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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533183/dedicated-research-time-during-surgery-residency-leads-to-a-significant-decline-in-self-assessed-clinical-aptitude-and-surgical-skills
#1
Monica M Grova, Anthony D Yang, Misty D Humphries, Joseph M Galante, Edgardo S Salcedo
OBJECTIVE: The surgical community commonly perceives a decline in surgical and patient care skills among residents who take dedicated time away from clinical activity to engage in research. We hypothesize that residents perceive a decline in their skills because of dedicated research time. SETTING: UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, an institutional tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: General surgery residents and graduates from UC Davis general surgery residency training program, who had completed at least 1 year of research during their training...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520272/a-focus-on-polarity-investigating-the-role-of-orientation-cues-in-mediating-student-performance-on-mrna-synthesis-tasks-in-an-introductory-cell-and-molecular-biology-course
#2
Jeffrey T Olimpo, Daniel A Quijas, Anita M Quintana
The central dogma has served as a foundational model for information flow, exchange, and storage in the biological sciences for several decades. Despite its continued importance, however, recent research suggests that novices in the domain possess several misconceptions regarding the aforementioned processes, including those pertaining specifically to the formation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts. In the present study, we sought to expand upon these observations through exploration of the influence of orientation cues on students' aptitude at synthesizing mRNAs from provided deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template strands...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514897/biomaterials-and-bioactive-agents-in-spinal-fusion
#3
Rui M Duarte, Pedro Varanda, Rui L Reis, Ana Rita C Duarte, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Management of degenerative spine pathologies frequently leads to the need for spinal fusion, where bone growth is induced towards stabilization of the interventioned spine. Autologous bone graft (ABG) remains the gold standard inducer, while new bone graft substitutes attempt to achieve effective de novo bone formation and solid fusion. Limited fusion outcomes have driven motivation for more sophisticated and multidisciplinary solutions, involving new biomaterials and/or biologics, through innovative delivery platforms...
May 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507738/mark-e-josephson-clinical-investigator
#4
EDITORIAL
John M Miller
Mark E Josephson entered the world of clinical cardiac electrophysiology (EP) almost at its inception (1972); with so much to learn and so many directions one could take, he dived into the field with unbridled enthusiasm and an uncommon - perhaps almost unique - aptitude for asking questions and finding ways to answer them. Few aspects of EP escaped his indelible influence. In this short paper, I will attempt to touch on some of the high points of his astounding career as a clinical investigator.
April 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487664/engagement-persistence-and-gender-in-computer-science-results-of-a-smartphone-esm-study
#5
Carolina Milesi, Lara Perez-Felkner, Kevin Brown, Barbara Schneider
While the underrepresentation of women in the fast-growing STEM field of computer science (CS) has been much studied, no consensus exists on the key factors influencing this widening gender gap. Possible suspects include gender differences in aptitude, interest, and academic environment. Our study contributes to this literature by applying student engagement research to study the experiences of college students studying CS, to assess the degree to which differences in men and women's engagement may help account for gender inequity in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484409/studying-irony-detection-beyond-ironic-criticism-let-s-include-ironic-praise
#6
Richard Bruntsch, Willibald Ruch
Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457682/-quality-of-life-measures-in-sle-an-update
#7
H Devilliers, N Vernier, G Muller, A Turcu, M Samson, P Bielefeld, J-F Besancenot
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic disease that considerably hampers patient's daily living. Qualitative studies with patients' interviews have been conducted to describe the experiences and perspectives of adults living with SLE. Among existing generic and disease-specific quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, none succeeded to exhaustively measure patient's preoccupations. However, these tools are useful to quantify the burden of the disease. Social precariousness, socioeconomic status and education level are intimately correlated to QOL measures, either generic or disease-specific...
April 27, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439565/shared-temporoparietal-dysfunction-in-dyslexia-and-typical-readers-with-discrepantly-high-iq
#8
Roeland Hancock, John D E Gabrieli, Fumiko Hoeft
It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy...
December 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431734/gender-and-engineering-aptitude-is-the-color-of-science-technology-engineering-and-math-materials-related-to-children-s-performance
#9
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Bridget Miller, Victoria Rizzardi
To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416810/the-joint-impact-of-cognitive-performance-in-adolescence-and-familial-cognitive-aptitude-on-risk-for-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-delineation-of-four-potential-pathways-to-illness
#10
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411340/attainment-and-retention-of-force-moderation-following-laparoscopic-resection-training-with-visual-force-feedback
#11
Rafael Hernandez, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Francesco Travascio, Shihab Asfour
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic training with visual force feedback can lead to immediate improvements in force moderation. However, the long-term retention of this kind of learning and its potential decay are yet unclear. METHODS: A laparoscopic resection task and force sensing apparatus were designed to assess the benefits of visual force feedback training. Twenty-two male university students with no previous experience in laparoscopy underwent relevant FLS proficiency training...
