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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#1
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719653/isolation-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-from-a-phage-display-library-binding-the-rhesus-macaque-mhc-class-i-allomorph-mamu-a1-001
#2
Nathan Holman, Jason T Weinfurter, Trevor R Harsla, Roger W Wiseman, Aaron J Belli, Anthony J Michaels, Keith A Reimann, Robert I DeMars, Matthew R Reynolds
Monoclonal antibodies that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) are useful tools for HLA-typing, tracking donor-recipient chimerisms after bone marrow transplants, and characterizing specific major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) on cell surfaces. Unfortunately, equivalent reagents are not available for rhesus macaques, which are commonly used animal as models in organ transplant and infectious disease research. To address this deficiency, we isolated an antibody that recognizes the common Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecule, Mamu-A1*001...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718425/nlrc5-cita-a-key-player-in-cancer-immune-surveillance
#3
REVIEW
Sayuri Yoshihama, Saptha Vijayan, Tabasum Sidiq, Koichi S Kobayashi
Cancer cells need to escape immune surveillance for successful tumor growth. Loss of MHC class I has been described as a major immune evasion strategy in many cancers. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), NLRC5 [nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing (NLR) family, caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domain containing 5], is a key transcription coactivator of MHC class I genes. Recent genetic studies have revealed that NLRC5 is a major target for cancer immune evasion mechanisms...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717398/preclinical-evaluation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-triggered-dendritic-cells-expressing-the-viral-oncogenic-driver-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-for-therapeutic-vaccination
#4
Kerstin F Gerer, Michael Erdmann, Sine R Hadrup, Rikke Lyngaa, Lena-Marie Martin, Reinhard E Voll, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner, Gerold Schuler, Niels Schaft, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin tumor that develops after integration of a truncated form of the large T-antigen (truncLT) of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) into the host's genome. Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor antigens is an active form of immunotherapy, which intends to direct the immune system towards tumors which express the respective vaccination antigens. METHODS: Cytokine-matured monocyte-derived DCs of healthy donors and MCC patients were electroporated with mRNA encoding the truncLT...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717152/effects-of-population-bottleneck-and-balancing-selection-on-the-chinese-alligator-are-revealed-by-locus-specific-characterization-of-mhc-genes
#5
Teng Zhai, Hai-Qiong Yang, Rui-Can Zhang, Li-Ming Fang, Guo-Heng Zhong, Sheng-Guo Fang
Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endangered freshwater crocodilian endemic to China, which experienced a severe bottleneck about 30 years ago. In this study, we developed locus-specific primers to investigate the polymorphism of 3 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci in 3 Chinese alligator populations, in combination with 6 neutral microsatellite markers as a contrast. We found the genetic trace for the bottleneck effect on the endangered Chinese alligator: the low allelic diversity (2 alleles at each locus), the low nucleotide substitution rate (no more than 0...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716943/visualizing-context-dependent-calcium-signaling-in-encephalitogenic-t-cells-in-vivo-by-two-photon-microscopy
#6
Nikolaos I Kyratsous, Isabel J Bauer, Guokun Zhang, Marija Pesic, Ingo Bartholomäus, Marsilius Mues, Ping Fang, Miriam Wörner, Stephanie Everts, Joachim W Ellwart, Joanna M Watt, Barry V L Potter, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Hartmut Wekerle, Naoto Kawakami
In experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells are activated in the periphery before they home to the CNS. On their way, the T cells pass through a series of different cellular milieus where they receive signals that instruct them to invade their target tissues. These signals involve interaction with the surrounding stroma cells, in the presence or absence of autoantigens. To portray the serial signaling events, we studied a T-cell-mediated model of EAE combining in vivo two-photon microscopy with two different activation reporters, the FRET-based calcium biosensor Twitch1 and fluorescent NFAT...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716903/autophagy-related-protein-vps34-controls-the-homeostasis-and-function-of-antigen-cross-presenting-cd8%C3%AE-dendritic-cells
#7
Vrajesh V Parekh, Sudheer K Pabbisetty, Lan Wu, Eric Sebzda, Jennifer Martinez, Jianhua Zhang, Luc Van Kaer
The class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a role in both canonical and noncanonical autophagy, key processes that control the presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T lymphocytes. We generated DC-specific Vps34-deficient mice to assess the contribution of Vps34 to DC functions. We found that DCs from these animals have a partially activated phenotype, spontaneously produce cytokines, and exhibit enhanced activity of the classic MHC class I and class II antigen-presentation pathways...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716484/the-anti-tumor-activity-of-the-stat3-inhibitor-stx-0119-occurs-via-promotion-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte-accumulation-in-temozolomide-resistant-glioblastoma-cell-line
#8
Yasuto Akiyama, Chizu Nonomura, Tadashi Ashizawa, Akira Iizuka, Ryota Kondou, Haruo Miyata, Takashi Sugino, Koichi Mitsuya, Nakamasa Hayashi, Yoko Nakasu, Akira Asai, Mamoru Ito, Yoshio Kiyohara, Ken Yamaguchi
STAT3 is considered to be a key molecule to mediating tumor-induced immunosuppression in various manners at tumor sites, by acting through immune-regulatory cytokines derived from the tumor cells. Specific anti-STAT3 inhibitors have been developed using nude mouse models transplanted with human tumor cells. However, mouse systems cannot accurately represent the human immune response induced by STAT3 inhibitors, and more humanized therapeutic model based on human immune cells and tumors are needed. In the present study, an immune-deficient NOG mouse with the deletion of both MHC-class I and class II genes, an MHC-double knockout mouse (dKO-NOG), was developed and used to establish humanized immunotherapeutic model...
