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Virtual cohort

Ummu K Jamaludin, Fatanah M Suhaimi, Normy Norfiza Abdul Razak, Azrina Md Ralib, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Christopher G Pretty, Luqman Humaidi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Blood glucose variability is common in healthcare and it is not related or influenced by diabetes mellitus. To minimise the risk of high blood glucose in critically ill patients, Stochastic Targeted Blood Glucose Control Protocol is used in intensive care unit at hospitals worldwide. Thus, this study focuses on the performance of stochastic modelling protocol in comparison to the current blood glucose management protocols in the Malaysian intensive care unit...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
J Kraeima, B Dorgelo, H A Gulbitti, R J H M Steenbakkers, K P Schepman, J L N Roodenburg, F K L Spijkervet, R H Schepers, M J H Witjes
OBJECTIVES: 3D virtual surgical planning (VSP) and guided surgery has been proven to be an effective tool for resection and reconstruction of the mandible. Currently, most widely used 3D VSP approaches to mandibular resection do not include detailed tumour information in the VSP. This manuscript presents a strategy where the aim was to incorporate tumour visualisation into the 3D virtual plan. Three-dimensional VSP of the mandibular resections was based on the fusion of CT and MRI data which was subsequently applied in clinical practice...
June 2018: Oral Oncology
Ryan J Good, Matthew K Leroue, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used in critically ill pediatric patients, despite limited data on safety and efficacy. Administrative data may be a good resource for observational studies. Therefore, we sought to assess the performance of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure code for NIPPV. METHODS: Patients admitted to the PICU requiring NIPPV or heated high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) over the 11-month study period were identified from the Virtual PICU System database...
June 7, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Thomas E Rohan, Christopher A Miller, Tiandao Li, Yihong Wang, Olivier Loudig, Mindy Ginsberg, Andrew Glass, Elaine Mardis
BACKGROUND: Insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast cancer might come from molecular analysis of tissue from early stages of the disease. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort of women who had biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease (BBD) diagnosed between 1971 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northwest and who were followed to mid-2015 to ascertain subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC); cases (n = 218) were women with BBD who developed subsequent IBC and controls, individually matched (1:1) to cases, were women with BBD who did not develop IBC in the same follow-up interval as that for the corresponding case...
June 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Francesco Pappalardo, Giulia Russo, Flora Musuamba Tshinanu, Marco Viceconti
Innovations in information and communication technology infuse all branches of science, including life sciences. Nevertheless, healthcare is historically slow in adopting technological innovation, compared with other industrial sectors. In recent years, new approaches in modelling and simulation have started to provide important insights in biomedicine, opening the way for their potential use in the reduction, refinement and partial substitution of both animal and human experimentation. In light of this evidence, the European Parliament and the United States Congress made similar recommendations to their respective regulators to allow wider use of modelling and simulation within the regulatory process...
June 2, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Netha Hussain, Margit Alt Murphy, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
Background: Kinematic analysis using virtual reality (VR) environment provides quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. This technique has rarely been used in evaluating motor function in stroke despite its availability in stroke rehabilitation. Objective: To determine the discriminative validity of VR-based kinematics during target-to-target pointing task in individuals with mild or moderate arm impairment following stroke and in healthy controls. Methods: Sixty-seven participants with moderate (32-57 points) or mild (58-65 points) stroke impairment as assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity were included from the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg-SALGOT cohort of non-selected individuals within the first year of stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ann M O'Hare, Susan M Hailpern, Melissa Wachterman, William Kreuter, Ronit Katz, Yoshio N Hall, Maria Montez-Rath, Manjula Kurella Tamura, Kenn B Daratha
Infrequent and late referral to hospice among patients on dialysis likely reflects the impact of a Medicare payment policy that discourages the concurrent receipt of these services, but it may also reflect these patients' less predictable illness trajectories. Among a national cohort of patients on hemodialysis, we identified four distinct spending trajectories during the last year of life that represented markedly different intensities of care. Within the cohort, 9 percent had escalating spending and 13 percent had persistently high spending throughout the last year of life, while 41 percent had relatively low spending with late escalation, and 37 percent had moderate spending with late escalation...
