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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340115/hypermutation-and-microsatellite-instability-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Kizuki Yuza, Masayuki Nagahashi, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Recent progress in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing has revealed a high mutation burden in some tumors. The particularly high rate of somatic mutation in these tumors correlates with the generation of neo-antigens capable of eliciting an immune response. Identification of hypermutated tumors is therefore clinically valuable for selecting patients suitable for immunotherapy treatment. There are several known causes of hypermutation in tumors, such as ultraviolet light in melanoma, tobacco smoke in lung cancer, and excessive APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) activity in breast and gastric cancer...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333049/marine-derived-fungi-extracts-enhance-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-doxorubicin-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-cells-a459
#2
Bruno Castro-Carvalho, Alice A Ramos, Maria Prata-Sena, Fernanda Malhão, Márcia Moreira, Daniela Gargiulo, Tida Dethoup, Suradet Buttachon, Anake Kijjoa, Eduardo Rocha
Background: Drug resistance is a major concern in the current chemotherapeutic approaches and the combination with natural compounds may enhance the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs. Therefore, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity of crude ethyl extracts of six marine-derived fungi - Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213 (E1), Neosartorya laciniosa KUFC 7896 (E2), Neosartorya fischeri KUFC 6344 (E3), Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013 (E4), Neosartorya paulistensis KUFC 7894 (E5), and Talaromyces trachyspermum KUFC 0021 (E6) - when combined with doxorubicin (Dox), in seven human cancer cell lines...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331323/regulation-of-inflammatory-factors-by-double-stranded-rna-receptors-in-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Amritha Venkatesh, Harika Nandigam, Maria Muccioli, Manindra Singh, Tiffany Loftus, Deana Lewis, Michelle Pate, Fabian Benencia
Malignant cells are not the only components of a tumor mass since other cells (e.g., fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes and endothelial cells) are also part of it. In combination with the extracellular matrix, all these cells constitute the tumor microenvironment. In the last decade the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression has gained increased attention and prompted efforts directed to abrogate its deleterious effects on anti-cancer therapies. The immune system can detect and attack tumor cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (particularly CD8 T cells) have been associated with improved survival or better response to therapies in colorectal, melanoma, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer patients among others...
November 22, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330486/new-generation-of-drug-delivery-systems-based-on-ginsenoside-rh2-lysine-and-arginine-treated-highly-porous-graphene-for-improving-anticancer-activity
#4
Hadi Zare-Zardini, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Ahmad Amiri, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
In this study, Rh2-treated graphene oxide (GO-Rh2), lysine-treated highly porous graphene (Gr-Lys), arginine-treated Gr (Gr-Arg), Rh2-treated Gr-Lys (Gr-Lys-Rh2) and Rh2-treated Gr-Arg (Gr-Arg-Rh2) were synthesized. MTT assay was used for evaluation of cytotoxicity of samples on ovarian cancer (OVCAR3), breast cancer (MDA-MB), Human melanoma (A375) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cell lines. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306001/nanoparticulate-vaccine-inhibits-tumor-growth-via-improved-t-cell-recruitment-into-melanoma-and-huher2-breast-cancer
#5
Eva Zupančič, Caterina Curato, Jung-Seok Kim, Eilam Yeini, Ziv Porat, Ana S Viana, Anat Globerson-Levin, Tova Waks, Zelig Eshhar, João N Moreira, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Lea Eisenbach, Steffen Jung, Helena F Florindo
Nanoparticulate vaccines are promising tools to overcome cancer immune evasion. However, a deeper understanding on nanoparticle-immune cell interactions and treatments regime are required for optimal efficacy. We provide a comprehensive study of treatment schedules and mode of antigen-association to nanovaccines on the modulation of T cell immunity in vivo, under steady-state and tumor-bearing mice. The coordinated delivery of antigen and two adjuvants (Monophosphoryl lipid A, oligodeoxynucleotide cytosine-phosphate-guanine motifs (CpG)) by nanoparticles was crucial for dendritic cell activation...