July 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714192/secreted-tumor-antigens-immune-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Els N Meeusen, Elgene Lim, Suresh Mathivanan
With the advent of immunotherapies for cancer, there is growing interest in the identification of tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are self-molecules altered through genetic mutations (neoantigens), protein truncation, protein misfolding or abnormal post translational modifications. To induce an immune response, tumor antigens need to be secreted into the tumor environment and presented to the immune system in the draining lymph nodes, resulting in the generation of tumor-specific effector cells and antibodies...
July 17, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710434/modifying-dendritic-cell-activation-with-plasmonic-nano-vectors
#10
Kieng Bao Vang, Ingrid Safina, Emilie Darrigues, Dmitry Nedosekin, Zeid A Nima, Waqar Majeed, Fumiya Watanabe, Ganesh Kannarpady, Rajshekhar A Kore, Daniel Casciano, Vladimir P Zharov, Robert J Griffin, Ruud P M Dings, Alexandru S Biris
Dendritic cells (DCs) can acquire, process, and present antigens to T-cells to induce an immune response. For this reason, targeting cancer antigens to DCs in order to cause an immune response against cancer is an emerging area of nanomedicine that has the potential to redefine the way certain cancers are treated. The use of plasmonically active silver-coated gold nanorods (henceforth referred to as plasmonic nano vectors (PNVs)) as potential carriers for DC tumor vaccines has not been presented before. Effective carriers must be able to be phagocytized by DCs, present low toxicity, and induce the maturation of DCs-an early indication of an immune response...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709804/identification-of-natural-regulatory-t-cell-epitopes-reveals-convergence-on-a-dominant-autoantigen
#11
John D Leonard, Dana C Gilmore, Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Wioletta I Nawrocka, Jaime L Chao, Mary H Schoenbach, Marc K Jenkins, Erin J Adams, Peter A Savage
Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for the prevention of autoimmunity and the suppression of anti-tumor immunity. The major self-antigens recognized by Treg cells remain undefined, representing a substantial barrier to the understanding of immune regulation. Here, we have identified natural Treg cell ligands in mice. We found that two recurrent Treg cell clones, one prevalent in prostate tumors and the other associated with prostatic autoimmune lesions, recognized distinct non-overlapping MHC-class-II-restricted peptides derived from the same prostate-specific protein...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708886/kir3dl01-upregulation-on-gut-natural-killer-cells-in-response-to-siv-infection-of-kir-and-mhc-class-i-defined-rhesus-macaques
#12
Moritz Ries, Matthew R Reynolds, Ksenia Bashkueva, Kristin Crosno, Saverio Capuano, Trent M Prall, Roger Wiseman, David H O'Connor, Eva G Rakasz, Hajime Uno, Jeffrey D Lifson, David T Evans
Natural killer cells provide an important early defense against viral pathogens and are regulated in part by interactions between highly polymorphic killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their MHC class I ligands on target cells. We previously identified MHC class I ligands for two rhesus macaque KIRs: KIR3DL01 recognizes Mamu-Bw4 molecules and KIR3DL05 recognizes Mamu-A1*002. To determine how these interactions influence NK cell responses, we infected KIR3DL01+ and KIR3DL05+ macaques with and without defined ligands for these receptors with SIVmac239, and monitored NK cell responses in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708284/cd20-specific-immunoligands-engaging-nkg2d-enhance-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-mediated-lysis-of-lymphoma-cells
#13
Matthias Peipp, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Sebastian Lutz, Anja Muskulus, Jan G J van de Winkel, Paul W H I Parren, Renate Burger, Andreas Humpe, Dieter Kabelitz, Martin Gramatzki, Christian Kellner
Human γδ T cells are innate-like T cells which are able to kill a broad range of tumor cells and thus may have potential for cancer immunotherapy. The activating receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) plays a key role in regulating immune responses driven by γδ T cells. Here, we explored whether recombinant immunoligands consisting of a CD20 single-chain fragment variable (scFv) linked to a NKG2D ligand, either MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA) or UL16 binding protein 2 (ULBP2), could be employed to engage γδ T cells for tumor cell killing...
