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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895917/validation-of-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-immunotherapy-in-cancer-volume-i-pre-analytical-and-analytical-validation
#1
REVIEW
Giuseppe V Masucci, Alessandra Cesano, Rachael Hawtin, Sylvia Janetzki, Jenny Zhang, Ilan Kirsch, Kevin K Dobbin, John Alvarez, Paul B Robbins, Senthamil R Selvan, Howard Z Streicher, Lisa H Butterfield, Magdalena Thurin
Immunotherapies have emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat patients with cancer. Recently, there have been many clinical successes using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Despite demonstrated successes in a variety of malignancies, responses only typically occur in a minority of patients in any given histology. Additionally, treatment is associated with inflammatory toxicity and high cost...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886076/pathogens-inactivated-by-low-energy-electron-irradiation-maintain-antigenic-properties-and-induce-protective-immune-responses
#2
Jasmin Fertey, Lea Bayer, Thomas Grunwald, Alexandra Pohl, Jana Beckmann, Gaby Gotzmann, Javier Portillo Casado, Jessy Schönfelder, Frank-Holm Rögner, Christiane Wetzel, Martin Thoma, Susanne M Bailer, Ekkehard Hiller, Steffen Rupp, Sebastian Ulbert
Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872868/minor-antigen-disparities-impede-induction-of-long-lasting-chimerism-and-tolerance-through-bone-marrow-transplantation-with-costimulation-blockade
#3
Sinda Bigenzahn, Ines Pree, Christoph Klaus, Nina Pilat, Benedikt Mahr, Elisabeth Schwaiger, Patrick Nierlich, Friedrich Wrba, Thomas Wekerle
Mixed chimerism and tolerance can be successfully induced in rodents through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with costimulation blockade (CB), but varying success rates have been reported with distinct models and protocols. We therefore investigated the impact of minor antigen disparities on the induction of mixed chimerism and tolerance. C57BL/6 (H2(b)) mice received nonmyeloablative total body irradiation (3 Gy), costimulation blockade (anti-CD40L mAb and CTLA4Ig), and 2 × 10(7) bone marrow cells (BMC) from either of three donor strains: Balb/c (H2(d)) (MHC plus multiple minor histocompatibility antigen (mHAg) mismatched), B10...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872095/t-cells-redirected-to-a-minor-histocompatibility-antigen-instruct-intratumoral-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-empower-adoptive-cell-therapy-for-solid-tumors
#4
Teresa Manzo, Tabea Sturmheit, Veronica Basso, Elisabetta Petrozziello, Rodrigo Hess Michelini, Michela Riba, Massimo Freschi, Angela R Elia, Matteo Grioni, Flavio Curnis, Maria Pia Protti, Ton N Schumacher, Reno Debets, Melody A Swartz, Angelo Corti, Matteo Bellone, Anna Mondino
Donor-derived allogeneic T cells evoke potent graft versus tumor (GVT) effects likely due to the simultaneous recognition of tumor-specific and host-restricted minor histocompatibility (H) antigens. Here we investigated whether such effects could be reproduced in autologous settings by TCR-gene engineered lymphocytes. We report that T cells redirected either to a broadly expressed Y-encoded minor H antigen or to a tumor-associated antigen, although poorly effective if individually transferred, when simultaneously administered enabled acute autochthonous tumor debulking and resulted in durable clinical remission...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872059/genome-wide-minor-histocompatibility-matching-as-related-to-the-risk-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#5
Paul J Martin, David M Levine, Barry E Storer, Edus H Warren, Xiuwen Zheng, Sarah C Nelson, Anajane G Smith, Bo K Mortensen, John A Hansen
The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease is higher after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated donors as compared to related donors. This difference has been explained by increased recipient mismatching for major histocompatibility antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens. In the current study, we used genome-wide arrays to enumerate single nucleotide polymorphisms that produce graft-versus-host (GVH) amino acid coding differences between recipients and donors. We then tested the hypothesis that higher degrees of genome-wide recipient GVH mismatching correlate with higher risks of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic HCT...
