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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532974/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-corneal-collagen-crosslinking-for-progressive-keratoconus
#1
Daniel A Godefrooij, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Elsie Chan, David P S O'Brart, Saskia M Imhof, G Ardine de Wit, Robert P L Wisse
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus from the healthcare payer's perspective. DESIGN: A probabilistic Markov-type model using data from published clinical trials and cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Two identical cohorts, each comprising 1000 virtual patients with progressive bilateral keratoconus, were modeled; one cohort underwent CXL and the other cohort received no intervention...
May 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521886/lean-body-mass-is-the-predominant-anthropometric-risk-factor-for-atrial%C3%A2-fibrillation
#2
Morten Fenger-Grøn, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Lars Frost
BACKGROUND: Obesity is repeatedly emphasized as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). However, the underlying evidence may be questioned, as the obvious correlations between various anthropometric measures hamper identification of the characteristics that are biologically driving AF risk, and recent studies suggest that fat carries limited or no independent risk of AF. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess mutually adjusted associations among AF risk and height, weight, body mass index, hip and waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and bioelectrical impedance-derived measures of fat mass, lean body mass, and fat percentage...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507230/computational-design-of-treatment-strategies-for-proactive-therapy-on-atopic-dermatitis-using-optimal-control-theory
#3
Panayiotis Christodoulides, Yoshito Hirata, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Simon G Danby, Michael J Cork, Hywel C Williams, Kazuyuki Aihara, Reiko J Tanaka
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent skin inflammation and a weak skin barrier, and is known to be a precursor to other allergic diseases such as asthma. AD affects up to 25% of children worldwide and the incidence continues to rise. There is still uncertainty about the optimal treatment strategy in terms of choice of treatment, potency, duration and frequency. This study aims to develop a computational method to design optimal treatment strategies for the clinically recommended 'proactive therapy' for AD...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503971/mental-vulnerability-helicobacter-pylori-and-incidence-of-hospital-diagnosed-peptic-ulcer-over-28-years-in-a-population-based-cohort
#4
Susan Levenstein, Rikke Kart Jacobsen, Steffen Rosenstock, Torben Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether mental vulnerability, an enduring personality characteristic, predicts incident hospital-diagnosed ulcer over three decades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based cohort study enrolled 3365 subjects with no ulcer history, ages 30-60, in 1982-3. Mental vulnerability, Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies, socioeconomic status, and sleep duration were determined at baseline; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug use, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and alcohol consumption both at baseline and in 1993-4...
May 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491899/diagnostic-and-cost-utility-of-whole-exome-sequencing-in-peripheral-neuropathy
#5
Maie Walsh, Katrina M Bell, Belinda Chong, Emma Creed, Gemma R Brett, Kate Pope, Natalie P Thorne, Simon Sadedin, Peter Georgeson, Dean G Phelan, Timothy Day, Jessica A Taylor, Adrienne Sexton, Paul J Lockhart, Lynette Kiers, Michael Fahey, Ivan Macciocca, Clara L Gaff, Alicia Oshlack, Eppie M Yiu, Paul A James, Zornitza Stark, Monique M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic utility and cost effectiveness of whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of individuals with peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: Singleton WES was performed in individuals recruited though one pediatric and one adult tertiary center between February 2014 and December 2015. Initial analysis was restricted to a virtual panel of 55 genes associated with peripheral neuropathies. Patients with uninformative results underwent expanded analysis of the WES data...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483501/fertility-outcomes-after-extended-searches-for-ejaculated-spermatozoa-in-men-with-virtual-azoospermia
#6
Netanella Miller, Tal Biron-Shental, Yael Pasternak, Michael Belenky, Shai Shefi, Pavel Itsykson, Arie Berkovitz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the fertility outcomes of extended searches for ejaculated spermatozoa in men with virtual azoospermia. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 242 couples whose male partner suffered from nonobstructive azoospermia and who were treated with the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): One hundred forty patients were referred to an extended search in the ejaculate and 102 patients were referred to microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE)...
May 5, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470961/language-ability-in-preterm-children-is-associated-with-arcuate-fasciculi-microstructure-at-term
#7
Piergiorgio Salvan, J Donald Tournier, Dafnis Batalle, Shona Falconer, Andrew Chew, Nigel Kennea, Paul Aljabar, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Tomoki Arichi, A David Edwards, Serena J Counsell
In the mature human brain, the arcuate fasciculus mediates verbal working memory, word learning, and sublexical speech repetition. However, its contribution to early language acquisition remains unclear. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the role of the direct segments of the arcuate fasciculi in the early acquisition of linguistic function. We imaged a cohort of 43 preterm born infants (median age at birth of 30 gestational weeks; median age at scan of 42 postmenstrual weeks) using high b value high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted neuroimaging and assessed their linguistic performance at 2 years of age...