July 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708252/redundant-and-regulatory-roles-for-tlrs-in-leishmania-infection
#14
REVIEW
Prashant Chauhan, Divanshu Shukla, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar Saha
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germ-line encoded, non-clonal innate immune receptors, which are often the first receptors to recognize the molecular patterns on pathogens. Therefore, the immune response initiated by TLRs does have far-reaching consequences on the outcome of an infection. As soon as the cell surface TLRs and other receptors recognize a pathogen, the pathogen is phagocytosed. Inclusion of TLRs in the phagosome results in quicker phagosomal maturation and stronger adaptive immune response, as TLRs influence costimulatory molecules expression and determinant selection by MHC class-II and by MHC class-I for cross-presentation...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699110/immune-selection-during-tumor-checkpoint-inhibition-therapy-paves-way-for-nk-cell-missing-self-recognition
#15
REVIEW
Karl-Johan Malmberg, Ebba Sohlberg, Jodie P Goodridge, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren
The ability of NK cells to specifically recognize cells lacking expression of self-MHC class I molecules was discovered over 30 years ago. It provided the foundation for the "missing self" hypothesis. Research in the two past decades has contributed to a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the specificity and strength of NK cell-mediated "missing self" responses to tumor cells. However, in light of the recent remarkable breakthroughs in clinical cancer immunotherapy, the cytolytic potential of NK cells still remains largely untapped in clinical settings...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698575/dual-non-contiguous-peptide-occupancy-of-hla-class-i-evoke-antiviral-human-cd8-t-cell-response-and-form-neo-epitopes-with-self-antigens
#16
Ziwei Xiao, Zhiyong Ye, Vikeramjeet Singh Tadwal, Meixin Shen, Ee Chee Ren
Host CD8 T cell response to viral infections involves recognition of 8-10-mer peptides presented by MHC-I molecules. However, proteasomes generate predominantly 2-7-mer peptides, but the role of these peptides is largely unknown. Here, we show that single short peptides of <8-mer from Latent Membrane Protein 2 (LMP2) of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) can bind HLA-A*11:01 and stimulate CD8(+) cells. Surprisingly, two peptide fragments between 4-7-mer derived from LMP2(340-349) were able to complement each other, forming combination epitopes that can stimulate specific CD8(+) T cell responses...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698120/effectiveness-of-formalin-killed-vaccines-containing-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-1668-adjuvants-against-vibrio-harveyi-in-orange-spotted-grouper
#17
Hai Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen, Yi-Ting Wang, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is a major bacterial pathogen that causes serious vibriosis in cultured groupers, leading to massive deaths. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and protective efficacy of vaccines containing V. harveyi formalin-killed cells (FKC) formulated with CpG ODN 1668-enriched plasmids (p30CpG and p60CpG) in the orange-spotted grouper. Results indicated that antibody titres were remarkably increased in vaccinated fish 2 weeks post-immunisation. Expression level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD 8, and toll-like receptor 9 was significantly upregulated in the spleen of fish immunised with CpG ODN 1668-adjuvanted vaccines, as recorded at 6 weeks after immunisation...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697761/hla-check-evaluating-hla-data-from-snp-information
#18
Marc Jeanmougin, Josselin Noirel, Cédric Coulonges, Jean-François Zagury
BACKGROUND: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region of the human genome, and specifically the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, play a major role in numerous human diseases. With the recent progress of sequencing methods (eg, Next-Generation Sequencing, NGS), the accurate genotyping of this region has become possible but remains relatively costly. In order to obtain the HLA information for the millions of samples already genotyped by chips in the past ten years, efficient bioinformatics tools, such as SNP2HLA or HIBAG, have been developed that infer HLA information from the linkage disequilibrium existing between HLA alleles and SNP markers in the MHC region...
July 11, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696685/modeling-sequence-dependent-peptide-fluctuations-in-immunologic-recognition
#19
Cory M Ayres, Timothy P Riley, Steven A Corcelli, Brian M Baker
In cellular immunity, T cells recognize peptide antigens bound and presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. The motions of peptides bound to MHC play a significant role in determining immunogenicity. However, existing approaches for investigating peptide/MHC motional dynamics are challenging or of low throughput, hindering the development of algorithms for predicting immunogenicity from large databases, such as those of tumor or genetically unstable viral genomes. We addressed this by performing exhaustive molecular dynamics simulations on a large structural database of peptides bound to the most commonly expressed human class I MHC protein, HLA-A*0201...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695294/the-role-of-mhc-genes-in-contagious-cancer-the-story-of-tasmanian-devils
#20
REVIEW
Alison Caldwell, Hannah V Siddle
The Tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of Tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour 1 (DFT1) and Devil Facial Tumour 2 (DFT2). These cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. While these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. The ability of tumour cells to emerge and transmit in mammals is surprising as these cells are an allograft and should be rejected due to incompatibility between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
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