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F-J Haug, M Bräuninger, C Ballif
We apply a Fourier-scattering model to describe light scattering in solar cells with textured surfaces. For the size and inclination angle of typical micro-textures, scattering may occur into large angles. This makes the model prone to paraxial errors. We present a non-paraxial formulation and discuss the transition from the domain of refraction at large facets to scattering at small features.
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Bao-Li Li, Jin-Hui Chen, Fei Xu, Yan-Qing Lu
A periodic micro-structure on optical microfibers induced by Plateau-Rayleigh instability (PRI) was investigated and a potential application for long period gratings (LPGs) fabrication was given. The linear relation between the average periods of micro-structures and the diameters of optical microfibers was demonstrated first. By brushing a glass rod with a Teflon droplet suspended at the end tip along microfibers, a continuous film of Teflon was formed at once, then the film broke up into a series of periodic droplets due to PRI...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Jianwei Chen, Hiu Hung Lee, Dongping Wang, Si Di, Shih-Chi Chen
We present a high-precision hybrid imprinting method to fabricate multi-layer micro-optical structures on nonplanar substrates using a custom-built vacuum imprinting system; with the application of kinematic couplings that align the flexible stamps in all six degrees of freedom, a cross-layer pattern registration precision of 400 nm has been achieved on nonplanar substrates. To demonstrate the precision and feasibility of the new process and instrument, we have designed and fabricated a multi-layer artificial compound eye (ACE) for multispectral imaging...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Ying Tan, Sitao Chen, Daoxin Dai
Polarization-selective microring resonators (MRRs) are designed and demonstrated to work with resonances for only one of TE and TM polarizations for the first time, which can be used for realizing the crossing-free, compact and scalable multi-wavelength coherent receiver with dual polarizations. The present polarization-selective MRRs are realized by manipulating the polarization-dependence of the bending loss of the micro-resonators and the coupling ratio of the bent directional couplers introduced here. The demonstrated TM-type MRR and the TE-type MRR work well as a wavelength-selective optical filter for TM polarization and TE polarization, respectively, as designed...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
R Zou, M Wang, S L Wang, S Li, C Zhang, L Deng, Y F Lu, K P Chen
Laser shock micro-forming is a non-thermal laser forming method that uses laser-induced shockwave to modify surface properties and to adjust shapes and geometry of work pieces. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the laser-induced shockwaves depend on the energy profiles of the laser beam focused on sample surfaces. In this paper, we present an adaptive optical technique to engineer spatial profiles of laser beams to control the shapes, sizes, and locations of the laser-induced shockwaves and the resulting forming features...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Shun Cao, Taisheng Wang, Qiang Sun, Bingliang Hu, Weixing Yu
Biological research requires dynamic and wide-field optical microscopy with resolution down to nanometer to study the biological process in a sub-cell or single molecular level. To address this issue, we propose a dynamic wide-field optical nanoimaging method based on a meta-nanocavity platform (MNCP) model which can be incorporated in micro/nano-fluidic systems so that the samples to be observed can be confined in a nano-scale space for the ease of imaging. It is found that this platform can support standing wave surface plasmons (SW-SPs) interference pattern with a period of 105 nm for a 532 nm incident wavelength...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Zhaomin Tong, Wenjiang Shen, Shaohua Song, Wenzhi Cheng, Zhuo Cai, Yifei Ma, Lei Wei, Weiguang Ma, Liantuan Xiao, Suotang Jia, Xuyuan Chen
In high lumen laser projectors, it is required to use laser diodes coupled to multi-mode fibers (MMFs) to obtain a high power illumination module. In this paper, we have fabricated an electromagnetic micro-scanning mirror (EM-MSM), and we have firstly demonstrated a speckle reduction method by the combination of the EM-MSM and the MMF. With the help of a condenser lens, laser beams modulated and reflected from the EM-MSM are coupled into the MMF within its acceptance angle. Because the fast scanning behavior of the EM-MSM results in the phase modulation and mode coupling among the MMF guided modes, the light intensity field distributions at the exit aperture of the MMF are changing...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Benjamin Lipovšek, Andrej Čampa, Fei Guo, Christoph J Brabec, Karen Forberich, Janez Krč, Marko Topič
We present detailed numerical and experimental investigation of thin-film organic solar cells with a micro-textured light management foil applied on top of the front glass substrate. We first demonstrate that measurements of small-area laboratory solar cells are susceptible to a significant amount of optical losses that could lead to false interpretation of the measurement results. Using the combined optical model CROWM calibrated with realistic optical properties of organic films and other layers, we identify the origins of these losses and quantify the extent of their influence...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Shota Tetsuno, Kyuki Shibuya, Tetsuo Iwata
We propose two subpixel-shift (SPS) imaging methods: a normal SPS (NSPS) and an interleaved SPS (ISPS) method. Both methods use a series of cyclic-Hadamard-mask illuminations and a single channel detector that enhances lateral spatial resolution in proportion to the number of shifts. A sample object (or the illumination mask) is moved in two dimensions in micro-step intervals within the range of an illumination mask unit pixel (or within a range that exceeds it). To reconstruct the original image, we use a pseudo-inverse-matrix procedure that ensures measurement precision in a least-squares sense...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Haijie Zuo, Duk-Yong Choi, Xin Gai, Barry Luther-Davies, Baoping Zhang
We present a novel CMOS-compatible fabrication technique for convex micro-nano lens arrays (MNLAs) with high packing density on the wafer scale. By means of conformal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) following patterning of silicon pillars via electron beam lithography (EBL) and plasma etching, large areas of a close packed silicon lens array with the diameter from a few micrometers down to a few hundred nanometers was fabricated. The resulting structure shows excellent surface roughness and high uniformity...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Izabela Michalak, Agnieszka Dmytryk, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
The green seaweed Enteromorpha prolifera was used as a feedstock for the production of enzymatic hydrolysate using cellulase. The selection of the conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass was carried out for different enzyme doses and incubation periods. The obtained extract was examined in terms of its multielemental composition, content of polyphenols and antibacterial properties (tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Additionally, its influence on the metabolic activity of human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2) was analyzed...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tomokazu Ishikawa, Tohru Yoneyama, Yuki Tobisawa, Shingo Hatakeyama, Tatsuo Kurosawa, Kenji Nakamura, Shintaro Narita, Koji Mitsuzuka, Wilhelmina Duivenvoorden, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie, Tomonori Habuchi, Yoichi Arai, Chikara Ohyama
The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay systems (μTAS system) can be applied as a diagnostic marker of PCa. The μTAS system can utilize affinity-based separation involving noncovalent interaction between the immunocomplex of S2,3PSA and Maackia amurensis lectin to simultaneously determine concentrations of free PSA and S2,3PSA...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ivan Prieto, Roksolana Kozak, Oliver Skibitzki, Marta D Rossell, Peter Zaumseil, Giovanni Capellini, Emilio Gini, Karsten Kunze, Yadira Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Rolf Erni, Thomas Schroeder, Hans von Känel
Nano-heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on Si(001) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was investigated to study emerging materials phenomena on the nano-scale of III-V/Si interaction. Arrays of Si nano-tips (NTs) embedded in a SiO2 matrix were used as substrates. The NTs had top Si openings of 50-90 nm serving as seeds for the selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs). The structural and morphological properties were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy...
