a combination of experimental and field studies to assess the aptitude of COI metabarcoding to provide robust species-level identifications for high-throughput monitoring of estuarine macrobenthos...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132658/-elderly-hospitalised-people-and-walking-capacities
#3
Camille Castel, Pascale Lescure, Gilles Loggia, Rémi Morello, Rémi De Mil, Guillaume Saint-Lorant
Falls in the elderly are frequent. A study carried out over 6 months in a university hospital's acute geriatric unit highlighted the real walking capacities of hospitalised elderly people. It also changed the perception of caregivers, doctors and nurses with regard to the real physical aptitudes of these patients enabling the risk of falls to be reduced in preparation for their return home or to a residential care home.
November 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092897/careers-at-biotech-start-ups-and-in-entrepreneurship
#4
REVIEW
Susan Froshauer
The world of biotechnology "start-ups" and entrepreneurship offers exciting new avenues for driving state-of-the-art research using an arsenal of multidisciplinary skills, whether your role is as part of a team or as a leader. Although traditionally these positions may not be as secure as those offered by some of the larger companies, the small start-up culture provides opportunities for contributing at many levels to a wide range of responsibilities: from scientific discovery to delivery of proof of concept and intellectual property; from analysis of market opportunities and competitive intelligence to creation of time lines and business plans for a first product...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076018/climate-change-fisheries-management-and-fishing-aptitude-affecting-spatial-and-temporal-distributions-of-the-barents-sea-cod-fishery
#5
Arne Eide
Climate change is expected to influence spatial and temporal distributions of fish stocks. The aim of this paper is to compare climate change impact on a fishery with other factors impacting the performance of fishing fleets. The fishery in question is the Northeast Arctic cod fishery, a well-documented fishery where data on spatial and temporal distributions are available. A cellular automata model is developed for the purpose of mimicking possible distributional patterns and different management alternatives are studied under varying assumptions on the fleets' fishing aptitude...
October 26, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070093/properties-and-aromatic-profile-of-dry-fermented-sausages-produced-from-kr%C3%A5-kopolje-pigs-reared-under-organic-and-conventional-rearing-regime
#6
M Škrlep, M Čandek-Potokar, U Tomažin, N Batorek Lukač, M Flores
Krškopolje pig, the only Slovenian autochtonous breed is still relatively untapped, with almost no information available on the effect of rearing conditions or its aptitude for processing and meat product quality. In the present study, dry-fermented sausages were produced from Krškopolje pigs that were fed similar diets (with regard to ingredients, energy and protein content) but reared in either conventional (CON) or organic conditions (ECO). Sausage weight losses at the end of processing were recorded and their final pH, chemical composition (moisture, fat and protein content, proteolysis index, fat and protein oxidation, fatty acid and free fatty acid profile) were determined in addition to measurements of instrumental texture, sensory evaluation and volatile profile analysis...
October 26, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063823/age-differences-in-vocal-emotion-perception-on-the-role-of-speaker-age-and-listener-sex
#7
Antarika Sen, Derek Isaacowitz, Annett Schirmer
Older adults have greater difficulty than younger adults perceiving vocal emotions. To better characterise this effect, we explored its relation to age differences in sensory, cognitive and emotional functioning. Additionally, we examined the role of speaker age and listener sex. Participants (N = 163) aged 19-34 years and 60-85 years categorised neutral sentences spoken by ten younger and ten older speakers with a happy, neutral, sad, or angry voice. Acoustic analyses indicated that expressions from younger and older speakers denoted the intended emotion with similar accuracy...
October 24, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061528/anterior-insular-thickness-predicts-speech-sound-learning-ability-in-bilinguals
#8
Stephen Matthew Rodriguez, Pilar Archila-Suerte, Kelly A Vaughn, Christine Chiarello, Arturo E Hernandez
A previous fMRI study of novel speech sound learning, tied to the methods and results presented here, identified groups of advanced and novice learners and related their classification to neural activity. To complement those results and better elucidate the role of the entire neural system in speech learning, the current study analyzed the neuroanatomical data with the goals of 1) uncovering the regions of interest (ROIs) that predicted speech learning performance in a sample of monolingual and bilingual adults, and 2) examining if the relationship between cortical thickness from selected ROIs and individual learning ability depends on language group...