January 3, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304903/locked-nucleic-acid-technology-for-highly-sensitive-detection-of-somatic-mutations-in-cancer
#6
Takayuki Ishige, Sakae Itoga, Kazuyuki Matsushita
The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2' oxygen and 4' carbon in the ribose moiety...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304761/comparison-of-cancer-incidence-in-australian-farm-residents-45-years-and-over-compared-to-rural-non-farm-and-urban-residents-a-data-linkage-study
#7
Julie Depczynski, Timothy Dobbins, Bruce Armstrong, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: It is not known if the incidence of common cancers in Australian farm residents is different to rural non-farm or urban residents. METHODS: Data from farm, rural non-farm and urban participants of the 45 and Up Study cohort in New South Wales, Australia, were linked with state cancer registry data for the years 2006-2009. Directly standardised rate ratios for cancer incidence were compared for all-cancer, prostate, breast, colorectal cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300814/body-mass-index-and-20-specific-cancers-re-analyses-of-dose-response-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#8
E K Choi, H B Park, K H Lee, J H Park, M Eisenhut, H J van der Vliet, G Kim, J I Shin
Background: Objectives were to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence and extent of potential biases and validity of claimed associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and risk of developing cancer. Methods: We performed an umbrella review and comprehensively re-analysed the data of dose-response meta-analyses on associations between BMI and risk of 20-specific cancers (bladder, brain, breast, colonic, rectal, endometrial, gallbladder, gastric, leukemia, liver, lung, melanoma, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, oesophagus, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal, thyroid) by adding big data or missed individual studies...
December 28, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285987/anticancer-efficacy-of-tannic-acid-is-dependent-on-the-stiffness-of-the-underlying-matrix
#9
Christopher J Bridgeman, Thuy-Uyen Nguyen, Vipuil Kishore
Tannic acid (TA) has been previously shown to have anticancer potential for breast cancer but its effects on melanoma have not yet been investigated. Similarly, stiffness of the tumor microenvironment is known to have a profound effect on breast cancer metastasis, but little is known about its role on melanoma. The goal of the current study is to investigate the synergistic effects of TA and matrix stiffness on melanoma progression. A375 melanoma cells with metastatic potential were cultured on TA crosslinked uncompacted (soft) and electrochemically compacted (stiff) collagen gels and the effects of TA on gel morphology, mechanical properties, and cellular response (i...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285387/breast-cancer-cases-of-female-patients-under-35-years-of-age-in-togo-a-series-of-158-cases
#10
Tchin Darré, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Koué Folligan, Abdoulatif Amadou, Bidamin N'Timon, Lantam Sonhaye, Abdoul-Samadou Aboubakari, Koffi Amégbor, Koffi Akpadza, Gado Napo Koura
Breast cancer in young female patients represents a public health problem in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to study the epidemiological and histological characteristics of breast cancer in female patients under 35 years of age. This was a retrospective analytical study of a series of 158 cases of breast cancer in female patients under 35 years of age, conducted at the University Teaching Hospital of Lomé between 2000 and 2015. A total of 158 cases were collected, representing 36.2% (436) of all breast cancer cases...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281680/characteristics-of-percutaneous-core-biopsies-adequate-for-next-generation-genomic-sequencing
#11
Sharjeel H Sabir, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Sanjay Gupta, Gordon B Mills, Wei Wei, Andrea C Cortes, Kenna R Mills Shaw, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Michael J Wallace
PURPOSE: Determine the characteristics of percutaneous core biopsies that are adequate for a next generation sequencing (NGS) genomic panel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing percutaneous core biopsies in interventional radiology (IR) with samples evaluated for a 46-gene NGS panel during 1-year were included in this retrospective study. Patient and procedure variables were collected. An imaging-based likelihood of adequacy score incorporating targeting and sampling factors was assigned to each biopsied lesion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279706/metachronous-and-synchronous-occurrence-of-5-primary-malignancies-in-a-female-patient-between-1997-and-2013-a-case-report-with-germline-and-somatic-genetic-analysis
#12
Jenny Nyqvist, Fredrik Persson, Toshima Z Parris, Khalil Helou, Elisabeth Kenne Sarenmalm, Zakaria Einbeigi, Åke Borg, Per Karlsson, Anikó Kovács
The number of patients with multiple primary malignancies has been increasing steadily in recent years. In the present study, we describe a unique case of an 81-year-old woman with 5 metachronous and synchronous primary malignant neoplasms. The patient was first diagnosed with an endometrium adenocarcinoma in 1997 and a colon adenocarcinoma in 2002. Eleven years after her colon surgery, in 2013, the patient presented with 3 other primary malignancies within a 4-month time span: an invasive malignant melanoma on the lower leg, an invasive mucinous breast carcinoma in the right breast, and a pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma on the left upper arm...
