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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319565/bone-marrow-graft-versus-host-disease-in-major-histocompatibility-complex-matched-murine-reduced-intensity-allogeneic-hemopoietic-cell-transplantation
#1
Kifah Shahin, Zamil Mattar, Pablo Silveira, Wei-Hsun Hsu, Linda Bendall, Derek Hart, Kenneth F Bradstock
BACKGROUND: Most clinical allogeneic hemopoietic cell transplants (alloHCT) are now performed using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) instead of myeloablative (MAC) conditioning, however, the biology underlying this treatment remains incompletely understood. METHODS: We investigated a murine model of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched multiple minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched alloHCT, using bone marrow (BM) cells and splenocytes from B6 (H-2) donor mice transplanted into BALB...
March 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303311/-immunotherapy-of-cancer-with-checkpoint-inhibitors-not-only-in-malignant-melanoma
#2
A Neubauer
The newest weapon in cancer therapy is checkpoint inhibition, which is the result of basic immunology research. The success of this therapy is based on the fact that upon light microscopy, many solid tumors harbor lymphocytic cells infiltrating the tumor (TILs), and in many solid tumors, the presence of these TILs are prognostic. Ipilimumab was the first monoclonal antibody developed against a target present on T cells after becoming activated, CTLA-4. In malignant melanoma, ipilimumab showed its beneficial effect as compared to a placebo peptide...
March 16, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283151/immunotherapy-for-food-allergy-are-we-there-yet
#3
Yael Gernez, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
Current clinical research focuses on food allergen-specific immunotherapy through oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery of gradually increasing doses of specific allergens to induce desensitization (defined as temporary antigen hyporesponsiveness that depends on regular food ingestion) and, ultimately, tolerance (defined as the ability to ingest food without symptoms despite prolonged periods of avoidance or irregular intake). Although the majority of the patients treated with OIT achieve desensitization, only a minority achieves tolerance...
March 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270691/alloreactivity-the-janus-face-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
A Gratwohl, A Sureda, J Cornelissen, J Apperley, P Dreger, R Duarte, H T Greinix, E Mc Grath, N Kroeger, F Lanza, A Nagler, J A Snowden, D Niederwieser, R Brand
Differences in major and minor histocompatibility antigens between donor and recipient trigger powerful graft-versus-host reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The clinical effects of alloreactivity present a Janus face: detrimental graft-versus-host disease increases non-relapse mortality, beneficial graft-versus-malignancy may cure the recipient. The ultimate consequences on long-term outcome remain a matter of debate. We hypothesized that increasing donor-recipient antigen matching would decrease the negative effects, whilst preserving antitumor alloreactivity...
March 8, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267558/rapid-detection-of-donor-cell-free-dna-in-lung-transplant-recipients-with-rejections-using-donor-recipient-hla-mismatch
#5
Jun Zou, Brian Duffy, Michael Slade, Andrew Lee Young, Nancy Steward, Ramsey Hachem, T Mohanakumar
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and transbronchial lung biopsy are currently the gold standard for detection of acute rejection following human lung transplantation (LTx). However, these surveillance procedures are expensive and invasive. Up to now, there are few new methods that have demonstrated clinical utility for detecting early stages of rejection following human lung transplantation. We optimized and technically validated a novel method to quantify donor-derived circulating cell free DNA (DcfDNA) that can be used as an early biomarker for lung allograft rejection...
March 4, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266145/safety-and-efficacy-of-microwave-ablation-for-medically-inoperable-colorectal-pulmonary-metastases-single-centre-experience
#6
Craig D Ferguson, Chris R Luis, Karin Steinke
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for colorectal pulmonary metastases. METHODS: Retrospective review of CT-guided lung MWA at a single tertiary institution. Adverse events within 30 days of MWA were considered procedure-related complications. Imaging follow-up was with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and contrast-enhanced CT. Response of index tumours was assessed using modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (mRECIST)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265230/electrotransfer-of-plasmid-dna-radiosensitizes-b16f10-tumors-through-activation-of-immune-response
#7
Monika Savarin, Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Richard Heller, Gregor Sersa
BACKGROUND: Tumor irradiation combined with adjuvant treatments, either vascular targeted or immunomodulatory, is under intense investigation. Gene electrotransfer of therapeutic genes is one of these approaches. The aim of this study was to determine, whether gene electrotransfer of plasmid encoding shRNA for silencing endoglin, with vascular targeted effectiveness, can radiosensitize melanoma B16F10 tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The murine melanoma B16F10 tumors, growing on the back of C57Bl/6 mice, were treated by triple gene electrotransfer and irradiation...
