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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549523/-anesthetic-management-of-a-patient-with-15q-tetrasomy-for-dental-treatment
#1
Yuri Hase, Nobuhito Kemekura, Yukie Nitta, Toshiaki Fujisawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: 15q tetrasomy is a chromosomal abnormality that is a part of the heterogeneous group of extra structurally abnormal chromosomes. This syndrome is characterized by epilepsy, central hypotonia, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and autistic behavior. This is the first report of the anesthetic management of a patient with this syndrome. CASE REPORT: We administered general anesthesia for dental treatment in a patient with 15q tetrasomy...
May 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544637/prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-symptoms-in-a-school-based-cohort-of-children-in-kolkata-india
#2
Alokananda Rudra, Matthew K Belmonte, Parmeet Kaur Soni, Saoni Banerjee, Shaneel Mukerji, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Despite housing ∼18% of the world's population, India does not yet have an estimate of prevalence of autism. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of autism in a selected population of school-children in India. N = 11,849 children (mean age = 5.9 [SD = 1.3], 39.5% females) were selected from various school types from three boroughs in Kolkata, India. Parents/caregivers and teachers filled in the social and communication disorders checklist (SCDC). Children meeting cutoff on parent-reported SCDC were followed up with the social communication questionnaire (SCQ)...
May 25, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542365/delusion-proneness-displays-comorbidity-with-traits-of-autistic-spectrum-disorders-and-adhd
#3
Anaïs Louzolo, Petter Gustavsson, Lars Tigerström, Martin Ingvar, Andreas Olsson, Predrag Petrovic
There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting a significant comorbidity between psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, research on psychosis-proneness in otherwise healthy individuals has been a promising way to better understand the mechanisms underlying psychosis. As both ADHD and ASD symptoms show a normal distribution in the general population, such trait comorbidity may confound studies on psychosis-proneness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542171/adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-experience-increased-levels-of-anomalous-perception
#4
Elizabeth Milne, Abigail Dickinson, Richard Smith
Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is characterised by differences in social interaction and behavioural inflexibility. In addition to these core symptoms, atypical sensory responses are prevalent in the ASC phenotype. Here we investigated anomalous perception, i.e. hallucinatory and/or out of body experiences in adults with ASC. Thirty participants with an ASC diagnosis and thirty neurotypical controls completed the Cardiff Anomalous Perception Scale (CAPS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). The CAPS is a 32-item questionnaire that asks participants to indicate whether or not they experience a range of anomalous and out of body experiences, and to rate how intrusive and distressing these experiences are...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540453/linking-anxiety-and-insistence-on-sameness-in-autistic-children-the-role-of-sensory-hypersensitivity
#5
Karen R Black, Ryan A Stevenson, Magali Segers, Busiswe L Ncube, Sol Z Sun, Aviva Philipp-Muller, James M Bebko, Morgan D Barense, Susanne Ferber
Sensory hypersensitivity and insistence on sameness (I/S) are common, co-occurring features of autism, yet the relationship between them is poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of sensory hypersensitivity on the clinical symptoms of specific phobia, separation anxiety, social anxiety and I/S for autistic and typically developing (TD) children. Parents of 79 children completed questionnaires on their child's difficulties related to sensory processing, I/S, and anxiety. Results demonstrated that sensory hypersensitivity mediated 67% of the relationship between symptoms of specific phobia and I/S and 57% of the relationship between separation anxiety and I/S...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538871/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-interventions-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Larissa Lyra, Luiz Eduardo Rizzo, Camila Sá Sunahara, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Ana Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. The manifestations of ASDs can have an important impact on learning and social functioning that may persist during adulthood. The aim here was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for ASDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537758/validation-of-the-empathy-quotient-in-mainland-china
#7
Qing Zhao, David L Neumann, Xiaoyan Cao, Simon Baron-Cohen, Xiang Sun, Yuan Cao, Chao Yan, Yuna Wang, Lin Shao, David H K Shum
This research aimed to validate a simplified Chinese version of the Empathy Quotient (EQ; 60 items) for use with Mainland Chinese people. The original English version of the EQ was translated into simplified Chinese. Through an online survey, 588 Mainland Chinese participants completed the EQ and 3 other questionnaires: the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Thirty-five participants completed retesting of the EQ 3 to 4 weeks later...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536923/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-slc19a1-and-slc25a9-are-associated-with-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-chinese-han-population
#8
Jun Liu, Weiming Mo, Zengyu Zhang, Hong Yu, Aiping Yang, Fei Qu, Pingfang Hu, Zhuo Liu, Shihu Wang
Genetic variants have been implicated in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies suggest that solute carriers (SLCs) may play a role in the etiology of ASD. This purpose of this study was to determine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC19A1 and SLC25A12 genes with childhood ASD in a Chinese Han population. A total of 201 autistic children and 200 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. A TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR approach was used to determine genotypes of SNPs corresponding to rs1023159 and rs1051266 in SLC19A1, and rs2056202 and rs2292813 in SLC25A12...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535982/altered-gene-expression-in-early-postnatal-monoamine-oxidase-a-knockout-mice
#9
Kevin Chen, Abbey Kardys, Yibu Chen, Stephen Flink, Boris Tabakoff, Jean C Shih
We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here...
