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Virtual cohort

Paul Klimo, Patrick Ryan Lingo, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: Plagiocephaly, involving positional deformity of the calvarium in infants, is one of the most common reasons for pediatric neurosurgical consultation. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "what is the evidence for the effectiveness of repositioning for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are provided based on the available evidence. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to repositioning as a means to treat plagiocephaly and brachycephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence on the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure of infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Nermina Buljubasic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Jin M Cheng, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Sanneke P M de Boer, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Patrick W J C Serruys, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide additional insight into the role of fibrinogen in coronary artery disease by investigating the associations between plasma fibrinogen with both degree and composition of coronary atherosclerosis as determined by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris, preprocedural blood samples were drawn for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 measurements, and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound of a nonculprit coronary artery was performed...
October 14, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
J E Skjaeraasen, J A Devine, J A Godiksen, M Fonn, H OtterÅ, O S Kjesbu, B Norberg, Ø Langangen, Ø Karlsen
Wild caught North Sea saithe Pollachius virens were monitored for growth, sex steroid profiles and oocyte development pre-spawning and measured for egg size and group fecundity during the spawning season in the laboratory. Vitellogenesis commenced in late October-early November, at a leading cohort size (CL ) of c. 250 µm, after which oocytes grew rapidly in size until spawning started in February. Notably, a distinct cortical alveoli stage was virtually absent with yolk granules observed in developing oocytes at the very beginning of vitellogenesis...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
W Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, F Jay Haran, Kwadwo Osei Appiah-Kubi, Alex Dumont
PURPOSE: Balance impairment is a common sensorimotor symptom in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We designed an affordable, portable virtual reality (VR)-based balance screening device (Virtual Environment TBI Screen [VETS]), which will be validated relative to the Neurocom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) to determine if it can replace commonly used postural assessments. METHODS: This preliminary study examines healthy adults (n = 56) and adults with mTBI (n = 11)...
October 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Flemming Bjerrum, Jeanett Strandbygaard, Susanne Rosthøj, Teodor Grantcharov, Bent Ottesen, Jette Led Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic appendectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure, but few training models have been described for it. We examined a virtual reality module for practising a laparoscopic appendectomy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with the following 3 groups of surgeons (n = 45): novices (0 procedures), intermediates (10-50 procedures), and experienced (>100 procedures). After being introduced to the simulator and 1 familiarization attempt on the procedural module, the participants practiced the module 20 times...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Young-Seok Seo, Mi-Sook Kim, Hyung-Jun Yoo, Won Il Jang, Eun Kyung Paik, Chul Ju Han, Byung-Hee Lee
The aim of this study is to compare radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) smaller than 3 cm. A Markov cohort model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients aged 60-65 years with small HCCs who had undergone either RFA or SBRT and were followed up over their remaining life expectancy. The inclusion criteria were: (1) HCC ≤3 cm in diameter with ≤ 3 nodules; (2) absence of extrahepatic metastasis or portal/hepatic vein invasion; (3) Child-Pugh Class A or B...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Eunjung Kim, Vito W Rebecca, Keiran S M Smalley, Alexander R A Anderson
BACKGROUND: One of major issues in clinical trials in oncology is their high failure rate, despite the fact that the trials were designed based on the data from successful equivalent preclinical studies. This is in part due to the intrinsic homogeneity of preclinical model systems and the contrasting heterogeneity of actual patient responses. METHODS: We present a mathematical model-driven framework, phase i (virtual/imaginary) trials, that integrates the heterogeneity of actual patient responses and preclinical studies through a cohort of virtual patients...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Cynthia Yu-Wai-Man, Peng Tee Khaw
Significance: Fibrosis-related events play a part in the pathogenesis or failure of treatment of virtually all the blinding diseases around the world, and also account for over 40% of all deaths. It is well established that the eye and other tissues of some group of patients, for example Afro-Caribbean people, scar worse than others. However, there is a current lack of reliable biomarkers to stratify the risk of scarring and postsurgical fibrosis in the eye. Recent Advances: Recent studies using genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, clinical phenotyping, and high-resolution in vivo imaging techniques have revealed potential novel biomarkers to identify and stratify patients at risk of scarring in different fibrotic eye diseases...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Laura Baglietto, Erica Ponzi, Philip Haycock, Allison Hodge, Manuela Bianca Assumma, Chol-Hee Jung, Jessica Chung, Francesca Fasanelli, Florence Guida, Gianluca Campanella, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Kjell Grankvist, Mikael Johansson, Ugo Ala, Paolo Provero, Ee Ming Wong, Jihoon Joo, Dallas R English, Nabila Kazmi, Eiliv Lund, Christian Faltus, Rudolf Kaaks, Angela Risch, Myrto Barrdahl, Torkjel M Sandanger, Melissa C Southey, Graham G Giles, Mattias Johansson, Paolo Vineis, Silvia Polidoro, Caroline L Relton, Gianluca Severi
DNA methylation changes are associated with cigarette smoking. We used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to determine whether methylation in DNA from pre-diagnostic, peripheral blood samples is associated with lung cancer risk. We used a case-control study nested within the EPIC-Italy cohort and a study within the MCCS cohort as discovery sets (a total of 552 case-control pairs). We validated the top signals in 429 case-control pairs from another 3 studies. We identified six CpGs for which hypomethylation was associated with lung cancer risk: cg05575921 in the AHRR gene (p-valuepooled  = 4 × 10(-17) ), cg03636183 in the F2RL3 gene (p-valuepooled  = 2 × 10 (- 13) ), cg21566642 and cg05951221 in 2q37...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Wenjie Zhong, Pascal Mancuso
INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality is an increasingly popular surgical training tool in Australia, following the introduction of Australia's first virtual reality simulation machine at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney. This literature review aims at identifying gaps in previous studies, and in providing a comprehensive review of future studies to be further developed in Australia. METHOD: A multi-field research was performed combining the key terms 'uro*' and 'virtua*' and 'simula*' and 'robo*'...