March 1, 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259216/the-relationship-of-baseline-prostate-specific-antigen-and-risk-of-future-prostate-cancer-and-its-variance-by-race
#8
Daniel P Verges, Hasan Dani, William A Sterling, Jeremy Weedon, William Atallah, Komal Mehta, David Schreiber, Jeffrey P Weiss, Nicholas T Karanikolas
PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that a baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) measured in young men predicts future risk of prostate cancer. Considering recent recommendations against PSA screening, high-risk populations (e.g. black men, men with a high baseline PSA) may be particularly vulnerable in the coming years. Thus, we investigated the relationship between baseline PSA and future prostate cancer in a black majority-minority urban population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the prostate biopsy database (n = 994) at the Brooklyn Veterans Affairs Hospital...
April 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254742/pirfenidone-ameliorates-murine-chronic-gvhd-through-inhibition-of-macrophage-infiltration-and-tgf-%C3%AE-production
#9
Jing Du, Katelyn Paz, Ryan Flynn, Ante Vulic, Tara M Robinson, Katie E Lineburg, Kylie A Alexander, Jingjing Meng, Sabita Roy, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Michael Loschi, Geoffrey R Hill, Jonathan S Serody, Ivan Maillard, David Miklos, John Koreth, Corey S Cutler, Joseph H Antin, Jerome Ritz, Kelli P MacDonald, Timothy W Schacker, Leo Luznik, Bruce R Blazar
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is hampered by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) resulting in multi-organ fibrosis and diminished function. Fibrosis in lung and skin leads to progressive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and scleroderma, respectively, for which new treatments are needed. We evaluated pirfenidone, a FDA approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for its therapeutic effect in cGVHD mouse models with distinct pathophysiology. In a full MHC-mismatched, multi-organ system model with BO, donor T cell responses that support pathogenic antibody production are required for cGVHD development...
March 2, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254685/molecular-and-antigenic-traits-on-hemagglutinin-gene-of-avian-influenza-h9n2-viruses-evidence-of-a-new-escape-mutant-in-egypt-adapted-in-quails
#10
Amany Adel, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A Hussein, Ahmed A El-Sanousi
The LPAI viruses of H9N2 subtype became widely distributed in Middle Eastern countries, causing great economic losses in poultry industry especially when complicated with other pathogens. The H9N2 viruses in Egypt have a wide spread nature since its first occurrence in 2011. In this study, we collected cloacal and tracheal samples from 19 flocks for detection and propagation of H9N2 virus using real-time RT-PCR and egg inoculation. We studied the molecular evolution of the Hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 viruses by full HA gene sequencing, then the antigenic characterization was implemented using the cross HI assay and analyzed using 3D Bioinformatics cartography software...
February 13, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240662/long-term-results-of-a-comparative-pet-ct-and-pet-mri-study-of-11-c-acetate-and-18-f-fluorocholine-for-restaging-of-early-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#11
Giorgio Lamanna, Claire Tabouret-Viaud, Olivier Rager, Sandra Jorcano, Hans-Joerg Vees, Yann Seimbille, Habib Zaidi, Osman Ratib, Franz Buchegger, Raymond Miralbell, Thomas Zilli, Valentina Garibotto
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to assess the intraindividual performance of F-fluorocholine (FCH) and C-acetate (ACE) PET studies for restaging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa), to correlate PET findings with long-term clinical and imaging follow-up, and to evaluate the impact of PET results on patient management. METHODS: Thirty-three PCa patients relapsing after radical prostatectomy (n = 10, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤3 ng/mL), primary radiotherapy (n = 8, prostate-specific antigen ≤5 ng/mL), or radical prostatectomy + salvage radiotherapy (n = 15) underwent ACE and FCH PET-CT (n = 29) or PET-MRI (n = 4) studies in a randomized sequence 0 to 21 days apart...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238904/proteomic-toxicological-and-immunogenic-characterization-of-mexican-west-coast-rattlesnake-crotalus-basiliscus-venom-and-its-immunological-relatedness-with-the-venom-of-central-american-rattlesnake-crotalus-simus
#12
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Francisco Reta Mares, Claudia Jaime, Andrés Sánchez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Aarón Gómez, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213726/pd-1-and-pd-l1-antibodies-in-cancer-current-status-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Arjun Vasant Balar, Jeffrey S Weber
Immunotherapy has moved to the center stage of cancer treatment with the recent success of trials in solid tumors with PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. Programmed death-1 or PD-1 is a checkpoint molecule on T cells that plays a vital role in limiting adaptive immune responses and preventing autoimmune and auto-inflammatory reactivity in the normal host. In cancer patients, PD-1 expression is very high on T cells in the tumor microenvironment, and PD-L1, its primary ligand, is variably expressed on tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells within tumors, providing a potent inhibitory influence within the tumor microenvironment...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199784/allosensitization-following-bone-graft
#14
Eoin D O'Sullivan, Richard K Battle, Sharon Zahra, John F Keating, Lorna P Marson, David M Turner
It is recognised that patients may become sensitized to donor-specific HLA antigens as a result of previous antigenic exposures, classically through previous transplantation, pregnancy or blood transfusion. We present an unusual case of a patient who unexpectedly developed a range of anti-HLA antibodies following orthopaedic surgery where a bone graft was deployed intraoperatively. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male awaiting a renal transplantation, undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery requiring a small volume bone graft...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192913/identification-of-lewis-and-blood-group-carbohydrate-epitopes-by-ion-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry-fingerprinting
#15
Johanna Hofmann, Alexandra Stuckmann, Max Crispin, David J Harvey, Kevin Pagel, Weston B Struwe
Glycans have several elements that contribute to their structural complexity, involving a range of monosaccharide building blocks, configuration of linkages between residues and various degrees of branching on a given structure. Their analysis remains challenging and resolving minor isomeric variants can be difficult, in particular terminal fucosylated Lewis and blood group antigens present on N- and O-glycans. Accurately characterizing these isomeric structures by current techniques is not straightforward and typically requires a combination of methods and/or sample derivatization...
