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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915832/dogs-as-victims-of-their-own-worms-serodiagnosis-of-canine-alveolar-echinococcosis
#1
C F Frey, N Marreros, S Renneker, L Schmidt, H Sager, B Hentrich, S Milesi, B Gottstein
BACKGROUND: Besides acting as definitive hosts for Echinococcus multilocularis, dogs can become infected by the larval form of this parasite and thereby develop life-threatening alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Although AE is a zoonotic disease, most therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been developed for human patients. In dogs, AE is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease when the parasitic mass has already caused abdominal distension. At that stage, complete resection of the parasitic mass is often impossible, leaving a guarded prognosis for the affected dogs...
September 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910785/oral-tolerization-with-mycobacterial-heat-shock-protein-65-reduces-chronic-experimental-atherosclerosis-in-aged-mice
#2
Cecilia Wick, Elisabeth Onestingel, Egon Demetz, Hermann Dietrich, Georg Wick
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall where both innate and adaptive immunity play important roles. Modulation of the immune response against the stress protein antigen, heat shock protein (HSP) 60, by administration of mycobacterial HSP65 (mbHSP65) orally and/or nasally shows promising therapeutic results in young animals in the sense of less severe experimental atherosclerosis; however, the case of aged animals with already established atherosclerosis has so far never been investigated...
September 15, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893191/recent-expansion-and-adaptive-evolution-of-the-carcinoembryonic-antigen-family-in-bats-of-the-yangochiroptera-subgroup
#3
Robert Kammerer, Martin Mansfeld, Jana Hänske, Sophie Mißbach, Xiaocui He, Bernd Köllner, Susan Mouchantat, Wolfgang Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Expansions of gene families are predictive for ongoing genetic adaptation to environmental cues. We describe such an expansion of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family in certain bat families. Members of the CEA family in humans and mice are exploited as cellular receptors by a number of pathogens, possibly due to their function in immunity and reproduction. The CEA family is composed of CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and secreted pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878597/the-advantages-of-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-in-patients-with-an-elevated-or-rising-prostate-specific-antigen-mild-or-moderate-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-bladder-outlet-obstruction-and-negative-prostate-cancer-imaging-or-prostate-biopsies-a-prospective
#4
Evert Baten, Koenraad van Renterghem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate elevated or rising prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a marker for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in patients with minor lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and without prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and five consecutive patients were prospectively analyzed between 2005 and 2013. All patients were referred to the principal investigator by their general practitioner as a result of an elevated and/or rising PSA. Only patients with minor LUTS [International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) 0-19] and without suspicion for prostate cancer were included...
August 2017: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871253/severe-tuberculosis-in-humans-correlates-best-with-neutrophil-abundance-and-lymphocyte-deficiency-and-does-not-correlate-with-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cell-response
#5
Alexander V Panteleev, Irina Yu Nikitina, Irina A Burmistrova, George A Kosmiadi, Tatyana V Radaeva, Rasul B Amansahedov, Pavel V Sadikov, Yana V Serdyuk, Elena E Larionova, Tatef R Bagdasarian, Larisa N Chernousova, Vitaly V Ganusov, Irina V Lyadova
It is generally thought that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are essential for protection against tuberculosis (TB). In some studies, protection has recently been associated with polyfunctional subpopulation of Mtb-specific Th1 cells, i.e., with cells able to simultaneously secrete several type 1 cytokines. However, the role for Mtb-specific Th1 cells and their polyfunctional subpopulations during established TB disease is not fully defined. Pulmonary TB is characterized by a great variability of disease manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868964/poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-caprolactone-chitosan-nanoparticles-provide-strong-adjuvant-effect-for-hepatitis-b-antigen
#6
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Gerrit Borchard, Olga Borges
AIM: This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). METHODS: Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. RESULTS: HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865128/mechanisms-underlying-human-genetic-diversity-consequence-for-anti-graft-antibody-responses
#7
REVIEW
Roman Reindl-Schwaighofer, Andreas Heinzel, Lorenzo Signorini, Olivier Thaunat, Rainer Oberbauer
This review focuses on the emerging concept of genome-wide genetic variation as basis of an alloimmune response. Chronic antibody mediated rejection is the major cause of long-term graft loss and growing evidence supports the clinical relevance of HLA but also non-HLA related alloimmune responses. Several polymorphic gene products have been identified as minor histocompatibility antigens. The formation of donor specific alloantibodies is driven by indirect allorecognition of donor derived peptides representing a form of conventional T-cell response...