June 2018: Health Affairs
Phunlerd Piyaraj, Frits van Griensven, Timothy H Holtz, Philip A Mock, Anchalee Varangrat, Wipas Wimonsate, Warunee Thienkrua, Jaray Tongtoyai, Atitaya McNamara, Wannee Chonwattana, Kenrad E Nelson
BACKGROUND: The finding of casual sex partners on the internet and methamphetamine use have been described as risk factors for HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the interplay between these factors has not been studied prospectively in one design. This study aims to determine the associations between finding casual sex partners on the internet and incident methamphetamine use and HIV infection. METHODS: In this observational cohort study of Thai MSM, we recruited Bangkok residents aged 18 years or older with a history of penetrative male-to-male sex in the past 6 months...
May 31, 2018: Lancet HIV
George Dimitroulis, Stephen Austin, Peter Vee Sin Lee, David Ackland
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present the preliminary clinical data on the OMX Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prosthetic total joint replacement system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, cohort, clinical study was undertaken of consecutive adult patients with Category 5 end-stage joint disease who were implanted with the OMX TMJ prosthesis between May 2015 and April 2017. A total of 50 devices were implanted in 38 patients, with 12 patients receiving bilateral prosthetic joints...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Mosepele Mosepele, Onkabetse J Molefe-Baikai, Steven K Grinspoon, Virginia A Triant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-infected patients face an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), estimated at 1.5- to 2-fold as compared to HIV-uninfected persons. This review provides a recent (within preceding 5 years) summary of the role of statin therapy and associated role in CVD risk reduction among HIV-infected patients on anti-retroviral therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins remain the preferred agents for reducing risk for CVD among HIV-infected populations based on guidance extrapolated from general population (HIV-uninfected) cholesterol treatment guidelines across different settings globally...
May 26, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
S M Susarla, M Tveit, T B Dodson, L B Kaban, R A Hopper, M A Egbert
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics associated with highly cited papers in orthognathic surgery. This was a cohort study of articles published in the English-language literature from 1900 to 2017. Citation databases were searched for papers related to orthognathic surgery and the most frequently cited papers were identified. For each paper, the following variables were collected: region of origin, time-period of publication, corresponding author specialty, journal of publication, topic area, study design, and number of citations...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Dmytro Shkurupii
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The goal is to increase the efficiency of nutritional support in intensive care of newborns by substantiating the choice of the enteral blend. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 173 newborns. The main group consisted of 143 patients of intensive care units. The comparison group - 30 virtually healthy newborns. Physical parameters, changes in protein metabolism, serum immunoglobulins, functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system in the development of critical conditions and depending on the type of enteric urine formula were determined...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
A A Poliakova, E N Semernin, M Y Sitnikova, K L Аvagyan, R V Grozov, S A Pyko, A N Krutikov, V G Davydova, K A Khmelnitskaya, M M Shavloskii, D E Korzhevskii, A Y Gudkova
BACKGROUND: Life-time diagnostics of wild type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR(wt)-amyloidosis) is virtually absent, even though ATTR(wt)-amyloidosis is an underestimated cause for morbidity and mortality, particularly in the older age group. AIM: To study incidence, demographic characteristics, and morpho-functional features of ATTR(wt)-amyloidosis in patients with FC IV CHF and LV hypertrophy > 15 mm according to autopsy data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmortem reports were retrospectively analyzed for patients (n=141; 19 % males, 81 % females) of cardiology departments aged ≥69 with the underlying CHF syndrome...