February 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192531/multi-layered-control-of-galectin-8-mediated-autophagy-during-adenovirus-cell-entry-through-a-conserved-ppxy-motif-in-the-viral-capsid
#16
Charlotte Montespan, Shauna A Marvin, Sisley Austin, Andrew M Burrage, Benoit Roger, Fabienne Rayne, Muriel Faure, Edward M Campell, Carola Schneider, Rudolph Reimer, Kay Grünewald, Christopher M Wiethoff, Harald Wodrich
Cells employ active measures to restrict infection by pathogens, even prior to responses from the innate and humoral immune defenses. In this context selective autophagy is activated upon pathogen induced membrane rupture to sequester and deliver membrane fragments and their pathogen contents for lysosomal degradation. Adenoviruses, which breach the endosome upon entry, escape this fate by penetrating into the cytosol prior to autophagosome sequestration of the ruptured endosome. We show that virus induced membrane damage is recognized through Galectin-8 and sequesters the autophagy receptors NDP52 and p62...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183746/major-vs-minor-histocompatibility-antigens
#17
Denis Claude Roy, Claude Perreault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179020/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-undocumented-immigrants-and-refugees-in-southern-italy-demographic-virological-and-clinical-features
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nicola Coppola, Loredana Alessio, Luciano Gualdieri, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Caterina Sagnelli, Carmine Minichini, Giovanni Di Caprio, Mario Starace, Lorenzo Onorato, Giuseppe Signoriello, Margherita Macera, Italo Francesco Angelillo, Giuseppe Pasquale, Evangelista Sagnelli
BACKGROUND: The data on hepatitis b virus (HBV) infection in immigrants population are scanty. The porpoise of this study was to define the demographic, virological, and clinical characteristics of subjects infected with HBV chronic infection in a cohort of immigrants living in Naples, Italy. METHODS: A screening for HBV infection was offered to 1,331 immigrants, of whom 1,212 (91%) (831 undocumented immigrants and 381 refugees) accepted and were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (HBc)...
February 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165471/antibody-independent-mechanisms-regulate-the-establishment-of-chronic-plasmodium-infection
#19
Thibaut Brugat, Adam James Reid, Jing-Wen Lin, Deirdre Cunningham, Irene Tumwine, Garikai Kushinga, Sarah McLaughlin, Philip Spence, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders, Solomon Conteh, Ellen Bushell, Tom Metcalf, Oliver Billker, Patrick E Duffy, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Jean Langhorne
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. All human-infecting Plasmodium species can establish long-lasting chronic infections(1-5), creating an infectious reservoir to sustain transmission(1,6). It is widely accepted that the maintenance of chronic infection involves evasion of adaptive immunity by antigenic variation(7). However, genes involved in this process have been identified in only two of five human-infecting species: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi. Furthermore, little is understood about the early events in the establishment of chronic infection in these species...
February 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158271/genetic-and-antigenic-evolution-of-h9n2-subtype-avian-influenza-virus-in-domestic-chickens-in-southwestern-china-2013-2016
#20
Jing Xia, Jia-Qi Cui, Xiao He, Yue-Yue Liu, Ke-Chang Yao, San-Jie Cao, Xin-Feng Han, Yong Huang
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused significant losses in chicken flocks throughout china in recent years. There is a limited understanding of the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the H9N2 virus isolated in chickens in southwestern China. In this study a total of 12 field strains were isolated from tissue samples from diseased chickens between 2013 and 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) nucleotide sequences from the 12 field isolates and other reference strains showed that most of the isolates in the past four years could be clustered into a major branch (HA-branch A and NA-branch I) in the Clade h9...
2017: PloS One
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