October 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051767/combined-effects-of-irrigation-regime-genotype-and-harvest-stage-determine-tomato-fruit-quality-and-aptitude-for-processing-into-puree
#9
Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, David Page, Robert Giovinazzo, Nadia Bertin, Anne-Laure Fanciullino
Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045901/by-capturing-inflammatory-lipids-released-from-dying-cells-the-receptor-cd14-induces-inflammasome-dependent-phagocyte-hyperactivation
#10
Ivan Zanoni, Yunhao Tan, Marco Di Gioia, James R Springstead, Jonathan C Kagan
A heterogeneous mixture of lipids called oxPAPC, derived from dying cells, can hyperactivate dendritic cells (DCs) but not macrophages. Hyperactive DCs are defined by their ability to release interleukin-1 (IL-1) while maintaining cell viability, endowing these cells with potent aptitude to stimulate adaptive immunity. Herein, we found that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 captured extracellular oxPAPC and delivered these lipids into the cell to promote inflammasome-dependent DC hyperactivation...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040078/genetic-diversity-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-surface-water-and-groundwater-in-a-rural-environment
#11
Maria Laura Gambero, Monica Blarasin, Susana Bettera, Jesica Giuliano Albo
The genetic characteristics among Escherichia coli strains can be grouped by origin of isolation. Then, it is possible to use the genotypes as a tool to determine the source of water contamination. The aim of this study was to define water aptitude for human consumption in a rural basin and to assess the diversity of E. coli water populations. Thus, it was possible to identify the main sources of fecal contamination and to explore linkages with the hydrogeological environment and land uses. The bacteriological analysis showed that more than 50% of samples were unfit for human consumption...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039286/relationship-between-carcass-traits-prime-cuts-and-carcass-grading-from-foals-slaughtered-at-the-age-of-13-and-26-months-and-supplemented-with-standard-and-linseed-rich-feed
#12
M Ruiz, M V Sarriés, M J Beriain, S Crecente, R Domínguez, J M Lorenzo
In order to improve foal carcass quality, it is necessary in particular to improve the carcass dressing percentage and tissue composition. Thus, it is important to establish relationships between grading systems and these parameters. This research was conducted to study the effect of slaughter age (13 v. 26 months) and finishing feed (standard v. linseed feed) on carcass characteristics such as subcutaneous fat colour plus classification of foals for the degree of fatness and conformation. For this study, 46 foals of crossbred genotype (Galician Mountain×Burguete) were used...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034209/bridge-induced-translocation-between-nup145-and-top2-yeast-genes-models-the-genetic-fusion-between-the-human-orthologs-associated-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Valentina Tosato, Nicole West, Jan Zrimec, Dmitri V Nikitin, Giannino Del Sal, Roberto Marano, Michael Breitenbach, Carlo V Bruschi
In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT) that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970903/photoelectrocatalytic-h2-evolution-in-water-with-molecular-catalysts-immobilised-on-p-si-via-a-stabilising-mesoporous-tio2-interlayer
#14
Jane J Leung, Julien Warnan, Dong Heon Nam, Jenny Z Zhang, Janina Willkomm, Erwin Reisner
The development of photoelectrodes capable of light-driven hydrogen evolution from water is an important approach for the storage of solar energy in the form of a chemical energy carrier. However, molecular catalyst-based photocathodes remain scarcely reported and typically suffer from low efficiencies and/or stabilities due to inadequate strategies for interfacing the molecular component with the light-harvesting material. In this study, we report the straightforward preparation of a p-silicon|mesoporous titania|molecular catalyst photocathode assembly that is active towards proton reduction in aqueous media with an onset potential of +0...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970614/impact-of-standardized-simulated-patients-on-first-year-pharmacy-students-knowledge-retention-of-insulin-injection-technique-and-counseling-skills
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Riley Bowers, Robert Tunney, Kim Kelly, Beth Mills, Katie Trotta, C Neil Wheeless, Richard Drew
Objective. To compare pre- and post-intervention test scores assessing insulin injection technique and counseling skills among P1 students with (intervention) or without (control) simulated patients, and to compare counseling checklist and knowledge retention test scores between groups. Methods. This study utilized cluster randomization. In addition to traditional instruction, the intervention group counseled a simulated patient on the use of insulin using the teach-back method. Test score changes from baseline were analyzed via two-sample t-test...