September 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277767/antitumor-memory-t-cells-become-functionally-mature-from-30-to-100-days-in-a-mouse-model-of-neoplasia
#13
Yanhua Gao, Mamdouha A Barmada, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late metastases develop from cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and malignant melanomas. Memory T-cells have excellent potential to prevent this devastating development in the same way that they routinely prevent emergence of latent viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A peritoneal tumor mouse model of viral oncotherapy was used to generate therapeutic antitumor memory T-cells. Functional in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study the temporal evolution of their anticancer effects...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275471/oncolytic-virotherapy-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#14
Sara E Berkey, Steve H Thorne, David L Bartlett
Oncolytic viral therapy is a promising approach to treat many malignancies, including breast, colorectal, hepatocellular, and melanoma. The best results are seen when using "targeted and armed" viruses. These are viruses that have been genetically modified to selectively replicate within cancer cells and express specific transgenes that alter the tumor microenvironment to inhibit tumor progression. The products of these transgenes induce cell death, make the virus less virulent, compromise tumor vascularity, and are capable of modulating or enhancing the immune system-such as cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249971/inhibition-of-a2a-adenosine-receptor-signaling-in-cancer-cells-proliferation-by-the-novel-antagonist-tp455
#15
Stefania Gessi, Serena Bencivenni, Enrica Battistello, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Vittoria Colotta, Daniela Catarzi, Flavia Varano, Stefania Merighi, Pier Andrea Borea, Katia Varani
Several evidences indicate that the ubiquitous nucleoside adenosine, acting through A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor (AR) subtypes, plays crucial roles in tumor development. Adenosine has contrasting effects on cell proliferation depending on the engagement of different receptor subtypes in various tumors. The involvement of A2AARs in human A375 melanoma, as well as in human A549 lung and rat MRMT1 breast carcinoma proliferation has been evaluated in view of the availability of a novel A2AAR antagonist, with high affinity and selectivity, named as 2-(2-furanyl)-N5-(2-methoxybenzyl)[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-5,7-diammine (TP455)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238222/the-burden-of-selected-cancers-in-the-us-health-behaviors-and-health-care-resource-utilization
#16
Laura Iadeluca, Jack Mardekian, Pratibha Chander, Markay Hopps, Geoffrey T Makinson
Objective: To characterize the disease burden among survivors of those cancers having the highest incidence in the US. Methods: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of the 11 most frequently diagnosed cancers were identified from publically available data sources, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 1973-2012, National Health Interview Survey 2013, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2011. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were utilized to assess differences between cancer survivors and non-cancer controls in behavioral characteristics, symptoms and functions, preventative screenings, and health care costs...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234713/promoting-early-detection-of-melanoma-during-the-mammography-experience
#17
A K Rzepecki, N Jain, Y Ali, L Chavez, J Choi, B Schlosser, E Liko-Hazizi, S M Friedewald, J K Robinson
Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman's risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE) to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health...
December 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230127/intraarterial-liver-directed-therapies-the-role-of-interventional-oncology
#18
REVIEW
Jenson Ma, Juan Martin Gimenez, Tyler Sandow, Daniel Devun, David Kirsch, Paul Gulotta, Patrick Gilbert, Dennis Kay
Background: Since the early 1990s, the minimally invasive image-guided therapies used in interventional oncology to treat hepatocellular carcinoma have continued to evolve. Additionally, the range of applications has been expanded to the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, melanoma, and sarcoma. Methods: We searched the literature to identify publications from 1990 to the present on various image-guided intraarterial therapies and their efficacy, as well as their role in the management of primary and secondary liver malignancies...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230121/leptomeningeal-disease-and-the-evolving-role-of-molecular-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#19
REVIEW
Katharine Hall Thomas, Robert A Ramirez
Background: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a complication that results from solid tumor metastasis. Prognosis is extremely poor. As therapeutic options for solid tumors improve, the rate of LMD continues to increase. Until recently, treatment has been limited to radiation therapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy, with an overall survival of 2-3 months. Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapies are promising new options for increasing overall survival and clinical improvement; however, optimal clinical management remains unknown...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225779/risk-of-solid-cancer-in-patients-with-mast-cell-activation-syndrome-results-from-germany-and-usa
#20
Gerhard J Molderings, Thomas Zienkiewicz, Jürgen Homann, Markus Menzen, Lawrence B Afrin
Background:  It has been shown repeatedly that mast cells can promote or prevent cancer development and growth. If development and/or progression of a solid cancer is substantially influenced by mast cell activity, the frequencies of occurrence of solid cancers in patients with primary mast cells disorders would be expected to differ from the corresponding prevalence data in the general population. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that patients with systemic mastocytosis (i.e., a rare neoplastic variant of the primary mast cell activation disease) have increased risk for solid cancers, in particular melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers...
2017: F1000Research
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