2018: Kardiologiia
Heidi Keeler, Tara Sjuts, Kosuke Niitsu, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Paul Force-Emery Mackie, Howard Liu
INTRODUCTION: The process of identifying effective responses to the challenges of placing and retaining a rural behavioral health workforce remains elusive. The Virtual Mentorship Network was developed to test the feasibility of using distance technology to connect rural students interested in mental health careers with mentors. METHODS: In Year 1, college and high school students were virtually mentored using a near-peer approach both live and asynchronously as a cohort over 7 months...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Alexander Albert, Jürgen Ennker, Yasser Hegazy, Sebastian Ullrich, Georgi Petrov, Payam Akhyari, Stefan Bauer, Eda Ürer, Ina Carolin Ennker, Artur Lichtenberg, Horst Priss, Alexander Assmann
OBJECTIVES: Despite substantial scientific effort, the relationship between stroke after coronary artery bypass grafting and the use of the aortic no-touch off-pump technique (anOPCAB) remains incompletely understood. The present study aimed to define the effect of anOPCAB on the occurrence and time point of stroke. METHODS: A total cohort of 15,042 consecutive patients underwent surgical myocardial revascularization at a single institution. After establishing anOPCAB as routine procedure, 4695 patients received surgery by 18 different surgeons using the anaortic approach...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Kyle Steenland, Subra Kugathasan, Dana Boyd Barr
INTRODUCTION: PFOA (perfluoroctanoic acid) is a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Although use in the US has been phased out, PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment, and is present in the serum of virtually all people in industrialized countries. Approximately 6 million Americans drink water comtaminated with PFOA above EPA-recommended levels. In a previous cohort study (n = 32,000), we found a strong positive exposure-response relation between PFOA serum levels and subsequent ulcerative colitis (UC) in a high-exposed population from the mid-Ohio valley, but no association with Crohn's disease...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Philip Eichhorn, Udo Andraschke, Fritz Dross, Carol I Geppert, Arndt Hartmann, Tilman T Rau
The declaration of Leiden pronounces the demand to conserve pathological-anatomical collections as cultural heritage. Likewise, the Institute of Pathology of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg owns macroscopic pathological-anatomical specimens reaching back over 150 years. The purpose of this work is to examine the impact, meaning, and perception of such historical preparations during the current medical curriculum. Additionally, the experiences from the renovation process can be used as a template for other institutes...
May 10, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Gregor Warsow, Daniel Hübschmann, Kortine Kleinheinz, Cathleen Nientiedt, Martina Heller, Laura Van Coile, Yanis Tolstov, Lukas Trennheuser, Kathrin Wieczorek, Carine Pecqueux, Claudia Gasch, Timur Kuru, Joanne Nyarangi-Dix, Gencay Hatiboglu, Dogu Teber, Sven Perner, Albrecht Stenzinger, Wilfried Roth, Boris Hadaschik, Sascha Pahernik, Dirk Jäger, Carsten Grüllich, Anette Duensing, Roland Eils, Matthias Schlesner, Holger Sültmann, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
A venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is a potentially lethal complication of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but virtually nothing is known about the underlying natural history. Based on our observation that venous thrombi contain significant numbers of viable tumor cells, we applied multiregion whole exome sequencing to a total of 37 primary tumor and VTT samples including normal tissue specimens from five consecutive patients. Our findings demonstrate mutational heterogeneity between primary tumor and VTT with 106 of 483 genes (22%) harboring functional SNVs and/or indels altered in either primary tumor or thrombus...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joanne H Alexander, Sarah Neill
Goal-oriented modalities of learning have long been used in educational settings to promote engagement and encourage a step-by-step approach to the acquisition of skills and knowledge. Historically, badges have been material, but in keeping with technological advancements there is a move towards encouraging greater digital engagement. Digital badges are today's version of the Scouts and Guides badge, a virtual non-material version, increasingly being utilized as a pedagogical resource in education and business settings...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Tariq M Wani, Basharat Buchh, Faris Saeed AlGhamdi, Ravees Jan, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown significant variation in the tracheobronchial angles in pediatric-aged patients. The current study revisits tracheobronchial angle measurements in children using accurate computed tomography-based 3-dimensional images to add clarity to the understanding of tracheobronchial angles. The primary objective of the current study was to measure the right and left bronchial angle take off from the trachea using 3-dimensional computed tomography-based images of the air column in the tracheobronchial tree...
May 6, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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