May 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412020/cardiac-surgery-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease-is-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-the-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Nicolas L Madsen, Stuart L Goldstein, Trine Frøslev, Christian F Christiansen, Morten Olsen
Cardiac surgery associated-acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs in 30-50% of patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Here we determine if CS-AKI is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with congenital heart disease. Using Danish regional population-based registries, our cohort study included patients with congenital heart disease born between 1990-2010 with first cardiac surgery between 2005 and 2010 (under 15 years of age). Utilizing in- and out-patient laboratory serum creatinine data, we identified individuals fulfilling KDIGO stages of AKI within 5 days of cardiac surgery...
April 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393590/feasibility-of-extended-dosing-intervals-of-denosumab
#9
Jacob K Kettle, Puja B Patel
Purpose Denosumab is a crucial supportive care agent for patients with advanced cancers affecting the bone. Despite the importance of treatment, logistical and financial obstacles hinder the ability to maintain long-term adherence. This analysis was designed to provide preliminary data regarding the feasibility of extended denosumab dosing intervals. Methods This retrospective, case cohort study was conducted on patients receiving treatment with denosumab for malignancies with bone involvement. A total of 60 patients were identified for analysis and were divided into cohorts according to the average number of days between denosumab doses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387881/review-article-intermediate-alleles-of-huntington-s-disease-htt-gene-in-different-populations-worldwide-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
T A Apolinário, C L A Paiva, L A Agostinho
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic mutation due to the expansion of CAG repeats in the HTT gene (4p16.3). The considered normal alleles have less than 27 CAG repeats. Intermediate alleles (IAs) show 27 to 35 CAG repeats and expanded alleles have more than 35 repeats. The IAs apparently have shown a normal phenotype. However, there are some reported associations between individuals that bear an IA and clinical HD signs, such as behavioral disturbs...
April 5, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387693/visual-vestibular-processing-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
W G Wright, R T Tierney, J McDevitt
BACKGROUND: The search for reliable and valid signs and symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly synonymous with concussion, has lead to a growing body of evidence that individuals with long-lasting, unremitting impairments often experience visual and vestibular symptoms, such as dizziness, postural and gait disturbances. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the role of visual-vestibular processing deficits following concussion. METHODS: A number of clinically accepted vestibular, oculomotor, and balance assessments as well as a novel virtual reality (VR)-based balance assessment device were used to assess adults with post-acute concussion (n = 14) in comparison to a healthy age-matched cohort (n = 58)...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384461/implant-placement-is-more-accurate-using-dynamic-navigation
#12
Michael S Block, Robert W Emery, Daniel R Cullum, Ali Sheikh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective study was to measure and compare the accuracy and precision of dynamic navigation with freehand (FH) implant fixture placement. The authors hypothesized that the evaluated dynamic navigation system would have high accuracy and precision and would be superior to FH methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors designed and implemented a prospective cohort study and enrolled patients who had implants placed from December 2014 through December 2016...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374950/remission-in-epilepsy-how-long-is-enough
#13
Matti Sillanpää, Dieter Schmidt, Maiju M Saarinen, Shlomo Shinnar
OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) has proposed to expand the definition of remission to 10 years seizure-free with the last 5 years off antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We examined if a 10-year remission is needed to predict the lowest recurrence risk. METHODS: The population-based study cohort consisted of 148 patients with new-onset childhood epilepsy living in the catchment area of Turku University Hospital. They were prospectively followed for 44 years (median)...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366306/the-largpad-trial-phase-iia-evaluation-of-l-arginine-infusion-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#14
Vikram S Kashyap, Ryan O Lakin, Patricia Campos, Matthew Allemang, Ann Kim, Timur P Sarac, Alfred Hausladen, Jonathan S Stamler
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial function is improved by l-arginine (l-arg) supplementation in preclinical and clinical studies of mildly diseased vasculature; however, endothelial function and responsiveness to l-arg in severely diseased arteries is not known. Our objective was to evaluate the acute effects of catheter-directed l-arg delivery in patients with chronic lower extremity ischemia secondary to peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: The study enrolled 22 patients (45% male) with peripheral arterial disease (mean age, 62 years) requiring lower extremity angiography...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358672/generalisability-of-a-virtual-trials-method-for-glycaemic-control-in-intensive-care
#15
Jennifer L Dickson, Kent W Stewart, Christopher G Pretty, Marine Flechet, Thomas Desaive, Sophie Penning, Bernard C Lambermont, Balazs Benyo, Geoffrey M Shaw, Geoff Chase
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood glucose (BG) concentrations (Hyperglycaemia) are a common complication in critically ill patients. Insulin therapy is commonly used to treat hyperglycaemia, but metabolic variability often results in poor BG control and low BG (hypoglycaemia). OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a model-based virtual trial method for glycaemic control protocol design, and evaluates its generalisability across different populations. METHODS: Model-based insulin sensitivity (SI) was used to create virtual patients from clinical data from three different ICUs in New Zealand, Hungary, and Belgium...
