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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#1
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340180/reliability-study-in-five-languages-of-the-translation-of-the-pain-observational-scale-algoplus
#2
Gisèle Pickering, Fiammetta Monacelli, Juan Manuel Pérez-Castejón Garrote, Hirondina Guarda, Luis Batalha, Stephen Gibson, Sumru Savas, Patrizio Odetti, Federica Gandolfo, Elisa Pastorino, Maria José Carrilho Mugeiro, Isabel Pereira Dias, Asli Kilavuz, Nicolas Macian, Bruno Pereira
Objective. : Acute pain is frequent and underestimated in older persons, especially when they suffer from cognitive impairment. Algoplus is an observational scale for acute pain evaluation, validated in French in older persons with communication disorders. We present the validation by an international expert team of the Algoplus scale in five languages: English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Turkish. Methods. : A total of 181 older consecutive patients were included in five countries (Spain, Australia, Italy, Portugal, and Turkey)...
March 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339835/the-association-between-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-and-the-risk-of-adverse-kidney-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Surapon Nochaiwong, Chidchanok Ruengorn, Ratanaporn Awiphan, Kiatkriangkrai Koyratkoson, Chayutthaphong Chaisai, Kajohnsak Noppakun, Wilaiwan Chongruksut, Kednapa Thavorn
Background: Existing epidemiological studies illustrate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be related to adverse kidney outcomes. To date, no comprehensive meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate and quantify this association. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to assess the association between PPI use and the risk of adverse kidney outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and grey literature with no language restrictions (through 31 October 2016)...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339791/bridg-a-domain-information-model-for-translational-and-clinical-protocol-driven-research
#4
Lauren B Becnel, Smita Hastak, Wendy Ver Hoef, Robert P Milius, MaryAnn Slack, Diane Wold, Michael L Glickman, Boris Brodsky, Charles Jaffe, Rebecca Kush, Edward Helton
Background: It is critical to integrate and analyze data from biological, translational, and clinical studies with data from health systems; however, electronic artifacts are stored in thousands of disparate systems that are often unable to readily exchange data. Objective: To facilitate meaningful data exchange, a model that presents a common understanding of biomedical research concepts and their relationships with health care semantics is required. The Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) domain information model fulfills this need...
February 26, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339747/deep-learning-for-pharmacovigilance-recurrent-neural-network-architectures-for-labeling-adverse-drug-reactions-in-twitter-posts
#5
Anne Cocos, Alexander G Fiks, Aaron J Masino
Objective: Social media is an important pharmacovigilance data source for adverse drug reaction (ADR) identification. Human review of social media data is infeasible due to data quantity, thus natural language processing techniques are necessary. Social media includes informal vocabulary and irregular grammar, which challenge natural language processing methods. Our objective is to develop a scalable, deep-learning approach that exceeds state-of-the-art ADR detection performance in social media...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339644/development-and-validation-of-a-structured-query-language-implementation-of-the-elixhauser-comorbidity-index
#6
Richard H Epstein, Franklin Dexter
Objective: Comorbidity adjustment is often performed during outcomes and health care resource utilization research. Our goal was to develop an efficient algorithm in structured query language (SQL) to determine the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Materials and Methods: We wrote an SQL algorithm to calculate the Elixhauser comorbidities from Diagnosis Related Group and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Validation was by comparison to expected comorbidities from combinations of these codes and to the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339620/systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-health-related-behavioral-interventions-using-portable-activity-sensing-devices-pasds
#7
Hamed Abedtash, Richard J Holden
Background: Portable activity sensing devices (PASDs) have received significant interest as tools for objectively measuring activity-related parameters and promoting health-related outcomes. Studies of PASDs suggest the potential value of integrating them with behavioral interventions to improve intermediate and downstream clinical outcomes. Objectives: : This systematic review describes and evaluates evidence from controlled studies of interventions using PASDs on their effectiveness in health-related outcomes...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339431/perioperative-ketamine-administration-for-thoracotomy-pain