May 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535720/retrospectively-assessed-early-motor-and-current-pragmatic-language-skills-in-autistic-and-neurotypical-children
#10
Jennifer L Stevenson, Caitlin E Lindley, Nicole Murlo
Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533625/beneficial-effect-of-interventional-exercise-on-autistic-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Sookyoung Park, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Joo-Heon Kim, Yonggeun Hong
[Purpose] The purpose of the present review is to discuss recent published articles in the understanding of efficacy of interventional exercise on autistic Fragile X syndrome (FXS) with special emphasis on its significance in clinical application in patients. [Methods] This review article was identified scientifically and/or clinically relevant articles from PubMed that directly/indirectly met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Mutation of fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene on the X chromosome is related with loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that affecting physiological and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531560/uneasy-encounters-youth-social-dis-comfort-and-the-autistic-self
#12
Edmund Coleman-Fountain
Notions of deficit and 'faultiness' shape depictions of the association between autism and uneasy social relationships. That framing has been the focus of critique by autistic activists and scholars who, exploring autistic people's sociality, reframe issues of social difficulty in terms of inequality and discomfort. Located within this set of debates, the article analyses data from a UK based study of mental health narratives derived from semi-structured interviews with 19 autistic young adults aged 23 to 24...
May 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529066/reconstructing-context-specific-gene-regulatory-network-and-identifying-modules-and-network-rewiring-through-data-integration
#13
Tianle Ma, Aidong Zhang
Reconstructing context-specific transcriptional regulatory network is crucial for deciphering principles of regulatory mechanisms underlying various conditions. Recently studies that reconstructed transcriptional networks have focused on individual organisms or cell types and relied on data repositories of context-free regulatory relationships. Here we present a comprehensive framework to systematically derive putative regulator-target pairs in any given context by integrating context-specific transcriptional profiling and public data repositories of gene regulatory networks...
May 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527095/-putting-on-my-best-normal-social-camouflaging-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#14
Laura Hull, K V Petrides, Carrie Allison, Paula Smith, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, William Mandy
Camouflaging of autistic characteristics in social situations is hypothesised as a common social coping strategy for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Camouflaging may impact diagnosis, quality of life, and long-term outcomes, but little is known about it. This qualitative study examined camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC, with questions focusing on the nature, motivations, and consequences of camouflaging. Thematic analysis was used to identify key elements of camouflaging, which informed development of a three-stage model of the camouflaging process...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526515/prenatal-lipopolysaccharide-induces-hypothalamic-dopaminergic-hypoactivity-and-autistic-like-behaviors-repetitive-self-grooming-and-stereotypies
#15
Thiago B Kirsten, Maria M Bernardi
Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524230/the-etiology-of-autistic-traits-in-preschoolers-a-population-based-twin-study
#16
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Rosa A Hoekstra, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to autistic traits, controlling for the possible effects of rater bias, (b) to explore possible sex differences in etiology and (c) to investigate the discordance in autistic traits in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523392/brief-report-autism-in-the-courtroom-experiences-of-legal-professionals-and-the-autism-community
#17
Katie L Maras, Laura Crane, Sue Mulcahy, Tamsyn Hawken, Penny Cooper, David Wurtzel, Amina Memon
Online surveys were used to sample the views of judges, barristers and solicitors (n = 33) about their engagement with autistic individuals in criminal courts in England and Wales. Despite an understanding of some of the difficulties experienced by individuals with autism, and the adjustments suitable for supporting them, legal professionals reported constraints arising from a lack of understanding by others within the criminal justice system. These results are considered alongside the views and perspectives of autistic adults (n = 9) and parents of children on the autism spectrum (n = 19), who had encountered the criminal courts as witnesses or defendants and were largely dissatisfied with their experiences...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521245/the-light-from-above-prior-is-intact-in-autistic-children
#18
Abigail Croydon, Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Sensory information is inherently ambiguous. The brain disambiguates this information by anticipating or predicting the sensory environment based on prior knowledge. Pellicano and Burr (2012) proposed that this process may be atypical in autism and that internal assumptions, or "priors," may be underweighted or less used than in typical individuals. A robust internal assumption used by adults is the "light-from-above" prior, a bias to interpret ambiguous shading patterns as if formed by a light source located above (and slightly to the left) of the scene...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516421/differential-fairness-decisions-and-brain-responses-after-expressed-emotions-of-others-in-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Eduard T Klapwijk, Moji Aghajani, Gert-Jan Lelieveld, Natasja D J van Lang, Arne Popma, Nic J A van der Wee, Olivier F Colins, Robert R J M Vermeiren
Little is known about how emotions expressed by others influence social decisions and associated brain responses in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to explicitly expressed emotions of others in boys with ASD and typically developing (TD) boys. Participants with ASD adjusted their allocation behavior in response to the emotions but reacted less unfair than TD controls in response to happiness. We also found reduced brain responses in the precental gyrus in the ASD versus TD group when receiving happy versus angry reactions and autistic traits were positively associated with activity in the postcentral gyrus...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515574/autistic-heterogeneity-linking-uncertainties-and-indeterminacies
#20
Gregory Hollin
Autism is a highly uncertain entity and little is said about it with any degree of certainty. Scientists must, and do, work through these uncertainties in the course of their work. Scientists explain uncertainty in autism research through discussion of epistemological uncertainties which suggest that diverse methods and techniques make results hard to reconcile, ontological uncertainties which suggest doubt over taxonomic coherence, but also through reference to autism's indeterminacy which suggests that the condition is inherently heterogeneous...
April 3, 2017: Science As Culture
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