March 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356241/virtual-reality-for-management-of-pain-in-hospitalized-patients-results-of-a-controlled-trial
#16
Vartan C Tashjian, Sasan Mosadeghi, Amber R Howard, Mayra Lopez, Taylor Dupuy, Mark Reid, Bibiana Martinez, Shahzad Ahmed, Francis Dailey, Karen Robbins, Bradley Rosen, Garth Fuller, Itai Danovitch, Waguih IsHak, Brennan Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Improvements in software and design and reduction in cost have made virtual reality (VR) a practical tool for immersive, three-dimensional (3D), multisensory experiences that distract patients from painful stimuli. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the impact of a onetime 3D VR intervention versus a two-dimensional (2D) distraction video for pain in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cohort study in a large, urban teaching hospital in medical inpatients with an average pain score of ≥3/10 from any cause...
March 29, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355279/highly-sensitive-measurements-of-disease-progression-in-rare-disorders-developing-and-validating-a-multimodal-model-of-retinal-degeneration-in-stargardt-disease
#17
Stanley Lambertus, Nathalie M Bax, Ana Fakin, Joannes M M Groenewoud, B Jeroen Klevering, Anthony T Moore, Michel Michaelides, Andrew R Webster, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Carel B Hoyng
BACKGROUND: Each inherited retinal disorder is rare, but together, they affect millions of people worldwide. No treatment is currently available for these blinding diseases, but promising new options-including gene therapy-are emerging. Arguably, the most prevalent retinal dystrophy is Stargardt disease. In each case, the specific combination of ABCA4 variants (> 900 identified to date) and modifying factors is virtually unique. It accounts for the vast phenotypic heterogeneity including variable rates of functional and structural progression, thereby potentially limiting the ability of phase I/II clinical trials to assess efficacy of novel therapies with few patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346293/comparison-of-experts-and-residents-performing-a-complex-procedure-in-a-temporal-bone-surgery-simulator
#18
Ioanna Ioannou, Yun Zhou, Sudanthi Wijewickrema, Patorn Piromchai, Bridget Copson, Gregor Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of automated metrics from a virtual reality (VR) temporal bone surgery simulator to determine how the performance of experts and trainees differs when performing a complex otological procedure (mastoidectomy with posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Using the University of Melbourne VR temporal bone surgery simulator, seven ENT consultants and seven ENT residents performed two trials of the surgical approach to cochlear implantation on a virtual temporal bone...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343067/reading-problems-and-major-mental-disorders-co-occurrences-and-familial-overlaps-in-a-swedish-nationwide-cohort
#19
Martin Cederlöf, Barbara Maughan, Henrik Larsson, Brian M D'Onofrio, Robert Plomin
Reading problems often co-occur with ADHD and conduct disorder. However, the patterns of co-occurrence and familial overlap between reading problems and other psychiatric disorders have not been systematically explored. We conducted a register-based cohort study including 8719 individuals with reading problems and their siblings, along with matched comparison individuals. Conditional logistic regressions estimated risks for ADHD, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, substance use disorder, and violent/non-violent criminality in individuals with reading problems and their siblings...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340245/unacceptable-human-leucocyte-antigens-for-organ-offers-in-the-era-of-organ-shortage-influence-on-waiting-time-before-kidney-transplantation
#20
Malte Ziemann, Nicole Heßler, Inke R König, Nils Lachmann, Andrea Dick, Vanessa Ditt, Klemens Budde, Petra Reinke, Ute Eisenberger, Barbara Suwelack, Thomas Klein, Timm H Westhoff, Wolfgang Arns, Katrin Ivens, Antje Habicht, Lutz Renders, Dirk Stippel, Dominik Bös, Florian Sommer, Siegfried Görg, Martin Nitschke, Thorsten Feldkamp, Falko M Heinemann, Reinhard Kelsch
Background: The assignment of human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) against which antibodies are detected as unacceptable antigens (UAGs) avoids allocation of HLA- incompatible allografts. There is uncertainty as to what extent UAGs decrease the probability of receiving a kidney offer. Methods: Kidney transplantations in 3264 patients on the waiting lists of six German transplant centres were evaluated for a period of at least 2 years. The proportion of excluded offers due to UAGs was calculated as virtual panel-reactive antibodies (vPRAs)...
May 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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