#8
Daniel W Moyse, Alan D Kaye, James H Diaz, Muhammad Y Qadri, David Lindsay, Srinivas Pyati
BACKGROUND: Of all the postsurgical pain conditions, thoracotomy pain poses a particular therapeutic challenge in terms of its prevalence, severity, and ensuing postoperative morbidity. Multiple pain generators contribute to the severity of post-thoracotomy pain, and therefore a multimodal analgesic therapy is considered to be a necessary strategy. Along with opioids, thoracic epidural analgesia, and paravertebral blocks, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as ketamine have been used as adjuvants to improve analgesia...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339340/patient-perspectives-on-language-discordance-during-healthcare-visits-findings-from-the-extremely-high-density-multicultural-state-of-qatar
#9
Huda Abdelrahim, Maha Elnashar, Amal Khidir, Amal Killawi, Maya Hammoud, Abdul Latif Al-Khal, Michael D Fetters
Reducing language and cultural barriers in healthcare are significant factors in resolving health disparities. Qatar's rapidly growing multicultural population presents new challenges to the healthcare system. The purpose of this research was to explore patients' perspectives about language discordance, and the strategies used to overcome language barriers during patients' visits. Participants were recruited and interviewed from four language groups (Arabic = 24, English = 20, Hindi = 20, and Urdu = 20), all of whom were living in Qatar and utilizing Hamad General Hospital-Outpatient Clinics as a source of their healthcare services...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339326/using-online-methods-to-develop-and-examine-the-hong-kong-chinese-translation-of-the-dissociative-experiences-scale
#10
Chitat Chan, Hong Wang Fung, Tat Ming Choi, Colin A Ross
Identifying dissociation is important for mental health services because it could fundamentally affect one's diagnosis and treatment plan. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a widely-used self-report scale for measuring dissociative experiences. It has been translated into many languages and used in many countries. However, there is no validated Hong Kong Chinese version of the DES available in the field, and there is no other validated Hong Kong Chinese instrument for assessing dissociative disorders...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339140/acquisition-of-voice-onset-time-in-toddlers-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Karen Chenausky, Helen Tager-Flusberg
Although language delay is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research is equivocal on whether speech development is affected. We used acoustic methods to investigate the existence of sub-perceptual differences in the speech of toddlers who developed ASD. Development of the distinction between b and p was prospectively tracked in 22 toddlers at low risk for ASD (LRC), 22 at high risk for ASD without ASD (HRA-), and 11 at high risk for ASD who were diagnosed with ASD at 36 months (HRA+). Voice onset time (VOT), the main acoustic difference between b and p, was measured from spontaneously produced words at 18, 24, and 36 months...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338791/brains-in-dialogue-decoding-neural-preparation-of-speaking-to-a-conversational-partner
#12
Anna K Kuhlen, Carsten Bogler, Susan E Brennan, John-Dylan Haynes
In dialogue, language processing is adapted to the conversational partner. We hypothesize that the brain facilitates partner-adapted language processing through preparatory neural configurations (task sets) that are tailored to the conversational partner. In this experiment, we measured neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while healthy participants in the scanner (a) engaged in a verbal communication task with a conversational partner outside of the scanner, or (b) spoke outside of a conversational context (to test the microphone)...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338664/characteristics-of-non-vitreoretinal-ocular-injury-in-child-maltreatment-a-systematic-review
#13
T Betts, S Ahmed, S Maguire, P Watts
PurposeTo identify the spectrum of non-vitreoretinal ocular injury due to child maltreatment.MethodsAll language search of MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, AMED, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases, 1950-2015, was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA: explicit confirmation of injury aetiology, age <18 years, examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. Exclusion: post-mortem data, organic diseases, review articles. Standardised critical appraisal and narrative synthesis was conducted of included publications by two independent reviewers...