April 14, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407002/attrition-and-performance-of-community-college-transfers
#12
Lovenoor Aulck, Jevin West
Community colleges are an important part of the US higher education landscape, yet the aptitude and preparedness of student transfers to baccalaureate institutions is often called into question. Examining transcript records and demographic information of nearly 70,000 students across over 15 years of registrar records at a public university, this study performed a descriptive analysis of the persistence, performance, and academic migration patterns of community college transfers, transfers from four-year institutions, and freshmen entrants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400009/autochthonous-lactic-acid-bacteria-with-probiotic-aptitudes-as-starter-cultures-for-fish-based-products
#13
Barbara Speranza, Angela Racioppo, Luciano Beneduce, Antonio Bevilacqua, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
This study focused on the selection of lactic starters with probiotic properties for the production of fermented fish-products by the use of a multivariate approach (Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis). Seventy-five isolates were recovered from fish intestinal microbiota and characterized by evaluating phenotypical, technological and probiotic traits; the most promising isolates were molecularly identified and then used into fish fermented sausage production. Namely, data from technological characterization were modelled through Growth Index and used as input to run a preliminary selection...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396034/optimizing-physician-skill-development-for-medical-students-the-four-part-assessment
#14
Justin J J Watson, Phillip M Kemp Bohan, Katrina Ramsey, John D Yonge, Christopher R Connelly, Richard J Mullins, Jennifer M Watters, Martin A Schreiber, Laszlo N Kiraly
BACKGROUND: Medical student performance has been poorly correlated with residency performance and warrants further investigation. We propose a novel surgical assessment tool to determine correlations with clinical aptitude. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical student assessments from 2013 to 2015. Faculty rating of student performance was evaluated by: 1) case presentation, 2) problem definition, 3) question response and 4) use of literature and correlated to final exam assessment...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381653/hands-on-simulation-versus-traditional-video-learning-in-teaching-microsurgery-technique
#15
Yusuke Sakamoto, Sho Okamoto, Kenzo Shimizu, Yoshio Araki, Akihiro Hirakawa, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
Bench model hands-on learning may be more effective than traditional didactic practice in some surgical fields. However, this has not been reported for microsurgery. Our study objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of bench model hands-on learning in acquiring microsuturing skills. The secondary objective was to evaluate the aptitude for microsurgery based on personality assessment. Eighty-six medical students comprising 62 men and 24 women were randomly assigned to either 20 min of hands-on learning with a bench model simulator or 20 min of video-learning using an instructional video...
April 6, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372296/new-cell-engineering-approaches-for-cartilage-regenerative-medicine
#16
Magali Cucchiarini
Articular cartilage injuries have an inadequate aptitude to reproduce the original structure and functions of this highly specialized tissue. As most of the currently available options also do not lead to the restoration of the original hyaline cartilage, novel treatments are critically needed to address this global problems in the clinics. Gene therapy combined with tissue engineering approaches offers effective tools capable of enhancing cartilage repair experimentally, especially those based on the controlled delivery of the highly effective, clinically adapted recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371467/time-limits-in-testing-an-analysis-of-eye-movements-and-visual-attention-in-spatial-problem-solving
#17
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two groups based on their mental rotation ability scores and their eye movements were collected during these tests. Analysis of salience during testing revealed similarities between MRA groups in untimed conditions but significant differences between the groups in the timed one...
March 30, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363907/retinoic-acid-regulates-immune-responses-by-promoting-il-22-and-modulating-s100-proteins-in-viral-hepatitis
#18
Zuliang Jie, Yuejin Liang, Panpan Yi, Hui Tang, Lynn Soong, Yingzi Cong, Kangling Zhang, Jiaren Sun
Although large amounts of vitamin A and its metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) are stored in the liver, how RA regulates liver immune responses during viral infection remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-22, mainly produced by hepatic γδ T cells, attenuated liver injury in adenovirus-infected mice. RA can promote γδ T cells to produce mTORC1-dependent IL-22 in the liver, but inhibits IFN-γ and IL-17. RA also affected the aptitude of T cell responses by modulating dendritic cell (DC) migration and costimulatory molecule expression...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325449/tcontrol-a-mobile-app-to-follow-up-tobacco-quitting-patients
#19
Marc Pifarré, Adrián Carrera, Jordi Vilaplana, Josep Cuadrado, Sara Solsona, Francesc Abella, Francesc Solsona, Rui Alves
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a wide range of respiratory and circulatory diseases in active and passive smokers. Well-designed campaigns are raising awareness to the problem and an increasing number of smokers seeks medical assistance to quit their habit. In this context, there is the need to develop mHealth Apps that assist and manage large smoke quitting programs in efficient and economic ways. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective is to develop an efficient and free mHealth app that facilitates the management of, and assistance to, people who want to quit smoking...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296651/the-predictive-validity-of-a-text-based-situational-judgment-test-in-undergraduate-medical-and-dental-school-admissions
#20
Fiona Patterson, Fran Cousans, Helena Edwards, Anna Rosselli, Sandra Nicholson, Barry Wright
PROBLEM: Situational judgment tests (SJTs) can be used to assess the nonacademic attributes necessary for medical and dental trainees to become successful practitioners. Evidence for SJTs' predictive validity, however, relates predominantly to selection in postgraduate settings or using video-based SJTs at the undergraduate level; it may not be directly transferable to text-based SJTs in undergraduate medical and dental school selection. This preliminary study aimed to address these gaps by assessing the validity of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) text-based SJT...
March 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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