November 21, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863542/optimisation-and-validation-of-a-pcr-for-antigen-receptor-rearrangement-parr-assay-to-detect-clonality-in-canine-lymphoid-malignancies
#6
Elspeth M Waugh, Alice Gallagher, Hayley Haining, Pamela E J Johnston, Francesco Marchesi, Ruth F Jarrett, Joanna S Morris
PCR for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) analysis is being increasingly used to assist diagnosis of canine lymphoma. In this study, PARR was carried out on consecutive samples received as part of routine diagnostic practice from 271 patients: 195 with lymphoid malignancies, 53 with reactive conditions and 23 with other neoplasms. Initially, published primer sets were used but later minor primer modifications were introduced and primers were rationalised to give a PARR panel that provides a good compromise between sensitivity and cost...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862500/antibodies-to-h1-histone-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-recognize-and-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-this-histone
#7
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their posttranslational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive feature of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from sera of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#8
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833005/comparative-analysis-of-south-african-norovirus-gii-4-strains-identifies-minor-recombinant-variants
#9
J C Botha, M B Taylor, J Mans
Recombination within the norovirus (NoV) GII.4 genotype is well documented as a mechanism by which novel variants evolve. Norovirus GII.4 has been the predominant NoV genotype detected in South Africa (SA) in recent years and putative NoV recombinants were previously identified in SA based on partial regions of the viral genome. The objective of this study was to determine the complete genome sequence of representative NoV GII.4 variants that have circulated in SA between 2009 and 2013 and to compare major and minor GII...
November 8, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825104/human-15-lipoxygenase-1-is-a-regulator-of-dendritic-cell-spreading-and-podosome-formation
#10
Hongya Han, Xiuming Liang, Monica Ekberg, Joanna S Kritikou, Åsa Brunnström, Benjamin Pelcman, Maria Matl, Xinyan Miao, Margareta Andersson, Xiaotian Yuan, Frida Schain, Selina Parvin, Eva Melin, Jan Sjöberg, Dawei Xu, Lisa S Westerberg, Magnus Björkholm, Hans-Erik Claesson
Dendritic cells (DCs) involved in proinflammatory immune responses derive mainly from peripheral monocytes, and the cells subsequently mature and migrate into the inflammatory micromilieu. Here we report that suppressing of 15-lipoxygenase-1 led to a substantial reduction in DC spreading and podosome formation in vitro. The surface expression of CD83 was significantly lower in both sh-15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1)-transduced cells and DCs cultivated in the presence of the inhibitor. The T-cell response against tetanus-pulsed DCs was only affected to a minor extent on inhibition of 15-LOX-1...
October 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824739/effect-of-the-lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-on-the-clinical-outcome-of-chemotherapy-administration-in-advanced-melanoma-patients
#11
Alexey A Leontovich, Roxana S Dronca, Wendy K Nevala, Michael A Thompson, Lisa A Kottschade, Leonid V Ivanov, Svetomir N Markovic
Skin cancer affects more individuals in the USA than any other malignancy and malignant melanoma is particularly deadly because of its metastatic potential. Melanoma has been recognized as one of the most immunogenic malignancies; therefore, understanding the mechanisms of tumor-immune interaction is key for developing more efficient treatments. As the tumor microenvironment shows an immunosuppressive action, immunotherapeutic agents promoting endogenous immune response to cancer have been tested (interleukin-2, anticytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies) as well as combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents and inhibitors of angiogenesis (taxol/carboplatin/avastin)...