March 24, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338496/infants-and-adults-use-of-temporal-cues-in-consonant-discrimination
#14
Laurianne Cabrera, Lynne Werner
OBJECTIVES: Adults can use slow temporal envelope cues, or amplitude modulation (AM), to identify speech sounds in quiet. Faster AM cues and the temporal fine structure, or frequency modulation (FM), play a more important role in noise. This study assessed whether fast and slow temporal modulation cues play a similar role in infants' speech perception by comparing the ability of normal-hearing 3-month-olds and adults to use slow temporal envelope cues in discriminating consonants contrasts...
March 23, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338032/reliability-of-cbct-diagnosing-root-fractures-remains-uncertain
#15
Niloufar Amintavakoli, Silvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesPubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane library, Embase, SCOPUS, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched until April 2014 followed by hand searching of relevant references.Study selectionUsing no language restrictions two authors independently assessed for inclusion of in vivo and in vitro studies involving at least ten teeth on the use of CBCT for diagnosing complete root fractures on non-endodontically treated teeth.Data extraction and synthesisTwo authors independently assessed for inclusion and performed quality assessment using QUADAS-2 (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy-2)...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338030/implant-outcomes-poorer-in-patients-with-history-of-periodontal-disease
#16
Analia Veitz-Keenan, James R Keenan
Data sourcesMedline and Embase databases and bibliographies of all included articles and relevant review articles were screened for possible inclusion.Study selectionLongitudinal studies were included reporting on implant survival, success, incidence of peri-implantitis, bone loss and periodontal status and on partially dentate patients with a history of treatment for periodontitis. There were no language restrictions for the included studies.Data extraction and synthesisAuthors independently and in duplicate assessed the studies for eligibility and data extraction...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338027/molar-incisor-hypomineralisation
#17
Greig D Taylor
Data sourcesThe Medline and Embase databases and hand searches in the journals International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry and European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.Study selectionEnglish language cohort and case-control studies.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection was carried out independently by two reviewers with data abstraction being conducted by a single reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Adjusted (aOR) and unadjusted odds ratios (uOR), P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from the studies...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337885/role-of-diode-lasers-in-oro-facial-pain-management
#18
F Javed, S V Kellesarian, G E Romanos
With the increasing use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in clinical dentistry, the aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of diode lasers in the management of orofacial pain. Indexed databases were searched without language and time restrictions up to and including July 2016 using different combinations of the following key words: oral, low level laser therapy, dental, pain, diode lasers, discomfort and analgesia. From the literature reviewed it is evident that LLLT is effective compared to traditional procedures in the management of oro-facial pain associated to soft tissue and hard tissue conditions such as premalignant lesions, gingival conditions and dental extractions...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337822/unieuk-time-to-speak-a-common-language-in-protistology
#19
REVIEW
Cédric Berney, Andreea Ciuprina, Sara Bender, Juliet Brodie, Virginia Edgcomb, Eunsoo Kim, Jeena Rajan, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Sina Adl, Stéphane Audic, David Bass, David A Caron, Guy Cochrane, Lucas Czech, Micah Dunthorn, Stefan Geisen, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Frédéric Mahé, Christian Quast, Jonathan Z Kaye, Alastair G B Simpson, Alexandros Stamatakis, Javier Del Campo, Pelin Yilmaz, Colomban de Vargas
THE bewildering organismal and functional complexity of microbial eukaryotes has long fascinated protistologists but exceeded the capacity of this research community to comprehensively study it. Lacking the critical mass for a strong scientific discipline, protistologists remain largely divided into various sub-communities (protozoology versus phycology, aquatic versus terrestrial systems, fossil versus extant organisms, etc.), many of which are adjuncts of other larger fields that may speak different technical languages or use different taxonomic systems...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337734/diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-findings-in-adult-civilian-military-and-sport-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-a-systematic-critical-review
#20
Breton Michael Asken, Steven T DeKosky, James R Clugston, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI"...
March 24, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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