September 2, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860343/antigen-receptor-sequencing-of-paired-bone-marrow-samples-shows-homogeneous-distribution-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-subclones
#8
Prisca M J Theunissen, David van Zessen, Andrew P Stubbs, Malek Faham, Michel Zwaan, Jacques J M van Dongen, Vincent H J Van der Velden
In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the initial leukemic cells share the same antigen receptor gene rearrangements. However, due to ongoing rearrangement processes, leukemic cells with different gene rearrangement patterns can develop, resulting in subclone formation. We studied leukemic subclones and their distribution in the bone marrow and peripheral blood at diagnosis. Antigen receptor gene rearrangements (IGH, IGK, TRG, TRD, TRB) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing in seven paired bone marrow samples and five paired bone marrow-blood samples...
August 31, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852390/putative-adult-neurogenesis-in-two-domestic-pigeon-breeds-columba-livia-domestica-racing-homer-versus-utility-carneau-pigeons
#9
Pedzisai Mazengenya, Adhil Bhagwandin, Pilani Nkomozepi, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845512/ctla-4-expression-on-vzv-specific-t-cells-in-csf-and-blood-is-specifically-increased-in-patients-with-vzv-related-central-nervous-system-infections
#10
David Schub, Mathias Fousse, Klaus Faßbender, Barbara C Gärtner, Urban Sester, Martina Sester, Tina Schmidt
BACKGROUND: VZV-reactivation may lead to symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) diseases, but identification of VZV as causative pathogen of CNS-diseases is challenging. This study was performed to characterize VZV-specific T-cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with active CNS-disease and to determine whether this may improve differential diagnosis. METHODS: 27 patients with pleocytosis in the CSF were recruited and classified into three groups (10 VZV-related, 10 non-VZV-related, 7 unclear)...
August 28, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842495/chimeric-rabbit-human-fab-antibodies-against-the-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-and-their-potential-applications-in-assay-characterization-and-therapy
#11
Xiaolei Zhuang, Norman R Watts, Ira W Palmer, Joshua D Kaufman, Altaira D Dearborn, Joni L Trenbeath, Elif Eren, Alasdair C Steven, Christoph Rader, Paul T Wingfield
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection afflicts millions worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV e-antigen (HBeAg), a clinical marker for disease severity, is a soluble variant of the viral capsid protein (HBcAg). HBeAg is not required for viral replication, but is implicated in establishing immune tolerance and chronic infection. The structure of recombinant e-antigen (rHBeAg) was recently determined, yet, to date the exact nature and quantitation of HBeAg still remain uncertain. Here, to further characterize HBeAg, we used phage display to produce a panel of chimeric rabbit/human monoclonal antibody fragments (both Fab and scFv) against rHBeAg...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840776/naturally-occurring-antibodies-in-cats-against-dog-erythrocyte-antigens-and-vice-versa
#12
Vito Priolo, Marisa Masucci, Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Maria Grazia Pennisi
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of naturally occurring antibodies against canine erythrocyte antigens in cats and vice versa. The influence of canine and feline blood type on cross-match results was also studied. Methods Blood samples from 34 cats and 42 dogs were used to perform test-tube major and minor cross-match tests and blood typing. Blood from each cat was cross-matched with blood from 2-6 dogs, for a total of 111 cross-match tests. Haemolysis, macro- and/or micro-agglutination were considered markers of a positive cross-match...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840600/red-blood-cell-minor-antigen-mismatches-during-chronic-transfusion-therapy-for-sickle-cell-anemia
#13
Marianne E M Yee, Cassandra D Josephson, Anne M Winkler, Jennifer Webb, Naomi L C Luban, Traci Leong, Sean R Stowell, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization occurs at a high frequency in sickle cell anemia (SCA) despite serologic matching for Rh (C/c, E/e) and K antigens. RBC minor antigen genotyping allows for prediction of antigens and RH variants that may lead to alloimmunization. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: RBC antigen genotyping was performed on chronically transfused pediatric SCA patients, using PreciseType human erythrocyte antigen (HEA), RHCE, and RHD BeadChip arrays...
August 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827408/hematopoietic-stem-cell-involvement-in-bcr-abl1-positive-all-as-potential-mechanism-of-resistance-to-blinatumomab-therapy
#14
Inga Nagel, Marius Bartels, Johannes Duell, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Sandra Ussat, Henrike Bruckmueller, Oliver Ottmann, Heike Pfeifer, Heiko Trautmann, Nicola Gökbuget, Almuth Caliebe, Dieter Kabelitz, Michael Kneba, Heinz-August Horst, Dieter Hoelzer, Max S Topp, Ingolf Cascorbi, Reiner Siebert, Monika Brüggemann
The bispecific T-cell engager blinatumomab targeting CD19 can induce complete remission in relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). However, some patients ultimately relapse with loss of CD19-antigen on leukemic cells which has been established as a novel escape mechanism to CD19-specific immunotherapies. Here, we provide evidence that CD19-negative relapse after CD19-directed therapy in BCP-ALL may be due to selection of preexisting CD19-negative malignant progenitor cells...