November 7, 2016: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822209/antibody-subclass-repertoire-and-graft-outcome-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Nicole M Valenzuela, Michelle J Hickey, Elaine F Reed
Long-term outcomes in solid organ transplantation are constrained by the development of donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and other targets, which elicit antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). However, antibody-mediated graft injury represents a broad continuum, from extensive complement activation and tissue damage compromising the function of the transplanted organ, to histological manifestations of endothelial cell injury and mononuclear cell infiltration but without concurrent allograft dysfunction...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812263/clinical-significance-of-rare-maternal-anti-jk-a-antibody
#13
Kshitija Mittal, Tanvi Sood, Naveen Bansal, Ravneet Kaur Bedi, Paramjit Kaur, Gagandeep Kaur
We hereby report a rare case of HDFN because of antibody to Kidd (Jk) blood group system-anti Jk(a). An EDTA sample of a baby along with mother's sample was received in the Department for Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) alongwith blood requisition for double volume exchange transfusion. On blood grouping, baby's and mother's blood group was found to be B Rh D positive. DAT with polyspecific anti human globulin (AHG) was positive. Screening of mother's serum for irregular antibodies showed anti-Jk(a) antibody...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808108/improving-virus-production-through-quasispecies-genomic-selection-and-molecular-breeding
#14
Francisco J Pérez-Rodríguez, Lucía D'Andrea, Montserrat de Castellarnau, Maria Isabel Costafreda, Susana Guix, Enric Ribes, Josep Quer, Josep Gregori, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó
Virus production still is a challenging issue in antigen manufacture, particularly with slow-growing viruses. Deep-sequencing of genomic regions indicative of efficient replication may be used to identify high-fitness minority individuals suppressed by the ensemble of mutants in a virus quasispecies. Molecular breeding of quasispecies containing colonizer individuals, under regimes allowing more than one replicative cycle, is a strategy to select the fittest competitors among the colonizers. A slow-growing cell culture-adapted hepatitis A virus strain was employed as a model for this strategy...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807224/amino-acids-in-hemagglutinin-antigenic-site-b-determine-antigenic-and-receptor-binding-differences-between-a-h3n2-v-and-ancestral-seasonal-h3n2-influenza-viruses
#15
Xiaoquan Wang, Natalia A Ilyushina, Vladimir Y Lugovtsev, Nicolai V Bovin, Laura K Couzens, Jin Gao, Raymond P Donnelly, Maryna C Eichelberger, Hongquan Wan
: Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the US in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793387/effect-of-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-papp-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-the-level-and-activity-of-papp-a-and-the-hormone-profile-in-fluid-from-normal-human-small-antral-follicles
#16
Jane Alrø Bøtkjær, Tanni Borgbo, Søren Kløverpris, Pernille Rimmer Noer, Claus Oxvig, Claus Yding Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To reveal a possible relationship between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAPP-A-1224 (rs7020782) and 327 (rs12375498)-and the level and activity of PAPP-A in follicular fluid (FF) of human small antral follicles, and to analyze the intrafollicular hormone levels. DESIGN: Laboratory investigation. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifty volunteer women who contributed a total of 210 samples of FF from normal small antral follicles...
December 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784394/-application-of-multiplex-pcr-for-the-screening-di-b-co-a-rare-blood-group-in-chinese-xinjiang-minorities
#17
Yan-Hui Qiao, Hong-Bin Zhang, Wei-Peng Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of Colton and Diego rare blood group antigens of blood donors in Chinese Xinjiang minorities. METHODS: A multiplex PCR was applied to screen for alleles antigens Di(a) and Co(b) in 1020 randomly selected healthy donors of Chinese Xinjiang minorities by using each 5 samples mixed detection method. The samples in the positive pools were further tested individually. Furthermore, the positive samples, including Di((a+b-))/Di((a+b+)) and Co((a-b+))/ Co((a+b+)) genotypes were tested via 2 PCR-SSP assays for high frequency allele Di(b) and Co(a) to get the rare genotypes Di((b-)), Co((a-))...
October 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775706/eradication-of-large-established-tumors-in-mice-by-combination-immunotherapy-that-engages-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#18
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748670/lessons-from-acute-hiv-infection
#19
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742235/meta-analysis-of-prostatic-artery-embolization-for-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#20
Andre Uflacker, Ziv J Haskal, Tiago Bilhim, James Patrie, Timothy Huber, João Martins Pisco
PURPOSE: To perform meta-analysis of available data on prostatic artery embolization (PAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analysis was conducted on articles published between November 2009 and December 2015. Peer-reviewed studies with > 5 patients and standard deviations and/or individual-level data on one or more of the following outcomes were included: prostate volume (PV), peak flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual (PVR), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) score, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
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