September 16, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Krzysztof Pabisiak, Arkadiusz Krejczy, Grażyna Dutkiewicz, Krzysztof Safranow, Jerzy Sienko, Romuald Bohatyrewicz, Kazimierz Ciechanowski
BACKGROUND Donation after cardiac death offers the possibility of increasing the pool of organs for transplantation by up to 30%. Maastricht category type 3 (M3) dominates in most countries with active DCD programs. During preparations to introduce a permanent program for uncontrolled donation after circulatory death in Szczecin, Poland, the donor pool has been estimated. In Poland, Maastricht category type 2 (M2) is considered a basic source for organ recovery. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) reported to local Emergency Medical Services (EMS) between 1 December 2014 and 30 November 2015...
2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Ralf A Kockro, Tim Killeen, Ali Ayyad, Martin Glaser, Axel Stadie, Robert Reisch, Alf Giese, Eike Schwandt
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysm surgery demands precise spatial understanding of the vascular anatomy and its surroundings. We report on a decade of experience planning clipping procedures pre-operatively in a virtual reality (VR) workstation and present outcomes with respect to mortality, morbidity and aneurysm occlusion rate. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2015, the clipping of 115 intracranial aneurysms in 105 patients was pre-operatively planned with the Dextroscope, a stereoscopic, patient-specific VR environment...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Slawomir A Lux, Andrzej Wnuk, Heidrun Vogt, Tim Belien, Andreas Spornberger, Marcin Studnicki
The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Armin Ariana, Moein Amin, Sahar Pakneshan, Elliot Dolan-Evans, Alfred K Lam
Dental students require a basic ability to explain and apply general principles of pathology to systemic, dental, and oral pathology. Although there have been recent advances in electronic and online resources, the academic effectiveness of using self-directed e-learning tools in pathology courses for dental students is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine if blended learning combining e-learning with traditional learning methods of lectures and tutorials would improve students' scores and satisfaction over those who experienced traditional learning alone...
September 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Jana M Ellegast, Philipp J Rauch, Larisa V Kovtonyuk, Rouven Müller, Ulrich Wagner, Yasuyuki Saito, Nicole Wildner-Verhey van Wijk, Christine Fritz, Anahita Rafiei, Veronika Lysenko, Ewa Dudkiewicz, Alexandre P Theocharides, Davide Soldini, Jeroen S Goede, Richard A Flavell, Markus G Manz
Favorable-risk human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) engrafts poorly in currently mostly used immuno-deficient mice, possibly due to insufficient environmental support of these leukemic entities. To address this limitation, we here transplanted primary human AML with isolated NPM1 mutation and AML with inv(16) in mice in which human versions of genes encoding cytokines important for myelopoiesis (M-CSF, IL-3, GM-CSF, Thrombopoietin) were knocked into their respective mouse loci. NPM1(mut) AML engrafted with higher efficacy in cytokine knock-in mice and showed a trend towards higher bone marrow engraftment levels in comparison to NSG mice...
August 31, 2016: Blood
Pearl L H Mok, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, David Springate, Aske Astrup, Nav Kapur, Sussie Antonsen, Ole Mors, Roger T Webb
Importance: Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. Objective: To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Fabio Nussberger, Beat Roth, Tobias Metzger, Bernhard Kiss, George N Thalmann, Roland Seiler
The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for renal hematoma after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for kidney stones in a matched case-control analysis of a subgroup of patients recruited from a prospective randomized cohort. Between 06/2010 and 03/2013, 418 patients underwent SWL with the MODULITH(®)-SLX-F2-lithotripter for kidney stones. In 39/418 patients (9 %), ultrasound at post-treatment day 1 revealed renal hematomas. For 37 of these patients, a matched group without hematoma could be selected according to the following matching criteria: age, gender, number and energy of shock waves, stone burden and localization...
August 30, 2016: Urolithiasis
Mostafa El-Beheiry, Greig McCreery, Christopher M Schlachta
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a serious game skills competition on voluntary usage of a laparoscopic simulator among first-year surgical residents' standard simulation curriculum. METHODS: With research ethics board approval, informed consent was obtained from first-year surgical residents enrolled in an introductory surgical simulation curriculum. The class of 2013 served as a control cohort following the standard curriculum which mandates completion of six laparoscopic simulator skill tasks...
August 29, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Han Lin, Ping Zhu, Qiuping Lin, Xiaoqiong Huang, Yue Xu, Xiaoping Yang
PURPOSE: Facial asymmetry often persists even after mandibular deviation corrected by the bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) operation, since the reference facial sagittal plane for the asymmetry analysis is usually set up before the mandibular menton (Me) point correction. Our aim is to develop a predictive and quantitative method to assess the true asymmetry of the mandible after a midline correction performed by a virtual BSSRO, and to verify its availability by evaluation of the post-surgical improvement...
2016: PloS One
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