February 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
Oliver Skibitzki, Ivan Prieto, Roksolana Kozak, Giovanni Capellini, Peter Zaumseil, Yadira Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Marta D Rossell, Rolf Erni, Hans von Känel, Thomas Schroeder
We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO2-mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs)...
February 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
Valeria Motta, Matteo Bonzini, Lotte Grevendonk, Simona Iodice, Valentina Bollati
Epigenetics modifications, that include variations in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, co-operate together, influencing genome expression and function, in response to exogenous stimuli or exposures. Thus, epigenetic tools applied to epidemiology are useful in investigating, at the population level, the relationships between exposures to environmental, lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic risk factors, and the epigenome, and/or specific health outcomes. But the choice of an appropriate study design and of valid epidemiological methods has a key role in determining the achievement of the study...
February 15, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
Vor Luvira, Kulyada Somsap, Ake Pugkhem, Chalerm Eurboonyanun, Varisara Luvira, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Chawalit Pairojkul, Supot Kamsa Ard
Background: Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a specific entity for which there has been no classification that correlates clinical presentation with patient survival. We, therefore, propose a new classification based on radio-pathological appearance correlated with clinical findings including outcome. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical and pathological records of 103 IPNB patients who underwent curative-intent hepatic resection between January 2008 and December 2011. A morphological classification was then created based on the presence of (a) bile duct dilatation, (b) intraductal mass(es), (c) cystic lesion(s), and (d) macro-invasion of the liver...
1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Ryota Sakamoto, Toshiki Yagi, Ken Hoshiko, Shinpei Kusaka, Ryota Matsuoka, Hiroaki Maeda, Zheng Liu, Qian Liu, Wai-Yeung Wong, Hiroshi Nishihara
New bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex micro- and nanosheets containing zinc(II) porphyrin (N2) are synthesized. A liquid/liquid interface method between dipyrrin porphyrin ligand L2 and zinc acetate produces N2 with a large domain size. N2 can be layered quantitatively onto a flat substrate by a modified Langmuir-Schäfer method. N2 deposited on a SnO2 electrode functions as a photoanode for a photoelectric conversion system. The photoresponse of N2 covers the whole visible wavelength range (400-650 nm), with a maximum quantum efficiency of more than twice that of a bis(dipyrrinato)zinc(II) complex nanosheet without porphyrin...
February 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Qiuyang Zhang, Sen Liu, Dongxia Ge, David M Cunningham, Feng Huang, Lin Ma, Thomas P Burris, Zongbing You
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development and progression of human cancers including prostate cancer. The exact role of the inflammatory Th17-IL-17 pathway in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the importance of Th17 cells and IL-17 in a Pten-null prostate cancer mouse model. METHODS: The Pten-null mice were treated by Th17 inhibitor SR1001 or anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody from 6 weeks of age up to 12 weeks of age...
February 27, 2017: Prostate
Juri A Steiner, Patrik Christen, Remo Affentranger, Stephen J Ferguson, G Harry van Lenthe
Insufficient primary stability of screws in bone leads to screw loosening and failure. Unlike conventional continuum finite-element models, micro-CT based finite-element analysis (micro-FE) is capable of capturing the patient-specific bone micro-architecture, providing accurate estimates of bone stiffness. However, such in silico models for screws in bone highly overestimate the apparent stiffness. We hypothesized that a more accurate prediction of primary implant stability of screws in bone is possible by considering insertion-related bone damage...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Rui Hao, Yuanchen Wei, Chaobo Li, Feng Chen, Deyong Chen, Xiaoting Zhao, Shaoliang Luan, Beiyuan Fan, Wei Guo, Junbo Wang, Jian Chen
This paper presents a 96-well microfabricated assay to study three-dimensional (3D) invasion of tumor cells. A 3D cluster of tumor cells was first generated within each well by seeding cells onto a micro-patterned surface consisting of a central fibronectin-coated area that promotes cellular attachment, surrounded by a poly ethylene glycol (PEG) coated area that is resistant to cellular attachment. Following the formation of the 3D cell clusters, a 3D collagen extracellular matrix was formed in each well by thermal-triggered gelation...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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