August 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961154/general-ability-or-distinct-scholastic-aptitudes-a-multidimensional-validity-analysis-of-a-psychometric-higher-education-entrance-test
#16
Dvir Kleper, Noa Saka
The present study explored the construct validity of the Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for higher education in Israel, as represented by the factorial structure of the scholastic aptitudes it measures, and focused on whether the test presents a single measure of overall ability or a measure of the fields of knowledge that are being tested. In Study 1, we used Exploratory Factor Analysis to generate hypotheses regarding the factorial structure of the test. In Study 2, Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out to compare competing models that were constructed based on theoretical considerations and the results of Study 1...
2017: Journal of Applied Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955270/what-and-how-much-do-children-lose-in-academic-settings-owing-to-parental-separation
#17
Tania Corrás, Dolores Seijo, Francisca Fariña, Mercedes Novo, Ramón Arce, Ramón G Cabanach
The literature has firmly established an association between parental separation and school failure. Nevertheless, parental separation does not affect academic aptitudes. Thus, mediators explain such relationship. A field study was designed to identify and quantify damage in the mediating variables between parental separation and school failure (i.e., external school adjustment, aversion to institution, aversion to learning, aversion to instruction, aversion to teachers, indiscipline). A total of 196 children, classified into three age cohorts: 109 in level 1 (from 8 to 11 years), 46 in level 2 (from 12 to 14 years), and 41 in level 3 (15 or more years), were assessed in school adjustment and in underlying dimensions of school (mal)adjustment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935594/self-replicating-rna-vaccine-functionality-modulated-by-fine-tuning-of-polyplex-delivery-vehicle-structure
#18
Thomas Démoulins, Thomas Ebensen, Kai Schulze, Pavlos C Englezou, Maria Pelliccia, Carlos A Guzmán, Nicolas Ruggli, Kenneth C McCullough
The major limitations with large and complex self-amplifying RNA vaccines (RepRNA) are RNase-sensitivity and inefficient translation in dendritic cells (DCs). Condensing RepRNA with polyethylenimine (PEI) gave positive in vitro readouts, but was largely inferior to virus-like replicon particles (VRP) or direct electroporation. In the present study, we improved such polyplex formulation and determined that fine-tuning of the polyplex structure is essential for ensuring efficacious translation. Thereby, three parameters dominate: (i) PEI molecular weight (MW); (ii) RepRNA:PEI (weight:weight) ratio; and (iii) inclusion of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935261/optimization-of-the-solvent-based-dissolution-method-to-sample-volatile-organic-compound-vapors-for-compound-specific-isotope-analysis
#19
Daniel Bouchard, Philipp Wanner, Hong Luo, Patrick W McLoughlin, James K Henderson, Robert J Pirkle, Daniel Hunkeler
The methodology of the solvent-based dissolution method used to sample gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was optimized to lower the method detection limits for TCE and benzene. The sampling methodology previously evaluated by [1] consists in pulling the air through a solvent to dissolve and accumulate the gaseous VOC. After the sampling process, the solvent can then be treated similarly as groundwater samples to perform routine CSIA by diluting an aliquot of the solvent into water to reach the required concentration of the targeted contaminant...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922553/programmable-nucleic-acid-based-polygons-with-controlled-neuroimmunomodulatory-properties-for-predictive-qsar-modeling
#20
Morgan Brittany Johnson, Justin R Halman, Emily Satterwhite, Alexey V Zakharov, My N Bui, Kheiria Benkato, Victoria Goldsworthy, Taejin Kim, Enping Hong, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Emil F Khisamutdinov, Ian Marriott, Kirill A Afonin
In the past few years, the study of therapeutic RNA nanotechnology has expanded tremendously to encompass a large group of interdisciplinary sciences. It is now evident that rationally designed programmable RNA nanostructures offer unique advantages in addressing contemporary therapeutic challenges such as distinguishing target cell types and ameliorating disease. However, to maximize the therapeutic benefit of these nanostructures, it is essential to understand the immunostimulatory aptitude of such tools and identify potential complications...
September 18, 2017: Small
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