August 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827064/donor-ctla-4-genotype-modulates-the-immune-response-to-minor-histocompatibility-antigen-mismatches
#15
David Gallardo, Anna Bosch-Vizcaya, Rocío Rodríguez-Romanos, Nazly Santos, Ismael Buño, Rafael de la Cámara, Salut Brunet, Antonio Jiménez-Velasco, Marcos González, Jose B Nieto, Carolina Martínez-Laperche, Carlos Vallejo, Christelle Ferrá, Antònia Sampol, Javier López-Jiménez, Jose A Pérez-Simón, Carmen Martínez, Jose L Díez
Minor histocompatibility antigen (miHA) mismatches have been related to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this association remains controversial due to the lack of consistency in the results obtained by different groups. The CTLA-4 genotype of the donor has been reported to be relevant in the appearance of acute GVHD. We explored the effect of the donor's CTLA-4 genotype in the incidence of acute GVHD associated with HA-1, HA-8, or H-Y miHA mismatches in a large cohort of 1295 patients receiving an allogeneic transplant from an HLA-identical sibling donor...
August 4, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826286/characterization-and-evaluation-of-stabilized-particulate-formulations-as-therapeutic-oral-vaccines-for-allergy
#16
Kan Kaneko, Arlene McDowell, Yasuyuki Ishii, Sarah Hook
Allergic conditions affect more than a quarter of the population in developed countries, but currently available treatments focus more on symptom relief than treating the underlying atopic condition. α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) is a potent immunomodulating compound that has been shown to have a regulatory effect when delivered systemically in nanoparticles. Parenteral delivery is not preferred for chronic conditions such as allergy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if a regulatory response could be induced through oral administration in a model of atopy through incorporation of α-GalCer into stable particulate formulations (cationic liposomes, polymerized liposomes and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs))...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825953/chronic-airway-fibrosis-in-orthotopic-mouse-lung-transplantation-models-an-experimental-reappraisal
#17
Yoshito Yamada, Kevin Windirsch, Linus Dubs, David Kenkel, Jae-Hwi Jang, Ilhan Inci, Andreas Boss, Tereza Martinu, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Walter Weder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
BACKGROUND: Several mouse lung transplantation (Tx) models have been proposed for the study of chronic airway fibrosis (CAF), the most prevalent complication seen in human lung transplant recipients, termed chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Alternatively, it has been called for to establish an experimental animal model for restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), another phenotype of CLAD. However, these mouse transplant models exhibit significant heterogeneity in consistency and reproducibility...
August 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817541/titers-of-antibodies-to-the-surface-antigen-of-hepatitis-b-virus-after-vaccination-in-relation-to-immunity-related-gene-variants-a-prospective-study-among-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Elżbieta Jodłowska-Siewert, Paweł P Jagodziński, Alicja E Grzegorzewska
INTRODUCTION    Hemodialysis (HD) patients show a weaker response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination than the healthy population. Several gene variants were reported to be associated with the levels of antibodies to HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs) after HBV vaccination among healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunity-related genes on the maximum anti-HBs antibody levels after vaccination among HD subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This 6-year prospective study included HD patients who were not infected with HBV and underwent HBV vaccination...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815001/serogrouping-and-seroepidemiology-of-north-european-hantaviruses-using-a-novel-broadly-targeted-synthetic-nucleoprotein-antigen-array
#19
Bengt Rönnberg, Olli Vapalahti, Marco Goeijenbier, Chantal Reusken, Åke Gustafsson, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist
Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804596/characterisation-of-tumour-derived-microvesicles-in-cancer-patients-blood-and-correlation-with-clinical-outcome
#20
Kerstin Menck, Annalen Bleckmann, Astrid Wachter, Bianca Hennies, Lena Ries, Matthias Schulz, Marko Balkenhol, Tobias Pukrop, Bawarjan Schatlo, Ulrike Rost, Dirk Wenzel, Florian Klemm, Claudia Binder
To evaluate whether tumour-derived microvesicles (T-MV), originating from the plasma membrane, represent suitable cancer biomarkers, we isolated MV from peripheral blood samples of cancer patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic solid tumours (n = 330, including 79 head & neck cancers, 74 lung cancers, 41 breast cancers, 28 colorectal cancers and 108 with other cancer forms) and controls (n = 103). Whole MV preparations were characterised using flow cytometry. While MV carrying the tumour-associated proteins MUC1, EGFR and EpCAM were found to be enhanced in a tumour-subtype-specific way in patients' blood, expression of the matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN was increased independent of tumour type...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
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